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International research capacity-building programs for nurses to study the drug phenomenon in Latin America: challenges and perspectives

Wright,Maria da Gloria Miotto; Caufield,Catherine; Gray,Genevieve; Olson,Joanne
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 Português
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55.78%
The First International Research Capacity-Building Program for Nurses to Study the Drug Phenomenon in the Americas is a result of a partnership between the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) of the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Faculty of Nursing in the University of Alberta, with financial support from the Government of Canada. The program was divided into two parts. The first part of the program was held at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It involved capacity-building in research methodologies at the Faculty of Nursing, which lead to the preparation of four multi-centric research proposals for drug demand reduction in the home countries of the eleven participants in the program. The second part of the program was related to the implementation of multi-centric research proposals in seven countries in Latin America and in Canada. This program presented expertise in research methodology to members of Latin American Schools of Nursing and introduced Latin American expertise to members of a Canadian Faculty of Nursing. The International Research Capacity-Building Program for Nurses to Study the Drug Phenomenon in the Americas has fostered the kind of inter-cultural respect and mutual appreciation necessary to confront the global health problem of the abuse of both licit and illicit drugs.

Towards a Regional Strategy to Strengthen the Nurse Workforce of the English-speaking CARICOM : International Legal Instruments, Agreements and Obligations

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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35.84%
The supply of nurses in the English-Speaking Caribbean is insufficient to meet the demand with growing shortages fuelled by the health needs of a rapidly aging population and tremendous losses of human capital occurring at multiple points in the markets. In defining the scope of commitments of a regional legal agreement, English-Speaking Caribbean Community (ES CARICOM) states will have to ascertain whether states would commit to actions to strengthen the nurse workforce or the health workforce more broadly. While the challenges of strengthening the nurse workforce have been systematically assessed, information about other groups of health professionals remains patchy. In 2008, at the request of the Ministers of Health, the World Bank initiated a stream of work to strengthen the nurse workforce in the English-speaking Caribbean. The study estimated the stock of nurses in the ES CARICOM at approximately 7,800 in 2007 with growing shortages under existing policies at 3,400 in 2007 increasing to 10,700 nurses in 2025 due to the health needs of a rapidly aging population. There are two types of international legal instruments: legally binding instruments or treaties; and non-legally binding instruments.

Educational Upgrading and Returns to Skills in Latin America : Evidence from a Supply-Demand Framework, 1990–2010

Gasparini, Leonardo; Galiani, Sebastian; Cruces, Guillermo; Acosta, Pablo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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35.87%
It has been argued that a factor behind the decline in income inequality in Latin America in the 2000s was the educational upgrading of its labor force. Between 1990 and 2010, the proportion of the labor force in the region with at least secondary education increased from 40 to 60 percent. Concurrently, returns to secondary education completion fell throughout the past two decades, while the 2000s saw a reversal in the increase in the returns to tertiary education experienced in the 1990s. This paper studies the evolution of wage differentials and the trends in the supply of workers by educational level for 16 Latin American countries between 1990 and 2000. The analysis estimates the relative contribution of supply and demand factors behind recent trends in skill premia for tertiary and secondary educated workers. Supply-side factors seem to have limited explanatory power relative to demand-side factors, and are only relevant to explain part of the fall in wage premia for high-school graduates. Although there is significant heterogeneity in individual country experiences...

The Impacts of International Migration on Remaining Household Members : Omnibus Results from a Migration Lottery Program

Gibson, John; McKenzie, David; Stillman, Steven
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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35.79%
The impacts of international migration on development in the sending countries, and especially the effects on remaining household members, are increasingly studied. However, comparisons of households in developing countries with and without migrants are complicated by a double-selectivity problem: households self-select into migration, and among households involved in migration, some send a subset of members with the rest remaining while other households migrate en masse. The authors address these selectivity issues using the randomization provided by an immigration ballot under the Pacific Access Category of New Zealand s immigration policy. They survey applicants to the 2002-05 ballots in Tonga and compare outcomes for the remaining household members of emigrants with those for members of similar households that were unsuccessful in the ballots. The immigration laws determine which household members can accompany the principal migrant, providing an instrument to address the second selectivity issue. Using this natural experiment...

Higher Education in Latin America : The International Dimension

de Wit, Hans; Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina; Gacel-Ávila, Jocelyne; Knight, Jane
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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36.03%
This book compares internationalization issues, trends, and opportunities in higher education in selected Latin American countries at the institutional, national, and regional levels. It addresses the specific elements of the internationalization process, such as mobility, curriculum, linkages, and networks. Rather than investigating these issues in detail, however, it examines them as part of a more comprehensive overview of policies, programs, and activities at all three levels. The volume examines these elements and the broader process of internationalization in the context of the overall development of higher education. It analyzes the potential contribution of internationalization to institution and nation building, examining such issues as the implications of trade, new forms of delivery, new providers, and the relevance of accreditation and quality assurance for higher education and their international dimensions.

The Demographic, Economic and Financial Determinants of International Remittances in Developing Countries

Adams, Richard H., Jr.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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35.98%
What causes developing countries to receive different levels of international remittances? This paper addresses this question by using new data on such variables as the skill composition of migrants, poverty, and interest and exchange rates to examine the determinants of remittances. The paper finds that the skill composition of migrants does matter in remittance determination. Countries which export a larger share of high-skilled (educated) migrants receive less per capita remittances than countries which export a larger proportion of low-skilled migrants. It also finds that the level of poverty in a labor-sending country does not have a positive impact on the level of remittances received.

Towards a Regional Strategy to Strengthen the Nurse Workforce of the English-speaking CARICOM : International Legal Instruments, Agreements and Obligations

Kurowski, Christoph; Carpio, Carmen; Vujicic, Marko; Gostin, Lawrence O.; Baytor, Tanya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.84%
The supply of nurses in the English-Speaking Caribbean is insufficient to meet the demand with growing shortages fuelled by the health needs of a rapidly aging population and tremendous losses of human capital occurring at multiple points in the markets. In defining the scope of commitments of a regional legal agreement, English-Speaking Caribbean Community (ES CARICOM) states will have to ascertain whether states would commit to actions to strengthen the nurse workforce or the health workforce more broadly. While the challenges of strengthening the nurse workforce have been systematically assessed, information about other groups of health professionals remains patchy. In 2008, at the request of the Ministers of Health, the World Bank initiated a stream of work to strengthen the nurse workforce in the English-speaking Caribbean. The study estimated the stock of nurses in the ES CARICOM at approximately 7,800 in 2007 with growing shortages under existing policies at 3,400 in 2007 increasing to 10,700 nurses in 2025 due to the health needs of a rapidly aging population. There are two types of international legal instruments: legally binding instruments or treaties; and non-legally binding instruments.

Unilateral Facilitation Does Not Raise International Labor Migration from the Philippines

Beam, Emily; McKenzie, David; Yang, Dean
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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35.89%
Significant income gains from migrating from poorer to richer countries have motivated unilateral (source-country) policies facilitating labor emigration. However, their effectiveness is unknown. The authors conducted a large-scale randomized experiment in the Philippines testing the impact of unilaterally facilitating international labor migration. The most intensive treatment doubled the rate of job offers but had no identifiable effect on international labor migration. Even the highest overseas job-search rate that was induced (22 percent) falls far short of the share initially expressing interest in migrating (34 percent). The paper concludes that unilateral migration facilitation will at most induce a trickle, not a flood, of additional emigration.

Republic of Mozambique : Evaluation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Process and Arrangements Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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35.8%
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank introduced the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process in 1999 to strengthen the poverty alleviation focus of their assistance to low-income countries. At the IMF, the introduction of the PRSP was accompanied by the transformation of the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF), the concessional lending window, into the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF), with a view to giving a more central role to poverty reduction and pro-poor growth considerations in the design of IMF-supported programs in low-income countries. The rest of the report is organized as follows. Part two provides background information on poverty incidence in Mozambique, as well as on political and economic developments since the early 1990s. The relevance of the PRSP approach to Mozambique s situation, application of the underlying principles, and preliminary evidence on results, are examined in part three. The effectiveness of IMF assistance, including alignment of the PRGF and technical assistance to PRSP objectives is assessed in part four. Part five considers the effectiveness of World Bank support...

IFC Annual Report 2014 : Big Challenges, Big Solutions

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Group Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank Group
Português
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35.81%
International Finance Corporation (IFC or the Corporation) is the largest global development institution focused on the private sector in developing countries. Established in 1956, IFC is owned by 184 member countries, a group that collectively determines its policies. IFC is a member of the World Bank Group (WBG)1 but is a legal entity separate and distinct from IBRD, IDA, MIGA, and ICSID, with its own Articles of Agreement, share capital, financial structure, management, and staff. Membership in IFC is open only to member countries of IBRD. At the 2013 Spring Meetings, the WBG adopted two ambitious goals: to end extreme poverty by 2030 and to boost shared prosperity for the poorest 40 percent in developing countries. At the Annual Meetings in October 2013, the Board of Governors approved the first strategy for the WBG focused on delivery of transformational solutions, marshaling combined resources more effectively, and accelerating collaboration with the private sector and our development partners. IFC s strategic focus areas are: strengthening the focus on frontier markets; addressing climate change and ensuring environmental and social sustainability; addressing constraints to private sector growth in infrastructure...

Spanish and british teacher trainees on exchange in primary schools abroad: an intercultural experience in educational settings

Dur??n Mart??nez, Ramiro
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
This paper focuses on the international exchange placement of the primary teachers??? training programme fostered through the agreement signed between the Spanish MEC and the English TDA. More specifically, as international teaching practice provides an exceptional opportunity for developing the intercultural dimension, the aim of the paper is to analyse the responses to the intercultural component central to the teaching placement of students from both countries as part of their training in the host country. Our analysis will be based on the information obtained from questionnaires that British and Spanish students answered at the end of their placement in foreign schools.; Este art??culo analiza las pr??cticas internacionales de los programas de formaci??n del profesorado de primaria fomentados a trav??s del acuerdo firmado entre el MEC espa??ol y la TDA inglesa. M??s concretamente, ya que las pr??cticas docentes internacionales proporcionan una oportunidad excepcional para el desarrollo de la dimensi??n intercultural, el objetivo del art??culo reside en analizar las respuestas al componente intercultural central a las pr??cticas docentes de los estudiantes de ambos pa??ses como parte de su formaci??n en el pa??s anfitri??n. Nuestro an??lisis se basar?? en la informaci??n obtenida a trav??s de los cuestionarios que los estudiantes brit??nicos y espa??oles respondieron al final de su estancia en los centros extranjeros.

International Migration, Human Capital, and Entrepreneurship : Evidence from Philippine Migrants' Exchange Rate Shocks

Yang, Dean
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.92%
Millions of households in developing countries receive financial support from family members working overseas. How do the economic prospects of overseas migrants affect origin-household investments-in particular, in child human capital and household enterprises? Yang examines Philippine households' responses to overseas members' economic shocks. Overseas Filipinos work in dozens of foreign countries which experienced sudden (and heterogeneous) changes in exchange rates due to the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Appreciation of a migrant's currency against the Philippine peso leads to increases in household remittances received from overseas. The estimated elasticity of Philippine peso remittances with respect to the Philippine/foreign exchange rate is 0.60. In addition, these positive income shocks lead to enhanced human capital accumulation and entrepreneurship in origin households. Favorable migrant shocks lead to greater child schooling, reduced child labor, and increased educational expenditure in origin households. More favorable exchange rate shocks also raise hours worked in self-employment and lead to greater entry into relatively capital-intensive enterprises by migrants' origin households.

Bangladesh - Public Sector Accounting and Auditing : A Comparison to International Standards

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Accountability Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
This assessment of public sector accounting and auditing for Bangladesh is meant generally to help implement more effective Public Financial Management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes in Bangladesh and to provide greater stimulus for more cost effective outcomes of government spending. More specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common well-founded knowledge as to where local practices stand against the internationally developed norms of financial reporting and auditing; (b) to assess prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths for improving the accordance with international standards; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements.

Bangladesh : Public Sector Accounting and Auditing, A Comparison to International Standards

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Accountability Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.85%
This assessment of public sector accounting and auditing for Bangladesh is meant generally to help implement more effective Public Financial Management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes in Bangladesh and to provide greater stimulus for more cost effective outcomes of government spending. More specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common well-founded knowledge as to where local practices stand against the internationally developed norms of financial reporting and auditing; (b) to assess prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths for improving the accordance with international standards; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements.

The Russia Corporate Governance Manual : Part I. Corporate Governance Introduced

International Finance Corporation; U.S. Department of Commerce
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.82%
The Russia corporate governance manual has been divided into and is published in six parts: (i) corporate governance introduced; (ii) good board practices; (iii) shareholder rights; (iv) information disclosure and transparency; (v) special focus section; and (vi) annexes model corporate governance documents. The first four parts contain chapters that focus on core corporate governance issues, such as a company's board structure, information disclosure practices, and shareholder rights. Part five focuses on corporate governance issues of particular importance in the Russian context, namely corporate governance concerns during a company's reorganization, within holding structures, and relating to enforcement. Part six, finally, offers practical tools in the form of model documents, for example company codes, by-laws, and contracts. All issues are closely examined through Russian law and regulations; the Federal Commission for the Securities Market's Code of Corporate Conduct (FCSM Code) Code and, when applicable...

The Russia Corporate Governance Manual : Part IV. Information Disclosure and Transparency

International Finance Corporation; U.S. Department of Commerce
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
The Russia corporate governance manual has been divided into and is published in six parts: (i) corporate governance introduced; (ii) good board practices; (iii) shareholder rights; (iv) information disclosure and transparency; (v) special focus section; and (vi) annexes model corporate governance documents. The first four parts contain chapters that focus on core corporate governance issues, such as a company's board structure, information disclosure practices, and shareholder rights. Part five focuses on corporate governance issues of particular importance in the Russian context, namely corporate governance concerns during a company's reorganization, within holding structures, and relating to enforcement. Part six, finally, offers practical tools in the form of model documents, for example company codes, by-laws, and contracts. All issues are closely examined through Russian law and regulations; the Federal Commission for the Securities Market's Code of Corporate Conduct (FCSM Code) Code and, when applicable...

Mexico : Earnings Inequality after Mexico's Economic and Educational Reforms, Volume 2. Background Papers

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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35.89%
The study reviews the forces driving Mexico's inequality, in particular, the recent expansion in earnings inequality, emphasizing the roles of education on: establishing an analytical framework, that allows interaction between education, and labor market; examining the evolution of earnings inequality, following the macroeconomic, and educational policies of the 80s, and 90s; exploring best practices for the use, and allocation of public educational resources, in light of foreseeable increases in earnings inequality; and, identifying those areas of educational public policy, which impact student graduation. The study argues on the student's decision-making at the secondary, and tertiary levels, concerning the disciplines to pursue, - a choice clearly influenced by several factors - such as taste, abilities, family background, etc. Though some factors may be intrinsic, others could be used as policy tools, to provide advice on best study options, but insufficient effort on the part of educational institutions...

A imagem internacional do Brasil no processo de escolha para realização de intercâmbio educacional; The international image of Brazil in the process of selecting a country for educational exchange

Telles, Ana Carolina Veronico Coquemala
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
A presente dissertação versa, principalmente, sobre a imagem do Brasil pela ótica do estudante intercambista estrangeiro. O estudo tem como objetivos o mapeamento das principais associações feitas ao Brasil por esse público, em particular; a discussão acerca dos atributos presentes em um país que possuem efetivo potencial de atração dessa demanda; a investigação sobre eventuais mudanças na visão dos estudantes, em decorrência do período de vivência, efetiva, no país. Para viabilizar a análise das associações feitas ao Brasil, utilizou-se, como base, estudos anteriores relacionados ao tema e documentos afetos a Marca Brasil. Para o alcance dos objetivos, foi realizada pesquisa bibliográfica em fontes relacionadas aos temas marca-país, imagem e identidade de marca, posicionamento de marca, gestão de marca e intercâmbio educacional. Sequencialmente, realizou-se pesquisa de campo com os estudantes intercambistas estrangeiros, no segundo de 2011. A análise dos dados foi feita por meio de Análise de Variância de Kruskal-Wallis e o Teste da Mediana, ambos procurando variações nas respostas em função do continente/país de origem do respondente. Os resultados apontam a existência de diferenças na percepção do estudante ao se considerar seu país ou continente de origem...

International mobility in the Pharmacy degree at the school of allied health sciences of Oporto

Jesus, Ângelo; Oliveira, Rita Ferraz; Martins, Cátia; Oliveira, Ana Isabel; Pinho, Cláudia; Santos, Marlene; Correia, Patrícia; Cunha, Agostinho; Cruz, Agostinho
Fonte: International Pharmaceutical Federation; Instituto Politécnico do Porto. Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto; Instituto de Educação da Universidade do Minho. Centro de Investigação em Educação (CIEd) Publicador: International Pharmaceutical Federation; Instituto Politécnico do Porto. Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto; Instituto de Educação da Universidade do Minho. Centro de Investigação em Educação (CIEd)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
Background: The Erasmus program is a subprogram of the Lifelong Learning program, exclusive for Higher Education that promotes (among other initiatives), the mobility of students(studies, training or internships). The mobility of students of higher education seeks to improve the quality and development of future professionals, providing a multidisciplinary and multicultural experience. Setting: Academic Pharmacy/Pharmacy Technicians Methods: We conducted a descriptive and transversal study on the implementation of the mobility program and analyze the results, which involved applying a survey to students. Results: Since 2009/2010, the Pharmacy Degree at ESTSP has established 7 SMs protocols resulting in an average mobility of 5 students IN and 7 Students OUT. We have also endeavoured in SMp Protocols for extracurricular training with an average of 3 students OUT. The application process is normally open during the year before the mobility period. For most of the students involved, this was a first time opportunity to be in a foreign country and more than 70% choose the mobility program because it is seen as a possibility to improve their curriculum, for personal development or even to pursue employment opportunities abroad. The mobility for teachers is also encouraged. Conclusions: The exchange of experiences and training...

Programas internacionales de capacitación en investigación para enfermeros en el estudio del fenómeno de las drogas en América Latina: desafíos y perspectivas; International research capacity-building programs for nurses to study the drug phenomenon in Latin America: challenges and perspectives; Programas internacionais de capacitação em pesquisa para enfermeiros no estudo do fenómeno das drogas na América Latina: desafios e perspectivas

Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; Caufield, Catherine; Gray, Genevieve; Olson, Joanne
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
O Primeiro Programa Internacional de Capacitação para Enfermeiros no Estudo do Fenômeno das Drogas nas Américas é resultado de uma parceria entre a Comissão Interamericana para o Controle do Abuso das Drogas (CICAD) da Organização dos Estados Americanos (OEA) e a Faculdade de Enfermagem da Universidade de Alberta, com apoio financeiro do Governo do Canadá. O programa foi dividido em duas partes. A primeira parte do programa foi realizada na Universidade de Alberta em Edmonton, Alberta, Canadá. Compreendeu a capacitação em metodologias de pesquisa na Faculdade de Enfermagem, que levou à preparação de quatro propostas de pesquisas multicêntricas para a redução da demanda de drogas nos países de origem dos onze participantes no programa. A segunda parte do programa estava relacionada à implementação de propostas de pesquisa multicêntricas em sete países da América Latina e no Canadá. Este programa apresentou expertise em metodologias de pesquisa a membros de Escolas de Enfermagem latino-americanas e introduziu expertise latino-americana a membros de uma Faculdade de Enfermagem canadense. O Primeiro Programa Internacional de Capacitação para Enfermeiros no Estudo do Fenômeno das Drogas nas Américas estimulou o tipo de respeito intercultural e apreço mútuo necessário para confrontar o problema de saúde global do abuso das drogas lícitas e ilícitas.; El Primer Programa Internacional de Capacitación en Investigación para Enfermeros en el Estudio del Fenómeno de las Drogas en las Américas resultó de una colaboración entre la Comisión Interamericana para el Control del Abuso de Drogas (CICAD) de la Organización de los Estados Americanos (OEA) y la Facultad de Enfermería en la Universidad de Alberta...