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The East Asian economic crisis and labour migration: a set-back for international economic integration?

Manning, Chris
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 106888 bytes; 360 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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The Asian economic crisis dramatically influenced the context in which a growing number of international migrants had begun to spread from poorer to more industrialised countries in East Asia, accompanying the export and FDI booms of the 1990s. Important uncertainties included the impact on clandestine migrant workers, replacement of migrants by local workers and countervailing pressures for increased migration in labour exporting countries. The paper argues that the Asian economic crisis did not change the fundamental trend toward greater mobility within the region. The labour importers among the crisis countries continued to rely on unskilled migrant workers in ‘3-D’ jobs in export-oriented industries, and business and professional migrants played an important role in the recovery. In addition, pressures mounted for greater international migration of unskilled workers from poorer, labour surplus countries. However, several countries were forced to develop a more coherent policy towards migrant workers, in light of the social impact on migrants.; no

Varieties of capitalism, variation in labour immigration

DEVITT, Camilla
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Existing theories of labour migration are inadequate explanations for variation in levels and types of economic immigration across states. I argue that socio-economic regime variation has contributed to quantitative and qualitative variation in migrant labour across Western Europe over recent decades. Western European economic and labour market institutions generate low-paid, low-skilled employment-where migrant workers tend to concentrate-to different degrees. Furthermore, welfare and education and training institutions shape the domestic supply of labour in diverse ways across Western Europe, which has consequences for the quantity and skillset of economic migrants required.

Legal Aspects of Labour Migration Governance in the Republic of Armenia

AGHABABYAN, Petros
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Since its independence in 1991, the Republic of Armenia has faced difficult challenges in its policies and legal framework for labour migration. In the last two decades many Armenians have left for overseas employment given the socio-economic situation at home. At the same time, Armenia has inspired a certain interest in foreigners who, themselves, have come to work in Armenia. Given these in- and outflows Armenia has experienced a raft of problems with legal regulations. In spite of the topicality of these problems, they have not yet been comprehensively studied. Problems have, to some extent, been touched upon by a number of authors. But the research carried out to date is mainly socio-economic or deals with the policy aspects of labour migration. Legal regulations for internal and external migrations is conditioned by the fact that, as in other areas, a relevant normative basis is a necessary condition for implementing state policy. In the absence thereof, it is impossible to talk about state policy in a given area. This study addresses the legal aspects of labour migration governance in the Republic of Armenia. It analyses the legal framework and institutional mechanisms for internal and external labour migration and examines legal problems related to regulating the in- and outflow of migrant workers. Certain conclusions and recommendations have been made...

Legal Aspects of Labour Migration Governance in Georgia

GABRICHIDZE, Gaga
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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The main goal of the present study is to analyze the legal aspects of labour migration governance in Georgia. For this purpose, an analysis of national legal instruments related to labour migration governance has been carried out. And an overview is given of those international agreements, which are of relevance for Georgia. The study is carried out in the following main directions: First, there is an overview of existing legislative mechanisms; second, an analysis of the coherence of these mechanisms; and, third, a survey of gaps and challenges and recommendations. The content of the study is mainly based on the analysis of legal documents. However, it should be noted that the number of legislative acts and other official documents related to labour migration is very limited. This is due to the liberalization of migration policy, which is a reflection of the extremely liberal policy of the current Georgian government. As a consequence, Georgian legislation does not provide for the overseas employment of Georgian citizens in any form. And as to the access of aliens to the Georgian labour market, there are only some limited mechanisms, which in practice do not have a visible regulatory effect. Namely, legislation does not impose any obligation for aliens to obtain a work permit before starting work. Thus...

The Economic and Demographic Effects of Labour Migration in the EU Eastern Partners and Russia: A synthesis report

KUPETS, Olga
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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This paper summarises the findings of country studies on the main economic and demographic effects of labour migration in the EU Eastern partners and Russia. The major positive effect of labour migration in the sending countries is that it provides temporary relief on domestic labour markets and helps reduce unemployment, particularly in economically-deprived areas. An inflow of labour migrants from other countries helps address existing skill shortages and finance pay-as-you-go pension schemes that are coming under considerable pressure because of population ageing. But the boost to pensions is small because of the widespread informal employment of migrants. Demographers of the sending countries worry that large-scale outflows of native workers which significantly exceed inflows of workers from other countries depletes population and changes its age structure. This, of course, is particularly dangerous for ageing societies. Findings on the economic effects of migration through the return of skilled workers are mixed and remain largely conjectural. Overall, labour migration contributes to the economic development of countries at both ends of the migration spectrum to a lesser extent than it should. This may be attributed to the fact that there are still no enabling conditions for effective brain circulation...

The Impact of International Labour Migration on the Republic of Moldova

GANTA, Vladimir
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Labour migration has an important impact on the social and economic life of Moldova. It is, therefore, very important to measure it, so as to offer policy makers useful information to develop evidence-based policies. The purpose of this research was to identify and measure labour migration impact by analyzing data coming from these three large surveys: the Labour Force Survey, the Labour Force Migration Survey and the Child Labour Survey. Results show that about 26% of the country’s population face all the benefits and costs of labour migration directly. There are 135,000 couples who are separated by migration most of the time. About 146,000 children have one or both parents working abroad. Labour migration is a relieving but also a threatening factor for the labour market. If labour migrants were to search for a job in Moldova, the unemployment rate would reach 26%, higher than the present 7%. Labour migration is also a boosting factor for economic inactivity: 119,000 persons are economically inactive because they have plans to go or return abroad for work. Though not an issue today, labour immigration will probably have a big impact in the future as labour resources will be needed.; CARIM-East: Creating an Observatory of Migration East of Europe; CARIM-East is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union.

Europe 2020 : addressing low skill labour migration at times of fragile recovery

TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Anna; MARCHETTI, Sabrina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Outros Formato: application/pdf; digital
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In the current context of deep recession since 2008, acute Eurozone crisis since 2009 and fragile recovery as of 2013, managing effectively labour migration is crucial and at the same time it may seem a balancing act between opposed concerns: why would we need immigration if domestic unemployment is high? Why don’t we encourage more intra-EU mobility to deal with differences in member state labour markets and further restrict immigration from third countries? This policy paper argues that there are some labour market sectors where ethnicisation (these are “migrant” jobs) persists and resists the crisis effects: natives do not want to take jobs in cleaning and caring even if they are unemployed. Moreover, to be unemployed does not make someone skilled for working in the cleaning and caring sector. Such sectors have been so far outside the scope of EU policy initiatives for managing labour migration and there is a gap there that needs to be addressed. We propose here an EU level sectorial approach, particularly looking at the domestic work sector.

Towards a pro-active European labour migration policy : concrete measures for a comprehensive package

Migration Policy Centre Team; BOSCH, Peter
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Today, Europe is confronted with a remarkable paradox on its labour market. While many are out of work, there is also a serious need for labour. In addressing labour needs, the first priority for the EU and the Member States will be to reinforce policies directed at getting unemployment down. But given demographic characteristics and labour market realities, attracting skills and talents from outside the EU needs, at all costs, to be part of the policy response. This paper aims to identify a number of concrete measures that could be considered when constructing a pro-active European labour migration policy. The ideas and suggestions presented also aim to contribute to the implementation of the Commission’s work programme 2015 and to the new agenda for migration which the European Commission is to present shortly.; The MPC is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union

The Economic Geography of Labour Migration: Competition, Competitiveness and Development

KANCS D'ARTIS
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
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The present paper studies labour migration in the enlarged EU. Adopting the Krugman¿s framework of the New Economic Geography, we are able to study both the determinants of labour migration, such as market potential, wages, cost of living on one hand, and labour migration on the other hand simultaneously, which allows us to address important issues facing the traditional reduced form studies. Our empirical findings suggest that European integration would trigger labour migration between and within the Member States of the enlarged EU. Given that in our framework migrants are attracted by market potential, but they also affect market potential, the emergence of a core-periphery pattern through labour migration not very likely in the enlarged EU.; JRC.DDG.J.3-Knowledge for Growth

Bodies That (Don't) Matter: Desire, Eroticism and Melancholia in Pakistani Labour Migration

AHMAD, Ali Nobil
Fonte: Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd Publicador: Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper explores the importance of sexuality in international labour migration from Pakistan, paying special attention to masculine desire and subjectivity (driving forces in sending contexts), and to the bodily experience of travel, transit and the labour process (consequences at destination). The relationships between these two aspects of the migration process are theorised by applying the insights of classical and Lacanian psychoanalysis, Georges Bataille's 'base materialism' and contemporary queer theory to empirical data - interviews with migrant men in London and Florence. It is argued that a theoretically nuanced approach which resists rigid distinctions between sexuality and the economic sphere is required if we are to understand the dynamics of love, sex and romance in migrations that take place against a backdrop of global inequity and intensifying migration controls - dynamics that include the intimate connections between commodity fetishism and scopophilia; between sex and death (via eroticism); between the labour process and a sense of gendered, melancholic loss. The political imperative for such an approach is considerable when we consider the limits of extant academic and media discourse on the populations in question.

Response to the Research Report 'The impact of labour migration on Belarus: a demographic perspective'

YELISEYEU, Andrei
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
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CARIM-East: Creating an Observatory of Migration East of Europe; Response to CARIM-East RR 2012/20; Contrary to official statistics, a number of estimates, employing census data and population loss due to natural causes, and based on bilateral migration stocks, show that Belarus, since its independence, has had a negative net migration: the numbers come in at about 130,000. Population loss due to external migration is even more considerable (700,000) if one counts migration on the basis of the migrants’ place of birth: many Belarus-born emigrants left the country before 1990 and did not return, and a large number of immigrants after 1990 were Belarus-born repatriated from other former USSR countries. Official statistics for the external net migration rate and labour migrants have been distorted by poor migration accounting, while political considerations have deterred some academic institutions from taking a more critical approach. External migration is negative in demographic terms in quantitative but also in qualitative terms as emigrants are, on average, younger and better educated, while immigrants are less-skilled, with a larger proportion of people past working age. The positive demographic impact of the 1980s high fertility rate has recently ended. Since 2008...

A comprehensive labour market approach to EU labour migration policy

MARTIN, Iván; VENTURINI, Alessandra
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
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Opening up new legal migration channels' to respond to economic needs for labour is one of the four priorities of the European Commission for its upcoming European Agenda on Migration. The EU approach to legal labour migration has, to date, been very fragmented and limited. It has focused, indeed, on specific categories of potential legal migrants: highly-qualified, intra-corporate transferees, seasonal workers or students and non-remunerated trainees and researchers. The approach is clearly not up to the challenges posed by the EU labour market prospects and does not integrate, in a comprehensive way, all third-country nationals accessing European labour markets, including family reunification beneficiaries, asylum-seekers and foreign students. The main challenges related to the development of a EU labour migration vision are the following. How to articulate intra-EU mobility and international migration to the EU labour market? How to make EU- and Member States legal migration systems and competences compatible? How to ensure that employers can tap workers from a sufficient pool of suitably qualified individuals (and that qualifications obtained abroad are recognized)? And how to reduce international labour matching costs? This policy brief aims to provide some ideas to address those challenges over a medium- to long-term perspective...

Reforming the EU blue card as a labour migration policy tool?

KALANTARYAN, Sona; MARTIN, Iván
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
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One of the four priorities of the European Commission in its preparation for the European Agenda on Migration was to open up 'new legal migration channels, including the revision of the 'Blue Card' Directive'. This comes after only three years of full implementation of this EU immigration policy instrument (and not even that for some Member States). Meanwhile, in its 2014 Communication on the implementation of the Blue Card Directive, the European Commission had decided not to propose any amendment. However, it should not be forgotten that the Blue Card Directive was not designed primarily for the labour market needs of the EU. Rather, it was run to enhance European competitiveness by attracting highly-qualified third-country nationals, and this under quite restrictive conditions of salary and qualifications. As a result there have been only low numbers of beneficiaries to date: 19,000 in 2012 and 2013 for the whole EU. To develop the Blue Card Directive into a true highly-skilled labour-migration management tool able to respond to current and future labour market needs in Europe, would mean changes in scope, conditions and implementation modalities by Member States.; The MPC is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union.

Indonesian labour migration to Sabah: changes, trends and impacts.

Sayed Mahadi, Syed Abdul Razak Bin
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014 Português
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This thesis is concerned with low-skilled Indonesian labour migration to Sabah East Malaysia that is driven by multi-sectoral developmental activities, particularly in plantations and agriculture. The flow of Indonesian workers that began before Sabah’s independence in 1963 has grown especially during the 1990s parallel with Sabah’s economic development facilitated by a well established network system that allows entrance to Sabah through legal, semi-legal and illegal channels. Indonesian labour migration to Sabah has become more complex with the state government’s inability to implement temporary migration policies which consequently has allowed migrants to stay longer than their contracts permit, bring family members with them and form family units. In addition, the granting of fast-track citizenship for political reasons is believed to attract more migrants to Sabah. This study has three main parts namely changes, trends and impacts of Indonesian labour migration to Sabah. It begins with an analysis of internal changes in Malaysia generally, and Sabah specifically; that involves rapid economic development, improvement in education and changes in workforce structure initiated by New Economic Policy (NEP) implemented in 1970. As a result...

Husbands' labour migration and wives' autonomy, Mozambique 2000–2006

Yabiku, S.; Agadjanian, V.; Sevoyan, A.
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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The separation of migrants from the family unit, as a result of labour migration, can have profound effects on family organization and the lives of family members. Using data from a 2006 survey of 1,680 married women from 56 villages in southern Mozambique, we examined the relationship between men's labour migration and the decision-making autonomy of women who stayed behind. The results show that both men's cumulative migration history and current migration status are positively associated with women's autonomy, and that the effects on autonomy may persist even after the man's return. Three intervening factors—women's employment outside the home, lower fertility, and residential independence from extended family members—did not fully mediate the effects of men's labour migration. This is consistent with the assumption that the migrant's absence has a 'direct' effect on his wife's autonomy.; Scott T. Yabiku, Victor Agadjanian and Arusyak Sevoyan

Embedding or uprooting? The effects of international labour migration on rural households in Armenia

Agadjanian, V.; Sevoyan, A.
Fonte: Int Organization Migration Publicador: Int Organization Migration
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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The impact of international labour migration on human wellbeing and socioeconomic development in communities of origin is an important yet understudied issue in contemporary migration research. This study examines whether men's labour migration from rural Armenia to Russia and other international destinations enhances the economic and social connections of the left-behind households to their communities or, on the contrary, undermines those connections and encourages household members' own migration. Using survey data, it compares families of migrants and non-migrants with respect to ownership of productive and major non-productive assets in the community and women's non-farm labour force participation, their social engagement in the village, and their desires to migrate abroad. The results of statistical tests indicate that men's migration is negatively associated with households' asset ownership and with women's non-farm employment. The results for women's social engagement in their villages are less consistent. Finally, regardless of economic attachment, social engagement, and a host of other factors, wives of migrants were significantly more likely to wish to move abroad than women married to non-migrants, and the difference in propensity to emigrate between migrants' and non-migrants' wives increases with duration of husband's migration. We situate these findings in the context of Central Eurasia's international labour migration system and discuss their implications for future migration trends and for socioeconomic development of Armenia and similar settings.; Victor Agadjanian and Arusyak Sevoyan; Article first published online: 18 MAR 2013

Best practice in temporary labour migration for development: A perspective from Asia and the Pacific

Hugo, G.
Fonte: Int Organization Migration Publicador: Int Organization Migration
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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The dominant mode of international migration in Asia and the Pacific is temporary contract migration of low-skilled workers. The potential for such migration to deliver significant development dividends to origin communities is substantial because of its large scale and the fact that most migrant workers return to their home community. However, there are a number of barriers that are intervening to dampen these potential positive effects, such as high transaction costs, high costs of sending remittances, and the fact that some areas of origin lack the infrastructure and potential for productive investment. Moreover, destination countries have been very welcoming of high skill temporary migrants but highly restrictive in their attitudes toward their low skill counterparts. This paper discusses the lessons of best practice in temporary labour migration programmes in the region, which can help to overcome these obstacles reducing the positive development impacts of migration. It assesses, in turn, best practice separately for each stage of the labour migration process -- recruitment and selection, and pre-departure preparation -- at the destination and on return. In conclusion, a number of the barriers which impinge on Asian Pacific countries' ability to introduce and sustain best practice are discussed. These include the need for capacity building...

International Labour Migration in East Asia: trends, patterns and policy issues

Athukorala, Premachandra
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper examines emerging patterns of labour migration in East Asia and related policy issues from the perspective of labour-importing countries. Following a survey of the characteristics of labour flows stemming from, but more importantly occurring within, the region, it probes inter-country differences, both in the timing of the entry of migrant workers and the degree of dependency on migrant labour in the context of rapid economic growth and labour market change. There is clear evidence that labour migration is now a structural feature of the economic landscape in these countries. The policy challenge is to design market-based systems for making the new reliance on labour inflows consistent with changing domestic labour market conditions and the priorities of national development policy, while minimising social resentment and adverse implications for political relations with neighbouring labour-sending countries.

Structural Change, Economic Crisis and International Labour Migration in East Asia

Manning, Chris
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper has two objectives. First, it seeks to fill a gap in the knowledge of East Asian internationalisation and economic integration by examining labour migration in the pre-crisis period, and its association with structural change. Second, it examines the impact of the East Asian crisis on ILM. This enables us to speculate on the extent to which the crisis has disturbed the pre-crisis pattern of increasing ILM that was associated with rapid structural change and internationalisation. The paper examines the tension between longer-term structural factors that had driven increasing ILM, on the one hand, and the abrupt impact of the Asian economic crisis on the demand for migrant workers on the other. The paper is structured as follows. Section 2 maps the relationship between ILM and structural change during the boom period of economic growth and globalisation, focusing on the decade before the economic crisis in East Asia. Section 3 surveys the impact of the Asian economic crisis on labour mobility, focusing on the four economies most affected by the crisis. In Section 4 I look briefly at trends in business and professional migration followed by some concluding remarks.

Gender and migration policies in Southeast and East Asia: Legal protection and sociocultural empowerment of unskilled migrant women

Piper, Nicola
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This paper is concerned with how existing migration policies affect individual migrant women's choices, in particular, with the advancement, or consolidation, of a migrants' rights perspective. The focus is thereby on those migrants classified as unskilled, who constitute the largest and most vulnerable category among migrants. The analysis of migration policies has conventionally been approached from a state/government-centred viewpoint that sees states as the key actors. This paper, however, emphasises a larger number of actors - governmental and non-governmental - as well as the power relations among them to argue that protection through "legal regulation" in the absence of actual implementation is an incomplete solution to alleviate unfair labour conditions that migrants in general, and migrant women specifically, experience. Measures designed to "protect" migrants must be accompanied by measures that empower them, a role that has largely been taken on by existing migrant worker non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Focussing on intra-Asian migration flows in which Southeast Asia is the main labour sender and East Asia the receiver of Southeast Asian migrants, the paper explores the nexus between law and civic activism in the specific subject area of international labour migration and its gender implications.