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Is Portugal Really so Arteriosclerotic? Results from a Cross-Country Analysis of Labour Adjustment

Addison, John T.; Teixeira, Paulino
Fonte: FEUC. Grupo de Estudos Monetários e Financeiros Publicador: FEUC. Grupo de Estudos Monetários e Financeiros
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
Summary measures of the overall strictness of a country’s employment protection laws have proven popular constructs in cross-country studies of the covariation of labour market institutions and macroeconomic outcomes. Portugal occupies an unenviable position in the international rankings. We critique this reputation in two ways: first, by offering a modicum of corrective institutional detail; and, second, via a detailed analysis of the process of labour adjustment in Portugal, benchmarked to the experience of Germany, Spain, and the U.K. Our error-correction model indicates that Portugal has a very high speed of adjustment to deviations from the long-run employment output equilibrium. More in accord with received wisdom is the very smooth adjustment mechanism of the U.K.

A positive effect of flowers rather than eye images in a large-scale, cross-cultural dictator game

Raihani, Nichola J.; Bshary, Redouan
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.27%
People often consider how their behaviour will be viewed by others, and may cooperate to avoid gaining a bad reputation. Sensitivity to reputation may be elicited by subtle social cues of being watched: previous studies have shown that people behave more cooperatively when they see images of eyes rather than control images. Here, we tested whether eye images enhance cooperation in a dictator game, using the online labour market Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). In contrast to our predictions and the results of most previous studies, dictators gave away more money when they saw images of flowers rather than eye images. Donations in response to eye images were not significantly different to donations under control treatments. Dictator donations varied significantly across cultures but there was no systematic variation in responses to different image types across cultures. Unlike most previous studies, players interacting via AMT may feel truly anonymous when making decisions and, as such, may not respond to subtle social cues of being watched. Nevertheless, dictators gave away similar amounts as in previous studies, so anonymity did not erase helpfulness. We suggest that eye images might only promote cooperative behaviour in relatively public settings and that people may ignore these cues when they know their behaviour is truly anonymous.

Redefining Value : The Future of Corporate Sustainability Ratings

White, Allen L
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.27%
Corporate sustainability ratings are a potentially powerful but still underused tool for building a competitive, socially purposeful, and financially sound enterprise. In a globalizing world replete with business opportunities and risk, corporate boards continually need to reappraise what constitutes good governance. Traditional board duties pertaining to strategic oversight, executive compensation, and financial auditing will remain integral for the foreseeable future. But these alone will not suffice in a time when the prosperity of companies is inextricably linked to issues such as reputation, brands, supply chain management, quality and quantity of human and intellectual capital, protection of human and labor rights, and climate change. Such emergent issues are part of a historical moment in which the role of companies in fostering societal and ecological well-being at the global, national, and local levels is under increasing scrutiny. These are conditions that fuel intensifying public discourse concerning corporate social responsibility...

Sieben Jahre Währungsunion : Erwartungen und Realität

Starbatty, Joachim
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: ResearchPaper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.23%
Vom Euro werden verschiedene Geschichten erzählt. Entscheidend ist das theoretische und wohl auch das politische Vorverständnis. Beispiele dafür sind die beiden Manifeste der Euro-Skeptiker (11. Mai 1992 und 9. Februar 1998) – genau genommen müsste man von Skeptikern bezüglich des vertraglich vereinbarten Beginns der Währungsunion sprechen – und das Manifest der Euro-Optimisten (August 1997). Sie werden hier nach den jeweils federführenden Initiatoren, Renate Ohr und Peter Bofinger, als MF Ohr I bzw. MF Ohr II und als MF Bofinger zitiert. Die Euro-Skeptiker plädierten dafür, den Beginn der Europäischen Währungsunion zu verschieben; sie sahen in der "überhasteten Einführung" eine "politische Zerreißprobe" auf die Europäische Union (EU) zukommen, die das Integrationsziel insgesamt gefährde (MF Ohr I, Tz. 10). Demgegenüber konnten die Euro-Optimisten keinen vernünftigen Grund für eine Verschiebung sehen (MF Bofinger, Tz. 9). In zehn Thesen sollen die Erwartungen mit der Realität konfrontiert werden. Dabei orientieren wir uns in aller Regel an den erwähnten Manifesten. Sie sind im Anhang abgedruckt.; In this article assumptions and forecasts of contradictory manifestos of economists – Eurosceptics versus Euro-optimists – are confronted with reality. Some of the major findings are: (1) The convergence criteria were not applied exactly and strictly as politicians have postulated in advance but loosely and laxly; especially bigger member countries have joined the European Monetary Union (EMU) bearing a huge financial burden. (2) The good reputation of the European Central Bank (ECB) is not based on its policy; the reason for almost achieving price stability is mainly due to the modest demands of trade unions especially in Germany. (3) A comparison of the inflation rates in the EMU shows that they now differ a lot more than in the beginning; it points out the fundamental problem of the ECB: one size does not fit all. (5) Since the exchange rates cannot compensate different productivity levels labour markets have to function as shock absorbers; but the development of unit labour costs shows an increasing gap of international competitiveness between the member countries. (6) The conclusion: EMU is and remains fragile.

Informal Labour Market Governance: The Case of the British and German Media Production Industries

BAUMANN, Arne
Fonte: Sage Publications Ltd Publicador: Sage Publications Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
This article is concerned with labour market transactions in the occupational labour markets (OLM) of the media production industries of Germany and the UK. In both countries, labour markets are characterized by a high inter-firm mobility of workers and patterns of short-term employment and freelance work. In this environment, missing standards produce uncertainty about skill levels of workers and qualification needs of firms, As a result, co-operation costs increase and opportunism becomes possible. It will be argued that, in the absence of manifest labour market institutions such as apprenticeships or skill certificates, which traditionally safeguard OLM transactions, the use of intermediaries and restriction of access will take over as informal mechanisms for governing the labour market. Labour market data from interviews with media firms in Germany and the UK and from surveys on German and British media professionals, are used in order to test this hypothesis.

La relación entre las prácticas de responsabilidad social laboral y la reputación; The relationship between labour social responsibility practices and reputation

Odriozola Zamanillo, María Dolores
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.06%
RESUMEN: La presente tesis doctoral aborda como punto principal la investigación sobre la relación entre la realización de actuaciones de responsabilidad social laboral (RSL) de las empresas y la generación de reputación. La conceptualización teórica sobre la responsabilidad social corporativa y la dimensión laboral de ésta se recoge en el segundo capítulo de la tesis, y así mismo, el tercer capítulo está dedicado a la conceptualización de la reputación, las mediciones de la reputación y la revisión teórica de los estudios relacionados tanto con la reputación corporativa cómo con la reputación laboral. En el cuarto capítulo se desarrollan tres aplicaciones empíricas independientes. La primera analiza la relación de la RSL con la creación de reputación corporativa y laboral. La segunda analiza si las prácticas de conciliación laboral y personal, como parte de las prácticas de responsabilidad social laboral, influyen en los resultados económicos de la empresa. La tercera examina si la reputación laboral tiene una relación circular con la rentabilidad económica de las empresas. El capítulo quinto engloba las conclusiones obtenidas.; ABSTRACT: This dissertation addresses as the main point of the research the relationship between the Labour Social Responsibility (LSR) practices of companies and reputation. The theoretical conceptualization of corporate social responsibility and labour dimension of this is collected in the second chapter of this dissertation...

Interwoven; How the Better Work Program Improves Job and Life Quality in the Apparel Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.38%
The Better Work Program has its roots in the Better Factories Cambodia (BFC) program, established in 2001 as a follow-on from the 1999 U.S.-Cambodia Bilateral Trade Agreement. The free trade agreement (FTA) was the first to link improved labor conditions with greater market access. The BFC program benefitted all the key stakeholders by improving work conditions, supporting the growth of the apparel sector in Cambodia (benefitting all local stakeholders), and boosting developed world buyers’ reputation by sourcing from ethical workplaces. BFC has also helped to cushion the negative effects of external changes to the trading environment in the apparel sector (the end of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement quota system in 2005 and the global financial crisis in 2008–09). The program has grown substantially; as of December 2014, BW has reached over a million workers in more than 1,000 factories across eight countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Haiti, Indonesia, Jordan, Lesotho, Nicaragua, and Vietnam).

La gestión de la marca personal en la asignatura de FOL; Personal branding in FOL

Montero Martín, María
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.05%
RESUMEN La revolución de las TIC´s ha supuesto cambios conductuales en nuestra sociedad. La metodología del docente1 se ha visto irremediablemente salpicada por una Sociedad Digital que nos exige estar a la vanguardia de las últimas herramientas 2.0. Nuevos conceptos del mercado laboral irrumpen en nuestras metodologías docentes. La marca personal es un claro ejemplo de ello. La marca personal es un proceso de búsqueda de habilidades, de competencias, de atributos que todo alumno puede desarrollar en la escuela y trasladarlos de manera efectiva a sus objetivos profesionales. En consecuencia, es necesario que los docentes de FOL apliquemos nuevas dinámicas educativas para afrontar con posibilidades reales de éxito las inevitables dificultades a las que nuestros alumnos se afrontarán en la búsqueda de empleo. Por esto, en este trabajo, abordaremos el desarrollo de la marca personal en el alumnado de FOL. Daremos pautas de la metodología docente a seguir a partir de las nuevas demandas laborales.; ABSTRACT TIC's revolution had supposed changes in the behaviour of our Society. Teaching staff's methodology has been irretrievably marked by a Digital Society which requires us to be at the forefront of newest 2.0 digital tools. New elements in the labour market are breaking in our teaching methodologies. Personal branding is a clear example of this. Personal branding is a procedure of searching skills...

Ripe for the picking: is now the right time for the Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme?

McDuling, Georgina
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.42%
On August 17 2008 the Rudd Government announced that it will introduce the Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme (PSWPS) in 2008-2009. The pilot will allow for 2,500 visas over the course of three years and will essentially give Pacific Islanders the opportunity to migrate temporarily to Australia and work in the Australian horticultural sector. As of November 2008, it has been confirmed that the source countries of the pilot will include Kiribati, Tonga, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. The federal government has cited two main reasons for undertaking the pilot: to address chronic domestic labour shortages in the horticulture industry, and to open another avenue for foreign aid to Pacific region states. To appreciate the significance of this policy decision, it is useful to consider the history of guest-worker programs and their implications abroad. In recent years, the reputation of the guest-worker program has been tarnished. Among the criticisms of this form of temporary migration,overstaying is perhaps the most recognized consequence associated. However, it is by no means the only one. For a time, guest-worker programs became synonymous with marginalized immigrant sectors, exploitation and the deprivation of migrants' basic human rights. Guest-worker programs have been associated with 'dependency' and 'distortion' : communities in source countries become dependent on remittances and growers come to rely on an artificial labour market...

Reshaping Tomorrow : Is South Asia Ready for the Big Leap?

Ghani, Ejaz
Fonte: New Delhi: Oxford University Press Publicador: New Delhi: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.45%
What will South Asia look like in 2025? The optimistic outlook is that India, which accounts for 80 per cent of the regional economic output, is headed towards double-digit growth rates. South Asia too will grow rapidly, primarily due to India. The pessimistic outlook is that, given huge transformational challenges facing the region, growth should not be taken for granted. Which of these two outlooks is likely to prevail? This is what this book is all about. It is about the future, and not the past, and how to make smart choices about the future. There is strong empirical justification in favor of the optimistic outlook. Growth will be propelled higher by young demographics, improved governance, rising middle class, and the next wave of globalization. There is democracy, for the first time since independence, in all countries in the region. Young demographics will result in nearly 20 million more people joining the labour force, every year, for the next two decades. Almost a billion people will join the ranks of the middle class. India's middle class is well-educated, enterprising, innovative, and more demanding of better services, products, and governance. The region will benefit from the new wave of globalization in services, and increased international migration and human mobility. Indeed the drivers of growth seem to have already moved from the rich world to the poor world. The room for catch-up is huge...

Special Economic Zones : Progress, Emerging Challenges, and Future Directions

Farole, Thomas; Akinci, Gokhan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.23%
Ask three people to describe a special economic zone (SEZ) and three very different images may emerge. The first person may describe a fenced-in industrial estate in a developing country, populated by footloose multinational corporations (MNCs) enjoying tax breaks, with laborers in garment factories working in substandard conditions. In contrast, the second person may recount the 'miracle of Shenzhen,' a fishing village transformed into a cosmopolitan city of 14 million, with per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growing 100-fold, in the 30 years since it was designated as an SEZ. A third person may think about places like Dubai or Singapore, whose ports serve as the basis for wide range of trade- and logistics-oriented activities. In this book, the author use SEZ as a generic expression to describe the broad range of modern economic zones discussed in this book. But we are most concerned with two specific forms of those zones: (1) the export processing zones (EPZs) or free zones, which focus on manufacturing for export; and (2) the large-scale SEZs...

Cabiakman et la suspension pour fins d’enquête en rapports collectifs

Girard, Fanny
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.27%
La suspension pour fins d’enquête est une mesure administrative qui permet à l’employeur de suspendre la prestation de travail d’un salarié le temps de faire enquête sur des actes qui lui sont reprochés et qui sont susceptibles d’entacher la réputation ou l’image de l’entreprise. Les principes applicables en la matière ont été précisés par la Cour suprême en 2004 dans l’arrêt Cabiakman c. Industrielle-Alliance, Compagnie d’assurance sur la vie, qui traite d’un contrat individuel de travail. Notre mémoire porte sur les circonstances justifiant une suspension pour fins d’enquête en rapports collectifs. Afin de vérifier le traitement de cette mesure administrative, nous avons effectué une analyse qualitative de la jurisprudence arbitrale québécoise en matière de suspension pour fins d’enquête avant et après Cabiakman. D’abord, nous avons vérifié la compatibilité des principes formulés dans Cabiakman et des principes issus de la jurisprudence arbitrale québécoise antérieure à cet arrêt. Ensuite, nous avons analysé l’influence de cet arrêt en rapports collectifs en examinant si la jurisprudence arbitrale québécoise qui lui est postérieure s'y réfère et en applique les principes. Finalement...

La réforme de l'université au Maroc vue par les acteurs universitaires : une étude de cas de l'Université Maohammed V, Rabat-Salé

Gougou, Mohammed
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.27%
Cette étude est consacrée à l’université publique marocaine. Elle se situe dans le champ de l’enseignement supérieur public. Les chercheurs du secteur universitaire au Maroc qualifient la gestion de l’enseignement supérieur de centralisée, bureaucratisée, rigide et incapable de trouver des réponses efficaces à la société. L’université publique marocaine vit une crise : elle a fait l’objet de nombreux critiques sur la nature des services universitaires. Sur le plan académique, elle est inappropriée pour faire face à la demande sociale en matière de l’enseignement universitaire. Sur le plan interne, elle est inadaptée à cause de dysfonctionnement pédagogie, organisationnel et administratif. L’université publique n’a pas été apte à s’adapter au secteur privé en créant des débouchés viables pour ses diplômés. Devant la gravité de la situation de l’enseignement supérieur public marocain, une Commission Royale Spéciale a été créée, dont le mandat était de trouver une meilleure façon de rationaliser le système universitaire. C’est ainsi qu’en 1999, la Commission a établi une Charte nationale de l’éducation et de la formation. Les premiers éléments de la nouvelle réforme ont été mis en application dès la rentrée universitaire 2003-2004. Cette nouvelle réforme est perçue comme un moyen d’améliorer le fonctionnement des établissements universitaires publics. Son objectif principal est de réformer d’une manière globale le système universitaire public. Dans les recherches qui se sont intéressées à la réforme de l’université publique marocaine...

Autonomics: an autonomous and intelligent economic platform and next generation money tool

Munro, Benjamin; McLachlan, Julia
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.27%
We propose a high level network architecture for an economic system that integrates money, governance and reputation. We introduce a method for issuing, and redeeming a digital coin using a mechanism to create a sustainable global economy and a free market. To maintain a currency's value over time, and therefore be money proper, we claim it must be issued by the buyer and backed for value by the seller, exchanging the products of labour, in a free market. We also claim that a free market and sustainable economy cannot be maintained using economically arbitrary creation and allocation of money. Nakamoto, with Bitcoin, introduced a new technology called the cryptographic blockchain to operate a decentralised and distributed accounts ledger without the need for an untrusted third party. This blockchain technology creates and allocates new digital currency as a reward for "proof-of-work", to secure the network. However, no currency, digital or otherwise, has solved how to create and allocate money in an economically non-arbitrary way, or how to govern and trust a world-scale free enterprise money system. We propose an "Ontologically Networked Exchange" (ONE), with purpose as its highest order domain. Each purpose is defined in a contract...

La Comunicación planificada estudio cualitativo de las variables estructura, gestión y valores en la comunicación de las organizaciones /

Morales Serrano, Francisca
Fonte: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.27%
Consultable des del TDX; Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada; El objeto de la presente Tesis es estudiar la estructura, la gestión y los valores en la Comunicación de las organizaciones desde un enfoque holístico. Para avanzar en la investigación, asesorar y formar profesionales en el campo que nos ocupa es imprescindible conocer como se estructura la comunicación, cómo se gestiona y cuál es su materia prima: cuáles son sus valores. Qué y cómo comunican las organizaciones. El problema de conocimiento se centra en: - conocer cómo se Planifica la Comunicación, para lograr convertirse en un VALOR de la Función Directiva de las Organizaciones. Se trata de un proceso de investigación que se centra en dos apartados concretos, uno de naturaleza documental y retrospectiva, donde se trabajan fuentes secundarias. Y otro prospectivo, que se centra en el diseño e implementación de un estudio de campo, CUALITATIVO, que permite enriquecer lo estudiado con otras fuentes de carácter primario. Se han logrado los objetivos propuestos avanzando a través de un trabajo que se inició con una investigación secundaria, revisando los paradigmas y las teorías más próximas. Seguido de la fase exploratoria que hizo posible un primer contacto directo con el objeto de estudio...

Exploring the role of employer brand equity in the labour market: differences between existing employee and job seeker perceptions.

Alshathry, Sultan
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
In recent years, companies in developed markets have faced challenges in securing and retaining high-quality employees as a result of aging workforces and skills and labour shortages. To address this challenge, some organisations have developed employer branding programs aimed at building employer brand equity (EBE) in the labour market so the organisation will become an employer of choice (EoC). Traditionally, the branding concept has been used for building brand equity in order to acquire and retain customers. The adaptation of this marketing concept to the field of HR management has been widely accepted among scholars and practitioners; however, the effects of EBE in the labour market remain unclear because of a lack of empirical evidence. Employer branding has two audiences—externally it targets potential employees and internally it is directed towards employees. The majority of studies have focused on the external effects of employer branding, which raises the question of whether EBE has the same effect for job seekers and employees. The aim of this study is to provide an understanding of what drives EBE and to what extent it affects job seekers and employees. The main assumption in employer branding is that employer brands play a similar role to brands in a traditional consumer context. Therefore...

The value of rude health

Marsden, David; Moriconi, Simone
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.45%
Executive summary: The report demonstrates that health and wellbeing policies at Royal Mail Group have had a number of significant and material effects:  Royal Mail Group has successfully tackled the issue of absenteeism (CHAPTER ONE): Royal Mail achieved significant reductions in absence – from 7% to 5% – between January 2004 and May 2007, equivalent to an extra 3,600 employees in work Parcelforce Worldwide reduced absence from 7% to 4.5% between January 2004 and May 2007 equivalent to an extra 104 employees in work There is a strong link between both organisations’ range of health and wellbeing and absence policies and reductions in absence (based on available data and interviews) Reducing absence has enabled both Royal Mail Group and its Parcelforce Worldwide business unit to make significant cost savings (CHAPTER TWO): LSE estimates of the annual staff cost of 1% short-term absence across Royal Mail would be on an annual basis: £34.8 millioniv excluding the cost of replacement labour such as overtime and agency staff / £75.9 million including such costs LSE’s estimates suggest that reducing absence by 2% between 2004 and 2007 would have contributed to a total saving across Royal Mail Group over the three years of as much as £227 millionv in terms of direct costs These estimates are based on the accounting cost of a day’s absence in terms of pay and benefit costs...

Does poor neighbourhood reputation create a neighbourhood effect on employment? The results of a field experiment in the UK

Tunstall, Rebecca; Green, Anne; Lupton, Ruth; Watmough, Simon; Bates, Katie
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.45%
There are substantial variations in labour market outcomes between neighbourhoods. One potential partial explanation is that residents of some neighbourhoods face discrimination from employers. Although studies of deprived areas have recorded resident perceptions of discrimination by employers and negative employer perceptions of certain areas, until now there has been no direct evidence on whether employers treat job applicants differently by area of residence. This paper reports a unique experiment to test for a neighbourhood reputation effect involving 2001 applications to 667 real jobs by fictional candidates nominally resident in neighbourhoods with poor and bland reputations. The experiment found no statistically significant difference in employer treatment of applicants from these areas, indicating that people living in neighbourhoods with poor reputations did not face ‘postcode discrimination’ in the labour market, at the initial selection stage.

Labor standard compliance and the role of buyers: the case of the Cambodian garment sector

Oka, Chikako
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.39%
This dissertation consists of four chapters investigating the role of buyers in regulating suppliers' compliance with labor standards in the Cambodian garment sector. The first chapter evaluates an innovative monitoring scheme of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in the Cambodian garment sector, Better Factories Cambodia (BFC). The findings suggest that monitoring standards and procedures are rigorous and positive impacts are felt in monitored factories. Nonetheless, BFC runs in parallel to state institutions and enforcement depends on buyers, throwing its sustainability into question. The second chapter examines the effects of 'reputation-conscious buyers' on labor standard compliance in supplier facilities. Using unique factory-level panel data, this chapter shows that factories producing for reputation-conscious buyers are associated with higher compliance levels than other factories, controlling for factory characteristics. Field interviews also demonstrate that reputation-conscious buyers regulate supplier compliance both 'reactively' and 'proactively.' The third chapter explores the determinants of labor standard compliance across different issue categories (i.e. contract, wage, hours, leave, welfare, occupational safety and health...

Macroeconomic implications of customer-supplier and worker-employer relationships.

Yip, Paul Sau-Leung
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1991 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.27%
This thesis investigates a few examples of customer-supplier and worker-employer relationships which are thought to be important to macroeconomic analysis. Among the literature on sticky price, we suggest that the theory of mark-up pricing and the theory of customer-supplier relationships advocated by Okun (1981), deserve more attention. We also suggest that there are at least three hypotheses implicit in the mark-up equation: (1) a sticky pricing response to demand shocks; (2) a relatively fast pricing response to cost shocks; and (3) 1 % change in average cost will cause an equiproportionate rise in price. In Chapter 2, a reputation cost of changing price is used to summarize Okun's discussion on suppliers' tendency to pledge the constancy of price for some reasonably long period (a type of customer-supplier relationship). A microfoundation model is then built to investigate the three hypothesis in details. With regard to the first hypothesis, it is shown that (a) the reputation cost of changing price; (b) uncertainties about the persistence and generality of an observed demand shock; and (c) their interactions can jointly account for an extensive degree of price stickiness. We also explain that such a modelling of price stickiness could be more convincing than that by the Menu Cost Hypothesis. With regard to the second and third hypotheses...