In the framework of the implementation of the European Landscape Convention and the arising need to train students to con- tribute to it in their professional life, this papers aims to present successes and drawbacks concerning the integration of different stake- holders’ perspectives for an improved Landscape Character Assessment at local scale in the academic context. It reports on four exercises in Portugal (Almada, Castelo de Vide, Setúbal and Tomar), focusing on three aspects: firstly, the integration of the public using different approaches, secondly, on the views of local authorities on the usefulness of LCA in local planning and urban management, and ultimately, on how students benefited from the various kinds of processes that were carried out in each municipality. The processes are presented and critically analyzed in order to identify strengthens and weaknesses in proving a context for students to meet with stakeholders.
The Islet of Vila Franca do Campo, (S. Miguel Island,
Azores) with 6,2 ha, is located 500 m from the south coast. The geology, ecology, and cultural character,
makes it a place with high landscape quality, very attractive for recreation, originating a highly sensitive
landscape to recreation impacts. Landscape sensitivity assessment becomes therefore a crucial step in the
development of a landscape and management plan, aiming to reconcile conservation with public recreation.
The main objective of this work is to show the importance of geomorphology-pedology, together with other
parameters (topographic features, plant communities and cultural resources) in assessing Islet landscape
sensitivity. The methodology used was based in a parametric approach. Relative values were given to the
different classes of geomorphology-pedology, vegetation and topography based on natural value and
resistance to recreation use. The overlaying of these values enabled de assessment of the landscape
The Islet is a volcanic cone of stratified palagonitic tuffs from the Holocene age. Besides, in the Northwest
and South-Southwest summit zones pumiceous deposits with a trachyte composition occur. The exterior
hillsides of the volcanic cone (mainly NW and W cliffs) are under intensive wind and marine erosion. The
geomorphic dynamics evaluated by means of the morphogenesis/pedogenesis rate allowed to consider the
following areas: (a) area on Morphogenesis processes (M). This area is submitted to relative intense ablation
processes by creeping and rill erosion. The area correspond mainly to outcrops of palagonitic tuffs or pumice
with different weathering stages and a zone with incipient soils; (b) area on Intergrade processes to
Morphogenesis (IM) which is associated to steep slopes (>25%) incipient soils or Andosoils where mass
movements are observed; (c) area on Intergrade processes to Pedogenesis (IP)...
The ensemble folding of two 21-residue α-helical peptides has been studied using all-atom simulations under several variants of the AMBER potential in explicit solvent using a global distributed computing network. Our extensive sampling, orders of magnitude greater than the experimental folding time, results in complete convergence to ensemble equilibrium. This allows for a quantitative assessment of these potentials, including a new variant of the AMBER-99 force field, denoted AMBER-99φ, which shows improved agreement with experimental kinetic and thermodynamic measurements. From bulk analysis of the simulated AMBER-99φ equilibrium, we find that the folding landscape is pseudo-two-state, with complexity arising from the broad, shallow character of the “native” and “unfolded” regions of the phase space. Each of these macrostates allows for configurational diffusion among a diverse ensemble of conformational microstates with greatly varying helical content and molecular size. Indeed, the observed structural dynamics are better represented as a conformational diffusion than as a simple exponential process, and equilibrium transition rates spanning several orders of magnitude are reported. After multiple nucleation steps, on average...
Les terrains vacants sont, à Montréal, des éléments indéniables dans la composition de la trame urbaine. Leur présence soutenue intéresse déjà depuis longtemps de nombreux
auteurs et décideurs municipaux. Toutefois, il s’avère que l’on connaît peu les caractéristiques paysagères de ces espaces. Cette recherche en aménagement vise à
compléter nos connaissances sur cette typologie d’espace urbain. Elle porte sur la
caractérisation paysagère des terrains vacants du centre-ville de Montréal et sur l’étude de leur potentiel visuel à mettre en valeur les attributs significatifs du paysage urbain.
Ces deux études doivent permettre de comprendre le rôle joué par ces vides dans la
perception du paysage urbain. Cette démarche s’interroge sur la possibilité que certains
vides puissent être justifiés et légitimés en regard de la notion de lisibilité du paysage urbain (Lynch, 1976, 1982). Les terrains joueraient un rôle important au niveau de la perception des paysages urbains. Il s’agit de démontrer le potentiel des espaces vacants dans la mise en valeur du paysage urbain, dans l’optique, pour certains d’entre eux, de légitimer le vide ou une partie du vide qui les définit, de les rendre structurants dans la composition urbaine. Grâce à un travail d’observation des caractéristiques urbaines...
The object of this thesis is to provide, through a thorough analysis of human perception and interaction with aesthetics and landscape quality, a comprehensive basis on which to develop a credible methodology for the large scale assessment of perceived landscape quality.
The analysis of human perception and interaction with aesthetics and landscape quality is gained by inquiring in depth into a range of theoretical constructs from key disciplines, cultural aspects, and empirical studies covering :
1. the contribution of philosophers to aesthetics
2. the psychology of perception and colour
3. the contribution of Gestalt psychology to aesthetics
4. the psychoanalytical construct of human responses to aesthetics
5. the influence of culture on landscape preferences, tracing the changing perceptions of mountains, the portrayal of landscapes in art, and the design of parks and gardens
6. a review of over 200 surveys of landscape quality in the late 20th century, including typologies and theories of landscape quality
Based on the analysis of these and the knowledge gained, an empirical study is formulated and conducted, comprising a study of landscape quality of South Australia, an area of nearly 1 million km - 1.
Renewable energy production takes on many forms; wind farms and their turbines are but one. Turbines are a unique dynamic infrastructure within the landscape, which signifies a change in social attitude towards sustainable developments. The clarity and simplicity of the turbines’ function (wind blows, blades turn, turbine spins and electrical power is generated) enforces the benign qualities that wind farms possess. However there are implications associated with the compatibility of turbines to landscape visual character and conservation.
The environmental impacts associated with wind turbines include noise, shadow flicker, bird strikes and electromagnetic interference with radio and television signals. However, research suggests the major issue facing planning and development approval is on a social level, with visual pollution being the dominant public criticism.
Wind farms must be located where consistent strong winds permeate to generate maximum efficiency. The efficiency of output is dependent on clear exposure to the prevailing wind, which normally implies ridgelines and escarpments which are both visually dominant topographical locations. The Australian Wind Energy Association (AUSWEA) has established guidelines confirming that smooth hilltops are the most preferred topography for airflow...
Post-fire soil erosion is a great concern to land managers due to the potential adverse effects on water quality, the alteration to soil profiles and the detrimental impacts on human communities. To reduce the potential adverse effects of post-fire erosion mitigation actions have been instigated following severe wildfires. Various programs of prescribed burning have been initiated to reduce the risk of wildfires. In order to predict and manage post-fire erosion a clear understanding is needed of the influential environmental variables, associated processes and whether mitigation actions will be effective. In the Southern Mount Lofty Ranges there is a paucity of post-fire erosion data from which to generate evidence-based predictive models and management recommendations. This thesis has the overarching goal of developing evidence-based options for managing post-fire sediment movement in the Southern Mount Lofty Ranges. Evidence-based management of sediment movement from both prescribed fire and wildfire can reduce potential erosion and hence protect regional natural services such as soil profile formation, soil mineral health, the regulation of water quality and maintenance of local landscape character. A case study of the Southern Mount Lofty Ranges is used to produce evidence-based options for managing post-fire erosion in relation to a wildfire at Mount Bold and ten prescribed burns conducted within the Southern Mount Lofty Ranges. Field techniques included visual erosion assessments...
Landscape is defined by the European Landscape Convention as “an area perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors”. Many efforts have been devoted in addressing the core concepts on which this definition roots: perception and interaction of men and nature, but when coming to large (continental) scale assessments, the latter prevail on the former.
This paper aims at presenting a framework for a measurable landscape awareness indicator as a key link to the public demand for a specific type of landscape: the agricultural landscape. This is a necessary effort to complement more physically based assessments, which include as well the impact of human activities on landscapes.
The analysis is carried out at different levels of governance: EU and regional, using an example from the Alentejo region in Portugal and EU wide databases, and addresses conceptual and practical questions: what type of societal landscape awareness can be monitored and by whom (e.g., individuals, specific social groups, society as a whole); what are the landscape dimensions that should be assessed; what are the limitations imposed by data-related constraints. By applying the methodology to build composite indicators to map landscape societal awareness...
In June 2006, the Guizhou Tourism
Administration's Guizhou Provincial Rural Tourism
Development Plan was approved by the National Tourism
Administration of The People's Republic of China
(CNTA). This plan provides official strategic guidance for
the development of the rural tourism sector and identifies
around 160 villages for development. The proposals for Bank
finance are primarily located within rural villages. Based
on an assessment of their tourism appeal and location, 60 of
the 160 sites identified in the Guizhou Provincial Rural
Tourism Development Plan have been prioritized for
development over the next five years under the loan being
sought from the World Bank. The proposal provides a
conceptual development plan for 60 sites, including
development and financial models, products to be marketed,
and involvement of a range of stakeholders including private
investors, NGOs and rural tourism associations. The
consultants are encouraged by the proposals that provide for
participation of local communities...
This study identifies power relationships within forest conservation decision-making in
Nova Scotia, Canada. Rather than rely on the ‘customary science’ of resource
conservation largely based on biological and physical parameters, this analysis is steeped
in the traditions of social science and policy analysis. This study’s central focus is the
Forest Improvement Act (FIA): 1962-1986. Forest conservation policies and legislative
initiatives developed prior to FIA enactment such as the Small Tree Act (STA): 1942 - 1965 are treated in this study as the FIA’s policy gestation period. Theoretical and
practical insights derived from this pre-FIA period are used in the assessment of the FIA
and these combined understandings are subsequently applied to the analysis of
contemporary forest conservation policy. For contemporary analysis, six case studies
including the Nova Scotia Envirofor process and the St. Mary’s River Landscape and
Ecology Management proposal, as well as a recent provincial government initiative are
This study utilises a broad range of decision-making and resource management theory to
tease out understandings of the particular character of the policy process. The analysis
utilises various decision-making models...
The landscape assessments are tools of landscape analysis. They can characterize a landscape depending on certain natural and cultural characteristics, that make it distinct for another, and thattranscend the political and administrative boundaries. The landscape characterization products may be called such as “cartas de paisaje”, “catálogos de paisaje”, “cartografías de paisaje”, “landscape character assessments” Considering the value represented as inputs for planning and land management, this work provides an assessment of three landscapes of Uruguay. Is an exercise of conceptualization of the national landscape, from the recognition of its natural and cultural base, using the Landscape Character Assessment Guidance (Countryside Agency / Scottish Natural Heritage). In a complementary, this work use the theoretical and methodological basis of landscape ecology, raised by authors Forman and Godron, to understand the structure, functioning and changes in the landscape from an ecological perspective.; Las evaluaciones de paisaje son herramientas de análisis territorial y paisajístico. Permiten caracterizar un paisaje en función de sus componentes naturales y culturales, haciendo un paisaje distintivo respecto a otro y definiendo ciertos límites más o menos precisos trascendiendo los límitespolítico-administrativos. Los productos de una caracterización paisajística pueden denominarse de distinta manera...