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Towards a Regional Strategy to Strengthen the Nurse Workforce of the English-speaking CARICOM : International Legal Instruments, Agreements and Obligations

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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36.42%
The supply of nurses in the English-Speaking Caribbean is insufficient to meet the demand with growing shortages fuelled by the health needs of a rapidly aging population and tremendous losses of human capital occurring at multiple points in the markets. In defining the scope of commitments of a regional legal agreement, English-Speaking Caribbean Community (ES CARICOM) states will have to ascertain whether states would commit to actions to strengthen the nurse workforce or the health workforce more broadly. While the challenges of strengthening the nurse workforce have been systematically assessed, information about other groups of health professionals remains patchy. In 2008, at the request of the Ministers of Health, the World Bank initiated a stream of work to strengthen the nurse workforce in the English-speaking Caribbean. The study estimated the stock of nurses in the ES CARICOM at approximately 7,800 in 2007 with growing shortages under existing policies at 3,400 in 2007 increasing to 10,700 nurses in 2025 due to the health needs of a rapidly aging population. There are two types of international legal instruments: legally binding instruments or treaties; and non-legally binding instruments.

Impact of Migration on Economic and Social Development : A Review of Evidence and Emerging Issues

Ratha, Dilip; Mohapatra, Sanket; Scheja, Elina
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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36.28%
This paper provides a review of the literature on the development impact of migration and remittances on origin countries and on destination countries in the South. International migration is an ever-growing phenomenon that has important development implications for both sending and receiving countries. For a sending country, migration and the resulting remittances lead to increased incomes and poverty reduction, and improved health and educational outcomes, and promote economic development. Yet these gains might come at substantial social costs to the migrants and their families. Since many developing countries are also large recipients of international migrants, they face challenges of integration of immigrants, job competition between migrant and native workers, and fiscal costs associated with provision of social services to the migrants. This paper also summarizes incipient discussions on the impacts of migration on climate change, democratic values, demographics, national identity, and security. In conclusion...

International Migration, Economic Development and Policy

Özden, Çağlar; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
Português
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36.29%
This volume reflects the expansion of the World Bank Research Program on International Migration and Development into new substantive and geographic areas. It presents a new global migration database and includes studies of the determinants and impact of return and circular migration, the impact of the flow of ideas on fertility, host country policies and their impact on immigrants, and the impact of international migration and remittances on poverty and other development indicators. The studies cover countries from Latin America, North Africa, South Asia, the South Pacific, and Western Europe, and show that the impact of migration on education and health tends to benefit girls more than boys, that its impact on labor force participation tends to be stronger for women than men, that return migrants tend to do better than non-migrants, and that fertility has tended to decline in countries whose migration has been to the West and has failed to do so in countries whose migration has been to the Gulf. The purpose of the case studies is to illustrate and clarify many theoretical mechanisms and to advance understanding of the impact of different migration policies...

Self-Selection Patterns in Mexico-U.S. Migration : The Role of Migration Networks

McKenzie, David; Rapoport, Hillel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.25%
The authors examine the role of migration networks in determining self-selection patterns of Mexico-U.S. migration. They first present a simple theoretical framework showing how such networks impact on migration incentives at different education levels and, consequently, how they are likely to affect the expected skill composition of migration. Using survey data from Mexico, the authors then show that the probability of migration is increasing with education in communities with low migrant networks, but decreasing with education in communities with high migrant networks. This is consistent with positive self-selection of migrants being driven by high migration costs, and with negative self-selection of migrants being driven by lower returns to education in the U.S. than in Mexico.

Can Guest Worker Schemes Reduce Illegal Migration?

Amin, Mohammad; Mattoo, Aaditya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.24%
The authors analyze recent efforts at international cooperation to limit illegal migration, particularly through the use of legal migration avenues like guest worker schemes. They show that while guest worker schemes may be desirable as an avenue of international migration, they are an inefficient instrument to induce cooperation on illegal migration. On the one hand, guest worker schemes suffer from a negative selection problem relative to illegal migration, which tends to erode their attractiveness to source countries. On the other hand, guest worker schemes increase total (legal and illegal) migration which make them a costly compensating device for the host country. Moreover, guest worker schemes create additional pressure on host countries to implement tough laws against illegal immigration even when the host finds such laws undesirable. Thus, less favorable treatment of illegal immigrants, as in California Proposition 187, may be an inevitable rather than incidental outcome of reliance on guest worker schemes. In contrast, countries that are willing to use transfers and other forms of economic assistance to induce source countries to cooperate can afford relatively liberal treatment of illegal immigrants.

Paper Walls are Easier to Tear Down : Passport Costs and Legal Barriers to Emigration

McKenzie, David J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.29%
Increased attention to the development potential of international migration has led to calls for greater global cooperation and for industrial countries to consider temporary worker programs and other options for increasing the number of immigrants admitted. But less attention has been devoted to policies that migrant-sending countries pursue that impact on the ability of people to emigrate under the existing system. This paper documents the existence and impact of two such policies: passport costs and legal restrictions on emigration. New data collected on passport costs in 127 countries reveals enormous variation in the cost of a passport from one country to the next. One in every 10 countries in the sample is found to have passport costs exceeding 10 percent of annual per capita income. High passport costs are found to be associated with poor governance, especially in terms of the quality of the bureaucracy, and with lower levels of migration. Countries that place legal restrictions on the rights of women to emigrate are also found to have lower migration rates than countries with similar income and population levels. These findings suggest there is scope for some developing countries to receive greater benefits from migration by tearing down the paper walls they place around their own citizens.

Towards a Regional Strategy to Strengthen the Nurse Workforce of the English-speaking CARICOM : International Legal Instruments, Agreements and Obligations

Kurowski, Christoph; Carpio, Carmen; Vujicic, Marko; Gostin, Lawrence O.; Baytor, Tanya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
The supply of nurses in the English-Speaking Caribbean is insufficient to meet the demand with growing shortages fuelled by the health needs of a rapidly aging population and tremendous losses of human capital occurring at multiple points in the markets. In defining the scope of commitments of a regional legal agreement, English-Speaking Caribbean Community (ES CARICOM) states will have to ascertain whether states would commit to actions to strengthen the nurse workforce or the health workforce more broadly. While the challenges of strengthening the nurse workforce have been systematically assessed, information about other groups of health professionals remains patchy. In 2008, at the request of the Ministers of Health, the World Bank initiated a stream of work to strengthen the nurse workforce in the English-speaking Caribbean. The study estimated the stock of nurses in the ES CARICOM at approximately 7,800 in 2007 with growing shortages under existing policies at 3,400 in 2007 increasing to 10,700 nurses in 2025 due to the health needs of a rapidly aging population. There are two types of international legal instruments: legally binding instruments or treaties; and non-legally binding instruments.

Migration and Economic Development in Kosovo

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.27%
Kosovo has one of the largest international migration flows in the world. Much emigration has been for economic reasons and to escape armed conflict in the late 1990s; resolution of the conflict does not appear to have offered migrants enough incentive to return. Even though migration slowed with the global economic crisis, a reported 3.5 percent of the working population aged 15 and above have expressed interest in emigrating in the next 12 months. The first objective of this study is to illustrate the importance of migration and remittances for Kosovo, drawing on data from recent surveys. The second is to identify policies implemented in other countries that the Kosovan authorities might find useful for maximizing the benefits from its large migrant population. The study does not specify policies the Kosovan authorities should adopt; instead, it sets out policies and instruments the authorities could consider if they wish to more tightly link migration to development. The study has two parts. The first describes migration and remittances trends in Kosovo and links them to labor outcomes...

Eliciting Illegal Migration Rates through List Randomization

McKenzie, David; Siegel, Melissa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Most migration surveys do not ask about the legal status of migrants due to concerns about the sensitivity of this question. List randomization is a technique that has been used in a number of other social science applications to elicit sensitive information. This paper trials this technique by adding it to surveys conducted in Ethiopia, Mexico, Morocco, and the Philippines. It shows how, in principal, this can be used both to give an estimate of the overall rate of illegal migration in the population being surveyed, as well as to determine illegal migration rates for subgroups such as more or less educated households. The results suggest that there is some useful information in this method: higher rates of illegal migration in countries where illegal migration is thought to be more prevalent and households who say they have a migrant are more likely to report having an illegal migrant. Nevertheless, some of the other findings also suggest some possible inconsistencies or noise in the conclusions obtained using this method. The authors suggest directions for future attempts to implement this approach in migration surveys.

International Migration, Remittances, and the Brain Drain : A Study of 24 Labor-Exporting Countries

Adams, Richard H. Jr.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.13%
While the level of international migration and remittances continues to grow, data on international migration remains unreliable. At the international level, there is no consistent set of statistics on the number or skill characteristics of international migrants. At the national level, most labor-exporting countries do not collect data on their migrants. Adams tries to overcome these problems by constructing a new data set of 24 large, labor-exporting countries and using estimates of migration and educational attainment based on United States and OECD records. He uses these new data to address the key policy question: How pervasive is the brain drain from labor-exporting countries? Three basic findings emerge: With respect to legal migration, international migration involves the movement of the educated. The vast majority of migrants to both the United States and the OECD have a secondary (high school) education or higher. While migrants are well-educated, international migration does not tend to take a very high proportion of the best educated. For 22 of the 33 countries in which educational attainment data can be estimated...

Managing International Migration for Development in East Asia

Adams, Richard H., Jr.; Ahsan, Ahmad
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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36.29%
The objective of this book is to analyze the economic and social impact of international migration on labor sending and labor receiving countries in the East Asia region. More specifically, the book seeks: (a) to examine the impact of international migration on key development indicators, including poverty, investment, labor force participation, labor productivity and wages; (b) to evaluate current government structures and institutions for managing migration, with a view to identifying future policies for maximizing the benefits of international labor migration. The book includes new work on these key policy issues from six East Asian countries: three labor sending countries (Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam) and three labor receiving countries (Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand).

Proceedings of the national consultation workshop on facilitating safe and legal migration and prevention of irregular migration

[CARIM-India]
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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46.22%
The “National Consultation Workshop on Facilitating Safe and Legal Migration and Preventing Irregular Migration” was organised by the India Centre for Migration (ICM) on the 6th and 7th of September, 2012 under the India-EU Project, “Developing a Knowledge base for Migration Policy Making on India EU Migration.” The venue of the Workshop was the Claridges, New Delhi.The objective of the Workshop was to create awareness and disseminate information related to irregular migration from India to the EU.; CARIM-India: Developing a knowledge base for policymaking on India-EU migration; CARIM-India is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union

A comprehensive labour market approach to EU labour migration policy

MARTIN, Iván; VENTURINI, Alessandra
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
Opening up new legal migration channels' to respond to economic needs for labour is one of the four priorities of the European Commission for its upcoming European Agenda on Migration. The EU approach to legal labour migration has, to date, been very fragmented and limited. It has focused, indeed, on specific categories of potential legal migrants: highly-qualified, intra-corporate transferees, seasonal workers or students and non-remunerated trainees and researchers. The approach is clearly not up to the challenges posed by the EU labour market prospects and does not integrate, in a comprehensive way, all third-country nationals accessing European labour markets, including family reunification beneficiaries, asylum-seekers and foreign students. The main challenges related to the development of a EU labour migration vision are the following. How to articulate intra-EU mobility and international migration to the EU labour market? How to make EU- and Member States legal migration systems and competences compatible? How to ensure that employers can tap workers from a sufficient pool of suitably qualified individuals (and that qualifications obtained abroad are recognized)? And how to reduce international labour matching costs? This policy brief aims to provide some ideas to address those challenges over a medium- to long-term perspective...

Reforming the EU blue card as a labour migration policy tool?

KALANTARYAN, Sona; MARTIN, Iván
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
One of the four priorities of the European Commission in its preparation for the European Agenda on Migration was to open up 'new legal migration channels, including the revision of the 'Blue Card' Directive'. This comes after only three years of full implementation of this EU immigration policy instrument (and not even that for some Member States). Meanwhile, in its 2014 Communication on the implementation of the Blue Card Directive, the European Commission had decided not to propose any amendment. However, it should not be forgotten that the Blue Card Directive was not designed primarily for the labour market needs of the EU. Rather, it was run to enhance European competitiveness by attracting highly-qualified third-country nationals, and this under quite restrictive conditions of salary and qualifications. As a result there have been only low numbers of beneficiaries to date: 19,000 in 2012 and 2013 for the whole EU. To develop the Blue Card Directive into a true highly-skilled labour-migration management tool able to respond to current and future labour market needs in Europe, would mean changes in scope, conditions and implementation modalities by Member States.; The MPC is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union.

Qatar's legal framework of migration

ZAHRA, Maysa
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
GLMM - Gulf Labour Markets and Migration; Over the last decade, Qatar has significantly revised its legal framework in a number of areas that are relevant to the issue of migration. The revision has led to the establishment of rules and regulations that better conform to international standards in areas such as labour rights and human traf- ficking. However, Qatar's controversial kefala (sponsorship) system is still a source of concern. This note offers researchers a succinct outline and summary of Qatar's legal framework on migration. The system of migration-related legislation in the State of Qatar includes the Constitution, international treaties concluded, national laws and by-laws.; The GLMM programme is conducted by the Gulf Research Centre (GRC) and the Migration Policy Centre (MPC) and financed by the Open Society Foundations (OSF).

Indonesian labour migration to Sabah: changes, trends and impacts.

Sayed Mahadi, Syed Abdul Razak Bin
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014 Português
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36.39%
This thesis is concerned with low-skilled Indonesian labour migration to Sabah East Malaysia that is driven by multi-sectoral developmental activities, particularly in plantations and agriculture. The flow of Indonesian workers that began before Sabah’s independence in 1963 has grown especially during the 1990s parallel with Sabah’s economic development facilitated by a well established network system that allows entrance to Sabah through legal, semi-legal and illegal channels. Indonesian labour migration to Sabah has become more complex with the state government’s inability to implement temporary migration policies which consequently has allowed migrants to stay longer than their contracts permit, bring family members with them and form family units. In addition, the granting of fast-track citizenship for political reasons is believed to attract more migrants to Sabah. This study has three main parts namely changes, trends and impacts of Indonesian labour migration to Sabah. It begins with an analysis of internal changes in Malaysia generally, and Sabah specifically; that involves rapid economic development, improvement in education and changes in workforce structure initiated by New Economic Policy (NEP) implemented in 1970. As a result...

Gaining from Migration : Trends and Policy Lessons in the Greater Mekong Sub-region

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Thailand Publicador: World Bank, Thailand
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
This report contributes to the migration policy debates in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) by providing evidence of the impacts of migration; at the same time, it outlines possible policy approaches to increase benefits from migration. The study focuses primarily on Thailand and Myanmar: the main labor receiving and sending countries, respectively, in the GMS. This report not only presents the recent migration trends and drivers in the GMS but also addresses policy issues related to the economic and social impact of migration on countries both receiving and sending labor; it also addresses the issue of migrants' welfare including social services; and the role of migration policy and institutions. The findings challenge several existing paradigms of developing country migration research and may have broader transferability. Specifically, the proceeding analysis suggests: (a) demographic and income differences among the GMS countries drive migration within the region, suggesting the rising prominence of South-South migration; (b) migration in the GMS tends to be long-term...

The Qatar-Nepal Remittance Corridor : Enhancing the Impact and Integrity of Remittance Flows by Reducing Inefficiencies in the Migration Process

Endo, Isaku; Afram, Gabi G.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Remittance inflows play a crucial role in Nepal's economy. Officially recorded remittances already amounted to almost a quarter of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2009. The 2008-09 global economic crises resulted in slower growth of remittance inflows in Nepal, leading directly to lower disposable income. This is a telling reminder of the importance of promoting a supportive environment for remittances. Nepali migration continues to increase as workers seek greater economic opportunities abroad. In this quest, Qatar is one of the important migration destinations for Nepali migrant workers. This report analyzes the migration and remittance transfer processes in the Qatar-Nepal Corridor in order to provide policy recommendations that would help improve the scale and impact of remittance transfers from Qatar to Nepal, and enhance the efficiency and integrity of migration and remittances in the corridor. The report identifies challenges in the migration process from Nepal to Qatar (related to high migration costs and their financing) and constraints in the remittance transfer process from Qatar to Nepal...

Migration and Remittances in CIS Countries during the Global Economic Crisis

Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Kholmatov, Matin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Despite the fact that the free flow of people across borders is the lynchpin of today's globalized world, more importance is usually given to the unrestricted movement of capital and goods. As a consequence, the effects of the financial crisis on the issue of migration have largely been ignored by the international community. The World Bank and other international organizations are examining ways to mitigate the effects of the financial crisis on migration and foster productive dialogue and partnerships among both sending and receiving countries, and the migrants themselves. This article describes the effects of the crisis in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), proposes reforms to mitigate its effects, and suggests actions to encourage self-sustaining progress in the area of migration in the future.

Contemporary Migration to South Africa : A Regional Development Issue

Segatti, Aurelia; Landau, Loren B.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
This book is a call to rethink migration regimes in Southern Africa in ways that are more explicitly developmental and focused on poverty. Current policy debates are devoted almost exclusively to border control and policing; they pay only lip service to local and regional developmental strategies. This volume takes a different approach. Its contributors are scholars who are convinced that empirically based policy making stands a better chance of succeeding than untested preconceptions that risk reproducing recipes that have failed elsewhere. The book is therefore strong on empirics, providing a wealth of original data. It also reframes existing approaches and reexamines secondary data from fresh perspectives. Although the focus remains South Africa, the book reflects South Africa's regional role and draws on data from across the Southern African Development Community (SADC). This book broadens the 'migration' agenda beyond the boundaries of migration studies and migration policy silos. This book is intended to become a resource for a range of audiences in Southern Africa and the continent.