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Limitações ao poder de reforma constitucional na Constituição Federal de 1988; Amending process limitations in the Brazilian constitution

Maiolino, Eurico Zecchin
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/03/2011 Português
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A Constituição é produto do Poder Constituinte. Após a elaboração e edição da Constituição, o Poder Constituinte continua a existir em estado de latência. Contudo, a Constituição, como norma jurídica que é, necessita ser adaptada à realidade social cambiante, caso contrário não será apta a reger a vida da sociedade e do Estado e terá de ser substituída pela ação revolucionária do Poder Constituinte. Assim, o Poder Constituinte incumbe um órgão ou um complexo de órgãos da reforma da Constituição, o qual, contudo, com ele não se confunde. Como o Poder de Reforma Constitucional é um poder instituído, sujeita-se às regras impostas pelo Poder Constituinte, que o cria, e, entre estas regras, encontram-se as limitações à reforma da Constituição. Certa doutrina rejeita as limitações à reforma da Constituição, pela impossibilidade de uma geração vincular as gerações futuras; outra parte defende a superação das limitações por um processo de dupla revisão; finalmente, uma terceira corrente defende as limitações alicerçando-as em três argumentos principais: o precompromentimento constitucional, o dualismo democrático e a defesa da democracia e dos direitos humanos. A Constituição Federal de 1988 prevê quatro espécies de limitações à reforma da Constituição: material...

Prescrição intercorrente e o responsável tributário; Interimstatute of limitations and the tax liable

Carvalho, Daniel Freire
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/05/2013 Português
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O objeto do presente trabalho cinge-se à investigação da contraposição da prescrição intercorrente com a responsabilidade tributária, duas temáticas completamente distintas uma da outra e que, por si só e isoladamente, despertam importantes discussões no campo do Direito Tributário. Jungidas, então, representam enorme problemática, amplificada em razão da negligência de nossos legisladores, da insuficiente manifestação doutrinária e, com o devido respeito, da generalidade de alguns precedentes jurisprudenciais, incapazes de alcançar a singularidade de cada uma das situações possíveis. Em meio ao caos da cobrança judicial dos créditos tributários, uma das crescentes e atuais preocupações diz respeito à demora com que as execuções fiscais são movimentadas (quer seja em razão da ineficiência das Fazendas Públicas, quer seja em razão da má-fé de alguns contribuintes/devedores, quer seja em razão da morosidade imputável exclusivamente aos mecanismos inerentes ao Poder Judiciário) e sua influência na fulminação do direito creditório das Fazendas Públicas em decorrência do reconhecimento da prescrição, mais precisamente da prescrição intercorrente, aquela que se percebe no curso do processo judicial e atualmente não se duvida de sua aplicação. Perquiriu-se...

The important role of mass transfer limitations caused by long chain fatty acids accumulation onto the anaerobic sludge

Pereira, M. A.; Mota, M.; Alves, M. M.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
In this work, the role of transport limitations caused by LCFA accumulation onto anaerobic sludge was evaluated. Two sludges were compared in terms of the specific methanogenic activity in the presence of acetate, propionate, butyrate and H2/CO2, before and after the mineralization of LCFA accumulated onto the biomass. In both cases the main LCFA accumulated was palmitic acid, but in one of the sludges (referred as encapsulated sludge) it was mainly adsorbed, surrounding the cells, and in the other (non-encapsulated sludge) it was mainly precipitated in white spots in between the sludge. The LCFA loaded, but nonencapsulated sludge exhibited a considerable initial methanogenic activity on all the tested substrates, with the single exception of butyrate. However, for the encapsulated sludge only methane production from ethanol and H2/CO2 was detected, after a lag phase of about 50 hours. The obtained results evidenced that, besides the potential toxic effect, LCFA accumulation onto the sludge can create a physical barrier and hinder the transfer of substrates and products, inducing a delay on the initial methane production.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), Fundo Social Europeu (FSE) - PRAXIS XXI/BD/20326/99.

Limitations of Photosynthesis in Pinus taeda L. (Loblolly Pine) at Low Soil Temperatures 1

Day, Thomas A.; Heckathorn, Scott A.; DeLucia, Evan H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1991 Português
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The relative importance of stomatal and nonstomatal limitations to net photosynthesis (A) and possible signals responsible for stomatal limitations were investigated in unhardened Pinus taeda seedlings at low soil temperatures. After 2 days at soil temperatures between 13 and 7°C, A was reduced by 20 to 50%, respectively. The reduction in A at these moderate root-chilling conditions appeared to be the result of stomatal limitations, based on the decrease in intercellular CO2 concentrations (ci). This conclusion was supported by A versus ci analysis and measurements of O2 evolution at saturating CO2, which suggested increases in stomatal but not biochemical limitations at these soil temperatures. Nonuniform stomatal apertures, which were demonstrated with abscisic acid, were not apparent 2 days after root chilling, and results of our A versus ci analysis appear valid. Bulk shoot water potential (ψ) declined as soil temperature dropped below 16°C. When half the root system of seedlings was chilled, shoot ψ and gas-exchange rates did not decline. Thus, nonhydraulic root-shoot signals were not implicated in stomatal limitations. The initial decrease in leaf conductance to water vapor after root chilling appeared to precede any detectable decrease in bulk fascicle ψ...

REDUCING SYMPTOM LIMITATIONS: A COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION RANDOMIZED TRIAL

DOORENBOS, ARDITH; GIVEN, BARBARA; GIVEN, CHARLES; VERBITSKY, NATALYA; CIMPRICH, BERNADINE; MCCORKLE, RUTH
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2005 Português
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Until now, little research has been conducted examining the reactive dimension, or the degree to which a symptom limits an individual’s life, in a multiplicity of symptoms. This research examines how problem-solving therapy organizes an intervention to decrease symptom limitations. The purpose was threefold: to determine if a cognitive behavioral intervention decreases the impact of symptom limitations among individuals newly diagnosed with cancer, who are receiving chemotherapy; to determine, after adjusting for covariates, how symptom limitations change over time; and to describe which symptoms are most limiting. This randomized control trial was conducted in two comprehensive and four community cancer centers. Two hundred thirty-seven individuals, aged 31–87, newly diagnosed with solid tumor cancers, participated. The experimental group (118 individuals) received a 10-contact, 18-week cognitive behavioral intervention focused on cancer- and chemotherapy-related symptoms. The control group (119 individuals) received conventional care. Interviews occurred at baseline, 10, 20, and 32 weeks. Data analysis used a two-level hierarchical linear model. Participants receiving the cognitive behavioral intervention had lower scores of symptom limitation than did participants in the control group. At the onset of the study...

Dietary intake related to prevalent functional limitations in mid-life women

Tomey, Kristin M.; Sowers, MaryFran R.; Crandall, Carolyn; Johnston, Janet; Jannausch, Mary; Yosef, Matheos
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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26.43%
Physical functioning measures are considered integrated markers of the aging process. This prospective investigation examined relationships between dietary intake of women at midlife in 1996/7 and prevalence of physical functioning limitations four years later, defined by the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36. The sample included 2160 multiethnic women, aged 42–52, from six geographic areas participating in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Associations between measures of diet quality and number of fruit and vegetable servings and prevalent physical functional limitations (no, moderate, or substantial limitations) were tested using logistic regression. The prevalence of moderate and substantial functional limitations was 31% and 10%, respectively. Women in the highest quartile of cholesterol intake had 40% greater odds (OR: 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.8) of being more limited versus those in the lowest quartile. Women in the highest quartile of fat and saturated fat intake were 50% and 60% more likely to be more limited (OR: 1.5 and 1.6, respectively; 95 % confidence intervals: 1.2, 2.0 and 1.2, 2.1, respectively) versus those in the lowest quartiles. Lower fruit, vegetable and fiber intakes were related to reporting greater functional limitations. Modifying dietary practices could be important in minimizing physical limitations.

Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers using commercial multi-user MUMPs process: capability and limitations

Liu, Jessica; Oakley, Clyde; Shandas, Robin
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The objective of this work is to construct capacitive micromachined ultrasouind transducers (cMUTs) using multi-user MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) process (MUMPs) and to analyze the capability of this process relative to the customized processes commonly in use. The MUMPs process has the advantages of low cost and accessibility to general users since it is not necessary to have access to customized fabrication capability such as wafer-bonding and sacrificial release processes. While other researchers have reported fabricating cMUTs using the MUMPs process none has reported the limitations in the process that arise due to the use of standard design rules that place limitations on the material thicknesses, gap thicknesses, and materials that may be used. In this paper we explain these limitations, and analyze the capabilities using 1D modeling, Finite Element Analysis, and experimental devices. We show that one of the limitations is that collapse voltage and center frequency can not be controlled independently. However, center frequencies up to 9 MHz can be achieved with collapse voltages of less than 200 volts making such devices suitable for medical and non-destructive evaluation imaging applications. Since the membrane and base electrodes are made of polysilicon...

Does Volunteering Moderate the Relation between Functional Limitations and Mortality?

Okun, Morris A.; August, Kristin J.; Rook, Karen S.; Newsom, Jason T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Previous studies have demonstrated that functional limitations increase, and organizational volunteering decreases, the risk of mortality in later life. However, scant attention has been paid to investigating the joint effect of functional limitations and organizational volunteering on mortality. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that volunteering moderates the relation between functional limitations and risk of mortality. This prospective study used baseline survey data from a representative sample of 916 non-institutionalized adults 65 years old and older who lived in the continental United States. Data on mortality were extracted six years later from the National Death Index. Survival analyses revealed that functional limitations are associated with an increased risk of dying only among participants who never or almost never volunteered, suggesting that volunteering buffers the association between functional limitations and mortality. We conclude that although it may be more difficult for older adults with functional limitations to volunteer, they may receive important benefits from doing so.

Measuring Clients’ Perception of Functional Limitations Using the Perceived Functioning & Health Questionnaire

Schellekens, J. M. H.; Abma, F. I.; Mulders, H. P. G.; Brouwer, S.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.47%
Background The Perceived Functioning & Health (PFH) questionnaire was developed to collect, in a standardized manner, which work activities are limited due to health conditions according to the perception of the client. In this study the questionnaire’s reliability and validity are investigated. Methods The PFH questionnaire is comprised of 147 questions, distributed over 33 scales, pertaining to the client’s psychosocial and physical work limitations. The PFH data of 800 respondents were analyzed: 254 healthy employees, 408 workers on sick leave and 138 recipients of a disability pension. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) for the scales was established. The test–retest reliability was examined for the data of 52 recipients of a disability pension who filled out the PFH twice within an interval of 1 month. Validation was established by taking the nature of the limitations as a criterion: mental limitations, physical limitations or a mix of both. To this end, the respondents were divided into groups distinguished on the basis of self-classification, as well as classification on the basis of disease codes given by insurance and occupational health physicians: a “healthy” group, subjects with only physical (“physical” group) or mental limitations (“mental” group) or mixed limitations (“mixed” group). The scale scores of these groups were compared and tested using analyses-of-variance and discriminant analyses. Results The scales were found to have sufficient to good internal consistency (mean Cronbach’s-α = 0.79) and test–retest reliability (mean correlation r = 0.76). Analyses-of-variance demonstrated significant differences between the scores of the mental...

Trends and variation in mild disability and functional limitations among older adults in Norway, 1986–2008

Moe, Joakim O.; Hagen, Terje P.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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26.45%
An increase in the number of older adults may raise the demand for health and care services, whereas decreasing prevalence of disability and functional limitations among them might counteract this demographic effect. However, the trends in health are inconsistent between studies and countries. In this article, we estimated the trends in mild disability and functional limitations among older Norwegians and analyzed whether they differ between socio-demographic groups. Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1987, 1991, 1995, 2002, 2005, and 2008, in total 4,036 non-institutionalized persons aged 67 years or older. We analyzed trends using multivariate logistic regression. On average, the age-adjusted trend in functional limitations was −3.3% per year, and in disability 3.4% per year. The risk for functional limitations or disability was elevated for women compared to men, for married compared to non-married, and was inversely associated with educational level The trends were significantly weaker with increasing age for disabilities, whereas none of the trends differed significantly between subgroups of sexes, educational level or marital status. Both functional limitations free and disability-free life expectancy appeared to have increased more than total life expectancy at age 67 during this period. The analysis suggests downward trends in the prevalence of mild disability and functional limitations among older Norwegians between 1987 and 2008 and a compression of lifetime in such health states. The reduced numbers of older people with disability and functional limitations may have restrained the demand for health and care services caused by the increase in the number of older adults.

Self-reported activity limitations among the population aged 20–79 in Estonia: a cross-sectional study

Altmets, Katre; Puur, Allan; Uusküla, Anneli; Saava, Astrid; Sakkeus, Luule; Katus, Kalev
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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26.47%
Background: Along with population ageing, limitations in activities of daily living constitute a rising health-related burden in demographically advanced countries. The present study aims to assess the prevalence of self-reported activity limitations derived from chronic conditions and social variation of limitations in the subgroups of the population aged 20–79 years in Estonia. Methods: A cross-sectional study employs data from the second round of the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey, a national project in the framework of Gender and Generation Programme. The target population covers age groups of 20–79 years. A nationally representative probability sample was drawn from the 2000 population census. Face-to-face interviews (n = 7855) were conducted in 2004–05. Results: The estimated prevalence of activity limitations with chronic conditions is 18.5% (95% CI 17.6–19.4) and the prevalence of severe limitations is 10.6% (95% CI 9.9–11.3) among the population. The logistic regression model shows significant differences in activity limitations associated with age, educational attainment and marital status. Conclusions: Judging from our results and the EU structural indicators on health, the prevalence of activity limitations derived from chronic conditions is comparatively high in Estonia. The measures to prevent activity limitations and disability should receive a higher priority in Estonia.

Sleep Quality and Efficiency in Adolescents with Chronic Pain: Relationship with Activity Limitations and Health Related Quality of Life

Palermo, Tonya M.; Fonareva, Irina; Janosy, Norah R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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The primary purpose of this report was to test hypothesized relationships among poorer sleep quality, increased activity limitations, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents with and without chronic pain. Forty adolescents (20 with chronic pain, 20 healthy) completed measures of HRQOL, activity limitations, pain, depression, and sleep quality. Actigraphy was completed over 7 days. Correlational analyses demonstrated significant relationships where poorer subjective sleep quality was associated with greater activity limitations and reduced HRQOL. Lower actigraphic sleep efficiency was associated with greater activity limitations. In multiple regression analyses, frequency of pain predicted activity limitations and HRQOL. Controlling for pain and depression, lower sleep efficiency was a significant predictor of greater activity limitations but not of HRQOL. Adolescents with chronic pain would benefit from thorough assessment and treatment of sleep disturbances as alleviation of sleep complaints might enhance HRQOL and physical functioning in this population.

Burrow limitations and group living in the communally rearing rodent, Octodon degus

Ebensperger, Luis A.; Chesh, Adrian S.; Castro, Rodrigo A.; Tolhuysen, Liliana Ortiz; Quirici, Verónica; Burger, Joseph Robert; Sobrero, Raúl; Hayes, Loren D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Group living is thought to evolve whenever individuals attain a net fitness advantage due to reduced predation risk or enhanced foraging efficiency, but also when individuals are forced to remain in groups, which often occurs during high-density conditions due to limitations of critical resources for independent breeding. The influence of ecological limitations on sociality has been studied little in species in which reproduction is more evenly shared among group members. Previous studies in the caviomorph rodent Octodon degus (a New World hystricognath) revealed no evidence that group living confers an advantage and suggest that burrow limitations influence formation of social groups. Our objective was to examine the relevance of ecological limitations on sociality in these rodents. Our 4-year study revealed no association between degu density and use of burrow systems. The frequency with which burrow systems were used by degus was not related to the quality of these structures; only in 1 of the 4 years did the frequency of burrow use decrease with decreasing abundance of food. Neither the number of females per group nor total group size (related measures of degu sociality) changed with yearly density of degus. Although the number of males within social groups was lower in 2008...

Facteurs socioenvironnementaux associés à la prévalence des limitations d’activités au Québec

Philibert, Mathieu
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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36.54%
Objectifs : Cette thèse porte sur l’association entre les caractéristiques socioenvironnementales des voisinages (milieux locaux) et la prévalence des limitations d’activités (ou handicap) dans la population québécoise. Elle a trois objectifs principaux : (1) clarifier les enjeux conceptuels et méthodologiques relatifs à l’étude des déterminants socioenvironnementaux des limitations d’activités; (2) décrire les contributions respectives de la composition socioéconomique des voisinages et de facteurs contextuels à la variabilité locale de la prévalence des limitations d’activités; (3) évaluer la présence d’interactions entre la santé fonctionnelle des personnes (incapacité) et des caractéristiques des voisinages en lien avec la prévalence des limitations d’activités. Méthodes : Une analyse de la littérature scientifique a été effectuée en lien avec le premier objectif de la thèse. En lien avec le deuxième objectif, des données pour le Québec du recensement canadien de 2001 (échantillon de 20% de la population) ont été utilisées pour estimer l’association entre la prévalence des limitations d’activités et des caractéristiques des voisinages : classification urbain-rural, composition socioéconomique (défavorisation matérielle et sociale) et facteurs contextuels (qualité des habitations...

Gender Differences in Trajectories of Health Limitations and Subsequent Mortality. A Study Based on the German Socioeconomic Panel 1995-2001 with A Mortality Follow-Up 2002-2005

DOBLHAMMER, Gabriele; HOFFMANN, Rasmus
Fonte: Gerontological Soc Amer Publicador: Gerontological Soc Amer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Objectives. Although research on health limitations has investigated gender differences in health and mortality gender differentials in individual-level trajectories have been studied less frequently Moreover, there are no studies on the relationship between course types and subsequent mortality We investigate course types. explore confounding by socioeconomic and demographic correlates. and pose the question of whether the gender gap in morbidity results from differences in the onset of, and/or survival with, health limitations Method. Using the German Socioeconomic Panel, we identify Individual trajectories Ill health limitations and use multinomial logistic regressions to explore confounding and the relationship with mortality Results The frequency of stable trajectories without limitations is lower among women because they tend to experience courses that involve extended periods of limitations and deteriorating health Women at so experience more frequently improvement after deterioration The female mortality advantage is particularly huge alter health deterioration Discussion. Health limitations do not make men and women more equal in the lace of death Our results are consistent with earlier studies showing that mortality selection and differences in chronic conditions may explain the gender gap in health and mortality We extend previous research showing that the female health disadvantage is largely the result of their mortality advantage

Dysmenorrhea in adolescents and young adults: prevalence, related factors and limitations in daily living.; Dismenorreia em adolescentes e jovens adultas: prevalência, factores associados e limitações na vida diária.

Rodrigues, Ana Cláudia; Serviço de Ginecologia/Obstetrícia, Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.; Gala, Sónia; Neves, Ângela; Pinto, Conceição; Meirelles, Cláudia; Frutuoso, Cristina; Vítor, Maria Elisete
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; article; article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/12/2011 Português
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26.47%
To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, limitations in daily living and health care use due to menstrual pain.Observational transversal study of 274 adolescents and young adults (age ≤ 26) who had menstruated in the six months prior to the study, assisted at a Primary Health Care Center. Data were obtained by a 24-item anonymous questionnaire, which included questions about socio-demographic variables, menstrual cycle, presence, duration, severity, treatment and limitations of dysmenorrhea.One hundred and seventy-two (62.8%) subjects experienced menstrual pain. Of these, 65.7% reported having limitations in their daily activities due to dysmenorrhea. The prevalence of limitations in daily living was influenced by the presence of additional symptoms (r=0.331; p ; To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, limitations in daily living and health care use due to menstrual pain.Observational transversal study of 274 adolescents and young adults (age ≤ 26) who had menstruated in the six months prior to the study, assisted at a Primary Health Care Center. Data were obtained by a 24-item anonymous questionnaire, which included questions about socio-demographic variables, menstrual cycle, presence, duration, severity, treatment and limitations of dysmenorrhea.One hundred and seventy-two (62.8%) subjects experienced menstrual pain. Of these...

Discussing study limitations in reports of biomedical studies- the need for more transparency

Puhan, Milo A; Akl, Elie A; Bryant, Dianne; Xie, Feng; Apolone, Giovanni; Riet, Gerben ter
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/02/2012 Português
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Unbiased and frank discussion of study limitations by authors represents a crucial part of the scientific discourse and progress. In today's culture of publishing many authors or scientific teams probably balance 'utter honesty' when discussing limitations of their research with the risk of being unable to publish their work. Currently, too few papers in the medical literature frankly discuss how limitations could have affected the study findings and interpretations. The goals of this commentary are to review how limitations are currently acknowledged in the medical literature, to discuss the implications of limitations in biomedical studies, and to make suggestions as to how to openly discuss limitations for scientists submitting their papers to journals. This commentary was developed through discussion and logical arguments by the authors who are doing research in the area of hedging (use of language to express uncertainty) and who have extensive experience as authors and editors of biomedical papers. We strongly encourage authors to report on all potentially important limitations that may have affected the quality and interpretation of the evidence being presented. This will not only benefit science but also offers incentives for authors: If not all important limitations are acknowledged readers and reviewers of scientific articles may perceive that the authors were unaware of them. Authors should take advantage of their content knowledge and familiarity with the study to prevent misinterpretations of the limitations by reviewers and readers. Articles discussing limitations help shape the future research agenda and are likely to be cited because they have informed the design and conduct of future studies. Instead of perceiving acknowledgment of limitations negatively...

Copyright: exceptions, limitations and Three-Step-Test; As exceções e limitações aos direitos do autor e a observância da regra do teste dos três passos (three-step-test)

Basso, Maristela
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2007 Português
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36.35%
Uma reflexão sistemática e normativa das exceções aos direitos de Autor é realizada partindo-se da Convenção da União de Berna, relativa à proteção das obras literárias e artísticas, base dos principais modelos de exceções e limitações aos direitos de Autor, analisando também os demais instrumentos normativos, a exemplo do Acordo TRIPS/OMC. De maneira sucinta, a “regra dos três passos” (three step test) prevê hipóteses relacionadas ao direito de reprodução por terceiros, uma vez que autoriza exceções e limitações aos direitos autorais. Pretende-se discutir a temática a partir dos fundamentos da Doutrina da Interpretação Consistente (Doctrine of Consistente Interpretation) e do princípio do Pacta Sunt Servanda, uma vez que a legislação nacional deve estar em harmonia com o regime internacional de proteção à propriedade intelectual de forma a equilibrar direitos autorais (morais e materiais) e interesse público, consubstanciado no acesso a obras protegidas, possibilitando a tutela de questões relacionadas à educação, pesquisa e acesso à informação. Especial referência é feita à aplicação das exceções e limitações aos direitos de Autor no âmbito da Internet, a partir da interpretação do fair use.; A systematic and regulatory reflection of exceptions to Copyright is held up on the Convention of the Berne Union on the protection of literary and artistic works...

LIMITAÇÕES DIGITAIS; DIGITAL LIMITATIONS

Bellini, Carlo Gabriel Porto; Giebelen, Edwin; Casali, Richélita do Rosário Brito
Fonte: UFPB Publicador: UFPB
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/07/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.47%
As tecnologias de informação e comunicação – TICs constituem ferramental indispensável para a inserção do indivíduo na sociedade contemporânea, no sentido de seu pleno exercício de cidadania. Discussões sobre limitações de acesso e de uso das TICs são comuns na literatura acadêmica internacional (usualmente tratadas pelo termo “exclusão digital”) e também preocupam cidadãos e gestores na elaboração de políticas públicas. No presente estudo, de natureza conceitual e crítica, identificam-se as formas básicas de limitação digital presentes na literatura e elabora-se uma mais refinada distinção entre elas a partir do entendimento de que fenômenos de naturezas diferentes vêm sendo equivocadamente tratados de maneira indistinta e sem igual profundidade. Três formas principais de limitação digital são definidas (limitação de acesso, limitação cognitivo-informacional e limitação comportamental) e suas interdependências são identificadas e descritas à luz da teoria do comportamento planejado. Como resultado adicional, percebe-se que o fenômeno da limitação digital envolve mais dimensões do que usualmente se imagina e apresenta uma dinâmica complexa de possibilidades de solução, dado que a interdependência entre as três formas de limitação é muito sensível a alterações em fatores tecnológicos...

Suggested safeguards and limitations for effective and permissible parenting coordination (facilitation or case management) in South Africa

de Jong,M
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 Português
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36.28%
With the advent of the Children's Act 38 of 2005 greater emphasis was placed on the importance of both parents' involvement in their children's day-to-day lives. An unintended negative consequence of an otherwise laudable shift in social policy which supported a shared parental involvement was that the courts became the forum for co-parents to dispute a lot of day-to-day issues in respect of their children. To alleviate the negative effects of high-conflict co-parenting cases on our court system and the children of divorce, a new alternative dispute resolution process, namely parenting coordination, was introduced. The new process was not labelled as such, but became known as facilitation in the Western Cape, and as case management in Gauteng. Parenting coordination is a legal-psychological hybrid intervention that derives from the practice of the courts. It has the potential to provide substantial benefits for divorcing or separating parties, their children and the court system. Since its inception a few years ago, parenting coordination has steadily grown in popularity as an alternative dispute resolution tool in South Africa. Overhasty implementation of parenting coordination without considering certain concerns could, however, damage the "brand" and lead to confusion about the process. In the first place the difference in nomenclature is a real problem. Secondly...