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Classificação de risco dos certificados de recebíveis imobiliários - estruturação de um processo de rating da perda potencial da carteira securitizada.; Classification of risk of the mortgage-backed securities - estruturation of a process of rating of the potential loss of the portfolio of residencial home loans.

Mafra, Fábio Dieguez Barreiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/08/2006 Português
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36.95%
O trabalho apresenta um processo de classificação de risco dos Certificados de Recebíveis Imobiliários (CRIs), quanto à expectativa de perda presente na carteira de créditos imobiliários, objeto de securitização. O texto, primeiramente, descreve o andamento das operações de securitização no Brasil e no mundo, além de aspectos particulares dessas operações. Em seguida, com maior ênfase, são descritas as principais etapas do processo de rating praticado pelas instituições classificadoras, assim como também, são identificados e analisados os riscos presentes nos CRIs. Riscos estes de origem mercadológica, macroeconômica, legal, e também, associados aos atributos dos créditos que compõem a carteira. Vale destacar, que o processo de classificação proposto tem como foco o investidor que compra o título, aplicando-se ainda, apenas aos CRIs lastreados em créditos imobiliários residenciais. Quanto ao processo de classificação em si, este envolve a simulação do fluxo de caixa da operação; a arbitragem de fronteiras de flutuação do comportamento das variáveis de risco manipuladas no cenário de referência; a geração randômica de uma amostra de laboratório, seguida da análise estatística do nível de perda presente na mesma e; enquadramento do resultado da análise estatística em uma matriz classificatória para obtenção da nota de risco dos CRIs. Portanto...

Os mútuos dos sócios e acionistas na falência das sociedades limitadas e anônimas; The loans of partners and shareholders in the bankruptcy proceedings of limited liability partnerships and corporations

Costa, Patrícia Barbi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/10/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
Este trabalho propõe-se a analisar os mútuos como direitos creditórios dos sócios das sociedades limitadas e dos acionistas das sociedades anônimas na legislação nacional e o tratamento dado pela legislação falimentar brasileira a esses direitos de crédito, à luz dos mesmos conceitos existentes no Direito Comparado, especificamente na Alemanha e nos Estados Unidos da América. A eleição dos referidos dois países para a análise do Direito alienígena justifica-se porque: (i) a Lei de Insolvência Alemã (Insolvenzordnung InsO), de 5.10.1994, em vigor desde 1.1.1999 e editada em substituição à antiga legislação datada de 1877, que previa os institutos da falência e concordata de forma muito semelhante ao sistema falimentar brasileiro do Decreto-lei nº 7.661, de 21.6.1945 (Decreto-lei 7.661/45), veio a regulamentar os institutos da recuperação e liquidação de empresas, com objetivos também muito semelhantes aos da Lei nº 11.101, de 9.2.2005 (Lei de Recuperação de Empresas e Falências), tendo ainda passado por recente reforma em novembro de 2008; (ii) o Bankruptcy Code, que compõe o Título 11 do United States Code, em vigor desde a reforma inserida no sistema concursal norte-americano por meio do Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978...

Crédito consignado a aposentados e pensionistas do INSS: evolução e fatores de sua expansão; Payroll loans for social security (INSS) beneficiaries: Evolution and growth factors

Gigliucci, Paulo Henrique Cova
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/01/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
A modalidade de crédito consignado para aposentados e pensionistas do INSS foi introduzida no final de 2004, e a partir desta data houve um ritmo muito rápido de contratação do novo produto, que se tornou a principal modalidade de crédito no segmento. Estudamos a difusão do novo produto através de um modelo baseado em escolha discreta, e efetuamos a decomposição da expansão em dois fatores: crescimento do mercado de crédito e substituição de outros créditos. Obtivemos que, durante os primeiros 12 meses de sua introdução, compreendidos entre Set/04 e Ago/05, foi onde houve o maior crescimento ajustado e a expansão foi caracterizada pelo crescimento do mercado de crédito, enquanto nos 25 meses subsequentes (Set/05 a Set/07), o crescimento ajustado foi menor e a expansão foi caracterizada por substituição de outros créditos.; Payroll loans for social security (INSS) beneficiaries were introduced at September of 2004. From this date to the end of studied period (Sep/07), this loan type had been adopted at a very fast rate, eventually becoming the main product in its credit market segment. We studied the diffusion of this new credit product using a choice based diffusion model, and decomposed growth in two factors: credit market expansion and substitution of other loans. In the first 12 months from introduction...

A inadimplência do sistema financeiro no Brasil explicada por meio de fatores macroeconômicos; Non-performing loans of Brazilian financial system explained by macroeconomic factors

Zaniboni, Natália Cordeiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
Muitos economistas apontam que as condições macroeconômicas afetam o risco de crédito das instituições financeiras. Assim, há uma necessidade de avaliar a sensibilidade do risco de crédito das instituições financeiras à mudanças na economia a fim de evitar instabilidade no mercado de crédito. Este trabalho contribuiu para análise de risco de crédito pois apresentou modelos de previsão para a inadimplência do sistema financeiro no Brasil utilizando um conjunto abrangente de variáveis macroeconômicas no modelo. A análise também incorpora a composição da carteiras de crédito das instituições financeiras. A revisão bibliográfica utilizou, como constructo, estudos empíricos na área de risco de crédito soberano; testes de stress; credit scoring com variáveis macroeconômicas; estudos que relacionam inadimplência e variáveis econômicas e estudos que relacionam risco de crédito e composição da carteira de crédito. A base de dados mensais foi extraída do banco de dados do Banco Central e do IPEA. A variável resposta do modelo, a inadimplência, é definida como a relação entre o saldo em atraso superior a noventa dias dos contratos de crédito sobre o saldo de todos os contratos na data base. Foram extraídas 313 variáveis explicativas com base na revisão bibliográfica. Foram construídos modelos estatísticos de séries temporais (ARIMA) e séries temporais com variáveis explicativas exógenas (ARMAX) para prever a inadimplência. Os modelos foram construídos com uma base de dados de modelagem no período de Março de 2007 a Dezembro de 2011. O período de Janeiro de 2012 a Dezembro de 2012 foi utilizado para mensurar a performance dos modelos fora do tempo (amostra de validação). Variáveis explicativas indicadoras do saldo por região da carteira de crédito...

The Availability and Utilization of 401(k) Loans

Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David I.; Madrian, Brigitte
Fonte: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Publicador: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
Português
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We document the loan provisions in 401(k) savings plans and how participants use 401(k) loans. Although only about 22% of savings plan participants who are allowed to borrow from their 401(k) have such a loan at any given point in time, almost half had used a 401(k) loan over a longer, seven-year horizon. The probability of having a loan follows a hump-shaped pattern with respect to age, job tenure, account balance, and salary, but conditional on having a loan, loan size as a fraction of 401(k) balances declines with respect to these variables. Participants are less likely to use loans in plans that charge a higher interest rate, and loans are smaller when plans allow fewer simultaneously outstanding loans, impose a shorter maximum possible loan duration, or charge a lower interest rate.

Grants or Loans? Development Finance and Incentive Effects

Harford, Tim; Klein, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Some people think the best way to give aid is through grants. Others advocate aid embedded in subsidized loans. Mostly, incentive effects on donors and recipients are ignored in this debate. But grants and loans carry different incentives and in some settings can be complementary. Donors should offer a wider menu of options, including ongoing forgiveness of loans, unbundled subsidies, and loans combined with output-based grants. Donor agency staff should be rewarded for outcomes, not volume of funds out the door.

The Need, Capacity and Willingness of Regional Governments to Finance Public Infrastructure from Long-Term Loans

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This report reviews the need for long-term loans for regional governments, assesses the capacity of regional governments to repay long-term loans, identifies existing constraints to long-term borrowing by the regions, and recommends options for removing or mitigating existing constraints. The Government of Indonesia issued a government regulation on regional borrowing and unlike its legal predecessor, the newer regulation allows regional governments to borrow long term for public infrastructure projects that are indirectly revenue-generating, such as roads and flood control systems. Until the late 1990s, a major portion of long-term loans to regional governments was financed by international financial institutions, mainly the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank. In view of the need to increase investments in public infrastructure, and the absence of a domestic market for long-term financing, Government of Indonesia is currently considering re-opening this window by establishing a Municipal Development Fund in the Ministry of Finance.

Regulation of Foreign Currency Mortgage Loans : The Case of Transition Countries in Central and Eastern Europe

Dübel, Hans-Joachim; Walley, Simon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.11%
The current financial crisis has had a major impact on the financial sectors of the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region. The impact has been exacerbated in many cases by the presence of foreign currency mortgage loans. The risk is both for the borrower, who has to make loan repayments in a currency different from that of the income he or she is generating, and for the banks, who need to fund themselves in a foreign currency. This study seeks to determine whether foreign currency mortgage loans really represent a major risk to all systems where they are present and then to assess what measures have been taken to deal with it. The optimal regulatory response will be appropriate for the macroeconomic context and also the consumer needs and best interests. A complete ban on the foreign currency product class appears appropriate for low-inflation economies, where consumer benefits from the product are low and the risk of speculation and has sent demand higher. Within that subset, fiscal support and other steps to further develop funding markets and improve affordability are likely to be required to help support local currency products. Also...

Dealing with Bad Loans of the Chinese Banks

Huang, Yiping
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 16305 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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China was the only major economy in East Asia that not only averted a currency crisis but also sustained relatively strong growth. This was largely attributable to its macroeconomic strengths when the crisis began, including sizeable current account surpluses, dominance of foreign direct investment in capital inflows, large foreign exchange reserves and control of the capital account. There are widespread signs, however, indicating that China’s banking sector is fragile. Such banks are not sustainable even in an autarchic economy, let alone that opening up of capital market is inevitable in the perceivable future. The first step of building a strong banking system is to deal with the bad loans.

Consumer Loans and the Role of the Credit Bureaus in Europe

MICKLITZ, Hans-Wolfgang
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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The working paper makes the results of the conference proceedings on ‘Consumer Loans and the Role of the Credit Bureaus in Europe’ available, which took place in May 2009 at the EUI in Florence. The topic of the conference should be located in the changing legal environment for credit bureaus. This is largely due to the fact that the European capital market is gradually taking shape. The recent Directive 2008/48 on consumer credit has for the first time recognised credit bureaus as necessary institutions to exchange information on the creditworthiness of consumers. In the aftermath of the adoption of the Consumer Credit Directive, the working environment for credit bureaus has changed. The overall idea of the convenors was to initiate a dialogue which could break up the still existing compartmentalisation in different networks. The conference brought together representatives from credit bureaus, consumer organisations, data protection agencies, national supervisory authorities, consumer protection agencies, consumer protection ministries and the European Commission. We hope that the publication will serve as good and solid start for a long-lasting dialogue between all the actors involved in consumer credit issues.; The conference on ‘Consumer Loans and the Role of the Credit Bureaus in Europe’...

Public borrowing in harsh times : the League of Nations Loans revisited

Decorzant, Yann; Flores, Juan-Huitzi
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper reassesses the importance of the League of Nations loans of the 1920s. These long-term loans were an essential part of the League’s strategy to restore the productive basis of countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Whereas the literature is not conclusive as to the final result of this experience, we argue that the League Loans were successful because they accomplished the task for which they were conceived—namely, to allow countries in financial distress to access capital markets. This success rested on the sustained efforts of the League of Nations to gather support from creditor countries’ governments and financial intermediaries, as well as its efforts to develop plans for economic reform for borrowing countries. We provide quantitative and qualitative evidence to show that the League provided market access in a difficult and hostile environment, and did so by building its own reputation as an actor that provided a credible commitment to economic and institutional reforms. Through the success of the placement of the initial issues, the League became capable of influencing borrowing costs, even if they continued to be predominately determined by the secondary market and remained high as a result of the risk involved. Much of the confusion in the literature is explained by the fact that the League lacked its own capital...

Microfinance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Does the Village Savings & Loans Association model benefit the most vulnerable? If so what can be done to enhance this impact?

McGrath, Duncan
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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Small savings and loans services- "microfinance"- for their sustainability, cost effectiveness and potential to stimulate microenterprise and economic growth have proved to be an effective tool in the eradication of poverty. Nevertheless it is not, as it has been described, a panacea to all of the problems and challenges facing the worlds poorest. In 1991 (in Niger) CARE created the Village Savings and Loans Association (VSLA) model as an extremely low cost and sustainable method of bringing microfinance to the remote rural poor, previously marginalised by the formal banking sector. VSLAs are adaptations of traditional African savings organisations in which self-selected groups of 15-30 people (mainly women) deposit small amounts of money into a common fund from which members can borrow. Thus the fund grows from interest repayments as well as the accumulation of savings and since the model requires no external credit, no infrastructure and is easily adaptable to illiterate groups it can be sustainably duplicated around the world. In principal microfinance offers two strategies through which improvements can be made to the food security of poor households: 1) by securing and stabilising volatile incomes; and 2) through investing in the productivity of the poor's enterprises so that incomes and agricultural production may be increased. In this first strategy...

Lessons from Large Adjustment Loans; Ensenanzas recogidas de los prestamos para fines de ajuste de gran magnitud

Morrow, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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This note presents the lessons from the assessments that are likely to be most useful to country directors, and task teams preparing new adjustment operations. The five adjustment loans (two in Argentina, and one each in Korea, Malaysia, and Russia) show that applying basic lessons is not always straightforward, however, and, sometimes involves making tradeoffs among Bank objectives. It is stipulated policy objectives are more likely to be achieved, if there is substantial borrower ownership. To this end, support for new policies should be established, towards generating broad political ownership, including engaging key players in incoming administrations, to help build ownership of reforms. Moreover, combined, the Bank's country knowledge and global expertise, can generate quality operations, that forge local partnerships, draws on prior experience, and maintains a minimum knowledge base. This is to say, setting priorities, and sequencing reforms should be carefully included during the design phase, with particular attention to avoid excessively broad conditionality...

Sovereign Bailouts and Senior Loans

Chamley, Christophe; Pinto, Brian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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37.02%
Institutional lending in crisis is evaluated from a theoretical point of view. First, the share of senior loans in new loans is irrelevant under a given probability distribution of the country's resources. Second, seniority may partially alleviate the inefficiency of debt contracts when the distribution of resources is endogenous to the country's physical investment and effort towards success. Third, with multiple lending rate equilibria, institutional lending may induce a switch to a lower private loan rate if it can be done in a sufficiently large amount. Fourth, conditions are analyzed under which debt forgiveness is efficient under a financial shock.

Nonperforming Loans in Sub-Saharan Africa : Causal Analysis and Macroeconomic Implications

Fofack, Hippolyte L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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37.2%
This paper investigates the leading causes of nonperforming loans during the economic and banking crises that affected a large number of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s. Empirical analysis shows a dramatic increase in these loans and extremely high credit risk, with significant differences between the CFA and non-CFA countries, and substantially higher financial costs for the latter sub-panel of countries. The results also highlight a strong causality between these loans and economic growth, real exchange rate appreciation, the real interest rate, net interest margins, and interbank loans consistent with the causality and econometric analysis, which reveal the significance of macroeconomic and microeconomic factors. The dramatic increase in these loans is largely driven by macroeconomic volatility and reflects the vulnerability of undiversified African economies, which remain heavily exposed to external shocks. Simulated results show that macroeconomic stability and economic growth are associated with a declining level of nonperforming loans; whereas adverse macroeconomic shocks coupled with higher cost of capital and lower interest margins are associated with a rising scope of nonperforming loans. These results are supported by long-term estimates of nonperforming loans derived from pseudo panel-based prediction models.

Economic Information and Finance : More Information Means More Credit, Fewer Bad Loans, and Less Corruption

Islam, Roumeen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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36.86%
This paper builds on recent work that shows how financial sector outcomes are affected by the provision of information by financial and other entities. In particular, it shows that an indicator of economic transparency is positively related to higher levels of private credit and a lower share of nonperforming loans even after accounting for factors commonly believed to influence financial sector development in cross-country empirical estimation. Timely access to economic data allows investors to make better decisions on investments and to better monitor banks' financial health. Greater economic transparency raises accountability and lowers corruption in bank lending.

Residential property loans and performance during property price booms: evidence from European banks

Martins, António; Serra, Ana; Martins, Vitorino; Stevenson, Simon
Fonte: PFN 2012 (Portuguese Financial Network) Publicador: PFN 2012 (Portuguese Financial Network)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Understanding the performance of banks is of the utmost relevance, because of the impact of this sector on economic growth and financial stability. Of all the different assets that make up a bank portfolio, the residential mortgage loans constitute one of its main. Using the dynamic panel data method, we analyse the influence of residential mortgage loans on bank profitability and risk, using a sample of 555 banks in the European Union (EU-15), over the period from 1995 to 2008. We find that banks with larger weights of residential mortgage loans show lower credit risk in good times. This result explains why banks rush to lend on property during booms due to the positive effects it has on credit risk. The results show further that credit risk and profitability are lower during the upturn in the residential property price cycle. The results also reveal the existence of a non-linear relationship (U-shaped marginal effect), as a function of bank’s risk, between profitability and the residential mortgage loans exposure. For those banks that have high credit risk, a large exposure of residential mortgage loans is associated with higher risk-adjusted profitability, through lower risk. For banks with a moderate/low credit risk...

Residential property loans and performance during property price booms: evidence from European

Martins, António; Serra, Ana; Martins, Vitorino; Stevenson, Simon
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Understanding the performance of banks is of the u tmost importance due to the impact the sector may have on economic growth and financial stability. Residential mortgage loans constitute a large proportion of the portfolio of many banks and are one of the key assets in the determination of performance. Using a dynamic panel model , we analyse the impact of res idential mortgage loans on bank profitability and risk , based on a sample of 555 banks in the European Union ( EU - 15 ) , over the period from 1995 to 2008. We find that banks with larger weight s in residential mortgage loans display lower credit risk in good market conditions . This result may explain why banks rush to lend on property during b ooms due to the positive effect it has on credit risk . The results also show that credit risk and profitability are lower during the upturn in the residential property cy cle. Furthermore, t he results reveal the existence of a non - linear relationship ( U - shaped marginal effect), as a function of bank’s risk, between profitability and residential mortgage exposure . For those banks that have high er credit risk, a large exposur e to residential loans is associated with increased risk - adjusted profitability...

Bankruptcy and loans in Puerto Rico:an exploratory overview of their relationship; Quiebras y pr??stamos en Puerto Rico: Una mirada exploratoria a su relaci??n

??lvarez, Marta
Fonte: Universidad EAFIT Publicador: Universidad EAFIT
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; article; Art??culo Formato: application/pdf; text/html
Português
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Puerto Rico has been going through a period of economic downturn since 2006, beginning a little before the global economic recession. This paper examines the behavior of loans granted by the commercial banking sector and their relationship with the number of business bankruptcies filed in Puerto Rico between 1999 and 2011. Findings draw attention to the fact that from 2006, there has been a steady decline in the number of personal, commercial and mortgage loans approved by the commercial banking sector, as well as in their value. An increase in the filing of bankruptcy is also observed. The number of loans approved by banks in Puerto Rico show a strong correlation with the economic activity index (EAI) and other economic indicators that help to explain the island???s employment situation (total employment, labor force participation rate and unemployment rate).; Puerto Rico vive un periodo de contracci??n econ??mica desde el a??o 2006, iniciando as?? un poco antes de la contracci??n econ??mica mundial. Este estudio examina el comporta??miento de los pr??stamos otorgados por la banca comercial y la relaci??n de los mismos con el n??mero de quiebras radicadas en Puerto Rico durante el periodo 1999-2011. Los resultados encontrados destacan que...

Foreign loans for the health sector in Brazil: solutions or problems; Empréstimos externos para o setor saúde no Brasil: soluções ou problemas

Soares, Adilson
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2009 Português
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No presente artigo discute-se o alinhamento das políticas do governo brasileiro, a política acordada com as agências multilaterais de financiamento - Banco Mundial e Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento - BID, a partir da análise do pagamento da dívida externa dos empréstimos contraídos pelo Governo Federal para o setor saúde, dentro do orçamento do Ministério da Saúde. O estudo está circunscrito ao período de 1995 a 2004 e foi desenvolvido por meio de um estudo exploratório, utilizando os recursos da pesquisa documental. Descrevem-se os gastos em saúde do Ministério da Saúde no período de 1995 a 2004, apontando para a instabilidade e a dificuldade de evolução do orçamento, os gastos em saúde em países selecionados, e o comportamento do pagamento da dívida externa total do Governo Federal, da saúde e dos projetos do Banco Mundial e do BID. Por fim, conclui-se que o percentual de recursos públicos gastos em saúde no Brasil é baixo, quando comparado com os gastos públicos do grupo de países de renda alta. Conclui-se, ainda, que a política econômica dos governos FHC e Lula seguiu as orientações de política econômica indicadas pelas agências de crédito - entre elas o compromisso com o pagamento da dívida -consubstanciadas nos documentos dos acordos de empréstimos condicionados...