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Social security system reform : the case of Malawi

Shawa, Dziwana Matilda
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Mestrado em Ciências Actuariais; This thesis examines the Malawi pension fund reform using an integrated simulation model. The aim is to explore why the Malawi government moved from Pay as you go (PAYG) system to define contribution (DC) system. Malawi is a relatively young country and its pension schemes are deficient in design, financing, execution and administration. Malawi has persistent macroeconomic fluctuations and an unstable financial sector that make effective pension fund management challenging. Also there are high inflation rates and politically motivated low-yield investment loans. The thesis assumes that in Malawi an average person retires by 50 years and the maximum age of death is 70. The average starting wage ranges from 65,000-75,000 Mk. The contribution rate is 15% of payroll with a transaction cost of 5% of wages. The common investment strategy is a 50-50-0-0-0 approach, i.e. 50% of assets are allocated to bank deposits and government bonds respectively. In addition a risk return analysis is employed to test the portfolio riskiness. The test include the Sharpe ratio, the Jensen measure and the Treynor measure. It was observed following the simulation tests that replacement rates are higher when retirement age rises to 60 or 65...

Providing insecticide treated bed nets in antiretroviral treatment clinics in Malawi: a pilot study

Makombe, SD; Lowrance, DW; Kamoto, K; Kabuluzi, S; Zoya, J; Schouten, EJ; Bizuneh, K; Harries, AD
Fonte: The Medical Association Of Malawi Publicador: The Medical Association Of Malawi
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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HIV infection and malaria, two of the most common and important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, have been demonstrated to have interactive pathology. In Malawi, where malaria is endemic, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery is scaling up, we piloted integration of long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (ITN) provision in three ART clinics. In July 2006, 1,910 ITNs were delivered to pilot sites, and ART clinic staff personnel were briefed on ITN provision and use of a monitoring system. Sites were assessed using a structured questionnaire in December 2006. During the pilot period, 1,282 ITNs were distributed to patients. A large proportion (70%) of ART patients at these sites received pilot study ITNs. Site adherence to the monitoring system was variable. Seventeen patients were interviewed, 14 of whom were ART patients who had received ITNs; 11 of these (79%) had slept under the net the previous night. This pilot demonstrates the feasibility of ITN distribution to patients attending ART clinics in Malawi. Programmatic and policy considerations for national roll-out include the need to: 1) adopt a standardized monitoring system, 2) develop information, education, and communication materials, 3) develop in-service training for ART clinicians...

Integration of nutrition in the antiretroviral therapy scale up plan for Malawi

Bisika, Thomas; Mandere, George
Fonte: The Medical Association Of Malawi Publicador: The Medical Association Of Malawi
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2008 Português
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Malawi is one of the countries experiencing an unprecedented HIV/AIDS epidemic in an environment where malnutrition is rampant. In 2001 Malawi started providing ARVs to HIV patients. This ARV programme is now being scaled up to cover the whole country. Since underlying malnutrition is associated with adverse ART outcomes, the Malawi government commissioned a study to design a programme for integrating nutrition in the ARV scale up plan. This study used a Participatory qualitative research methodology. The study recommends that nutritional support should include therapeutic feeding, food supplements and take home ration and proposes a clear enrolment and discharge criteria.

Is cytotoxic chemotherapy for lymphoma currently feasible for patients in Malawi? A debate

Crutchlow, Emma; Mlombe, Yohannie; Latham, Tom
Fonte: The Medical Association Of Malawi Publicador: The Medical Association Of Malawi
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2008 Português
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There is currently no systematic provision for chemotherapy of adult patients with cancer in Malawi. Is the introduction of such a service now feasible in Malawi, and should an individual patient with potentially treatable disease be given chemotherapy in the absence of such a service? The technical, economic and moral issues are discussed here in the form of a debate.

A tale of two cities - oesophageal cancer in Malawi and Scotland

Crofts, Tom
Fonte: The Medical Association Of Malawi Publicador: The Medical Association Of Malawi
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2008 Português
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The high incidence of oesophageal cancer in both Scotland and Malawi can be attributed to a combination of environmental and lifestyle factors. The aim of this study is to give a perspective on the comparative epidemiology of oesophageal cancer in these two very different populations (Blantyre, Malawi and Aberdeen, Scotland).

Sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS risk perception in the Malawi tourism industry

Bisika, Thomas
Fonte: The Medical Association Of Malawi Publicador: The Medical Association Of Malawi
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2009 Português
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Malawi has for a long time relied on agriculture for the generation of foreign exchange. Due to varied reasons like climate change, the Malawi government has, therefore, identified tourism as one way of boosting foreign exchange earnings and is already in the process of developing the sector especially in the area of ecotourism. However, tourism is associated with increasing prostitution, drug abuse and a whole range of other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) problems such as teenage pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This paper examines the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviour as well as risk perceptions associated with HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among staff in the tourism industry and communities around tourist facilities in Malawi. The study was descriptive in nature and used both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The qualitative methods involved in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The quantitative technique employed a survey of 205 purposively selected subjects from the tourism sector. The study concludes that people in the tourism sector are at high risk of HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies and should be considered as a vulnerable group. The study further observes that this group of people has not adopted behaviours that can protect them from HIV/AIDS...

Challenges of Childhood TB/HIV Management in Malawi

Poerksen, G; Kazembe, PN; Graham, SM
Fonte: Malawi Medical Journal Publicador: Malawi Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The diagnosis and management of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are major challenges in countries such as Malawi with high incidence of TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Diagnosis of TB in children often relies only on clinical features but clinical overlap with the presentation of HIV and other HIV-related lung disease is common. The tuberculin skin test (TST), the standard marker of M. tuberculosis infection in immune competent children, has poor sensitivity in HIV-infected children and is not usually available in Malawi. HIV test should be routine in children with suspected TB as it improves clinical management. HIV-infected children are at increased risk of developing active disease following TB exposure which justifies the use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) once active disease has been excluded but this is difficult to implement and appropriate duration of IPT is unknown. HIV-infected children with active TB experience higher mortality and relapse rates on standard TB treatment compared to HIV-uninfected children, highlighting the need for further research to define optimal treatment regimens. HIV-infected children should also receive appropriate supportive care including cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) if indicated. There are concerns about concurrent use of some anti-TB drugs such as rifampicin with some ARTs.

Improving palliative treatment of patients with non-operable cancer of the oesophagus: training doctors and nurses in the use of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) in Malawi

Thumbs, A; Vigna, L; Bates, J; Fullerton, L; Kushner, A L
Fonte: The Medical Association Of Malawi Publicador: The Medical Association Of Malawi
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2012 Português
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Cancer of the oesophagus is the 6th most common cancer in Malawi. Nationwide only three hospitals are able to perform oesophagectomies, and there is no radiotherapy- or chemotherapy available. Owing to late presentation of the patients (sometimes in combination with co-morbidities such as HIV/AIDS or tuberculosis) the vast majority of patients are not suitable for surgery. Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) of the oesophagus provide a suitable palliative option to improve the quality of life for patients. This project took a nationwide approach, raising funds for both technical equipment and training of endoscopists and nursing staff throughout Malawi.

Increasing the capacity of health surveillance assistants in community mental health care in a developing country, Malawi

Kauye, Felix; Chiwandira, Chikayiko; Wright, Jerome; Common, Stephanie; Phiri, McEvans; Mafuta, Chitsazo; Maliwichi-Senganimalunje, Limbika; Udedi, Michael
Fonte: The Medical Association Of Malawi Publicador: The Medical Association Of Malawi
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Mental health services in Malawi are centralized in the three tertiary units which are located one in each of the three regions of Malawi and this means that most people with mental health problems do not get help. With severe shortages of mental health professionals in the country, integration of mental health into existing primary and community health services is the most feasible way of increasing access to services for people with mental health problems. This paper discusses a pilot program of integrating mental health in the activities of Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) who are community health workers in Malawi.

Determinants of non-institutional deliveries in Malawi

Palamuleni, Martin
Fonte: The Medical Association Of Malawi Publicador: The Medical Association Of Malawi
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
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Malawi has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world. One of the factors contributing to high maternal mortality is the non-use of health facilities during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study is to examine the factors associated with non-institutional deliveries in Malawi. Data from 2004 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and multinomial logistic regression were used to assess the association between place of delivery and selected socio-economic factors. The study population comprised of 7,218 women, who had at least one child, aged less than five years, at the time the survey. Of these women, 58% delivered at a health facility, 29.4% delivered at home and 12.6% delivered at the home of a traditional birth attendant. Multivariate analysis indicate that region (OR = 1.29 for Central Region), place of residence (OR=0.319 for urban areas), wealth status (OR=6.289 for poor, OR=4.683 for middle), education (OR=3.823 for no education, OR=2.265 for primary education), number of prenatal visits (OR=4.732 no visits, OR=1.696 1-3 visits) and ever use of family (OR=1.29 for never used) showed significant association with non-institutional deliveries. These factors should be considered in designing strategies to improve the maternal health care system in Malawi.

The development of health policy in Malawi: The influence of context, evidence and links in the creation of a national policy for cotrimoxazole prophylaxis

Hutchinson, Eleanor
Fonte: The Medical Association Of Malawi Publicador: The Medical Association Of Malawi
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
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Within the health policy field, a growing literature is attempting to understand the diverse responses of policy makers to research, and to explain why certain research findings make their way into policy while others are effectively ignored. In this paper we apply a policy analysis framework to the development of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis national policy in Malawi. Arguing that Malawi was one of the early adopters of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at a national level, we show how the research to policy process was influenced by national healthcare context, the networks of individuals involved, and the nature of the public health evidence itself.

Health related baseline millennium development goals indicators for local authorities in Malawi

Kalanda, Boniface
Fonte: The Medical Association Of Malawi Publicador: The Medical Association Of Malawi
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) is implementing a 12 year programme to close service gaps in rural communities. These service gaps are primarily those in health, education, household food security, water and sanitation, transport and communications. The impact indicators of the Project are selected Millennium Development Goal indicators. MASAF conducted a baseline study of the MDG indicators for all districts in Malawi. This paper presents available health related MDG baseline indicators for all districts in Malawi. Other stakeholders implementing health interventions could use these baseline indicators for planning purposes.

Physiotherapy in Malawi - a step in the right direction

Fielder, S; Mpezeni, S; Benjamin, L; Cary, I
Fonte: The Medical Association Of Malawi Publicador: The Medical Association Of Malawi
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Physiotherapists in Malawi are in short supply and the demand for this service is increasing. This profession is instrumental in the rehabilitation of patients following accident and disease. Early input from a physiotherapist can be life changing; for example, timely physiotherapy could prevent a patient from becoming wheelchair-bound for life. This article explores the role of physiotherapists, in the context of what they do, the medical conditions that benefit from physiotherapy and the services available in Malawi. The clinical focus will be on orthopaedic, musculoskeletal and neurological conditions, since those are the specialties of the authors. With the start of the physiotherapy degree programme at the College of Medicine, University of Malawi, huge steps have been taken to address this neglected profession.

Comportements sexuels chez les adolescents en Afrique sub-Saharienne : l’exemple du Burkina Faso, du Ghana, du Malawi et de l’Ouganda

Guiella, Georges
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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On s’accorde à dire que les adolescents constituent l’avenir quel que soit le temps et l’espace considéré. Il est également reconnu que le développement de leur capital humain et social, nécessaire pour une vie adulte de qualité, dépend des conditions dans lesquelles ils vivent et de l’environnement dans lequel s’opérera la transition vers cette vie adulte. Plus que dans toute autre partie du monde, ce constat est encore plus d’actualité en Afrique sub-Saharienne où, à la situation socio-économique déjà précaire, s’ajoutent d’importants problèmes de santé sexuelle et reproductive auxquels font face les adolescents en particulier le VIH. Conscients de l’enjeu majeur que représente la santé des adolescents, les gouvernements en Afrique sub-Saharienne, aidés en cela par les organismes non-gouvernementaux et toute la communauté internationale, ont inscrit la promotion de stratégies efficientes en santé sexuelle et reproductive des adolescents comme haute priorité dans leurs agendas. Mais force est de constater que l’élaboration et la mise en œuvre de telles stratégies supposent la production de connaissances sans cesse actualisées ainsi que la formulation de politiques innovatrices basées sur des données probantes et éprouvées en matière de santé sexuelle et reproductive...

Institutional challenges to viable civil-military relations in Malawi

Phiri, Mphatso Jones Boti
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 76 p.
Português
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Malawi is one of the few African countries that has experienced neither a military coup nor a civil war, and has remained peaceful since independence despite being under a dictatorial regime for three decades. Its military has earned international recognition for being professional; however, the country faces significant institutional challenges to democratic civil-military relations, where there is legislative oversight, and checks and balances between the executive and legislature. This thesis identifies and analyzes civil-military relations challenges currently facing Malawi, and suggests solutions that can contribute to healthy civil-military relations. Specifically, it focuses on the civilian control of the armed forces and the relationship between the president and the legislature in military oversight. The power relations between these two arms of government, as provided in the republican constitution, is described and assessed as a contributing factor to various challenges in democratic civil-military relations. I argue that the presidential powers remain the dominating factor in the country's civil-military relations and goes unchecked despite embracing democratic principles.; Malawi Defense Force author.

Evolución de la política alemana de Cooperación Internacional para el desarrollo en temas de fortalecimiento de la democracia. Estudio de caso Malawi : periodo 1994-2007

Alfonso Rodríguez, Andrea del Pilar
Fonte: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales Publicador: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/08/2009 Português
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Esta monografía tiene por objetivo analizar evolución que tuvo la política alemana de cooperación internacional la cual busca fortalecer la democracia en Malawi desde 1994 hasta 2007.; This thesis seeks to analize the evolution of the german international cooperation policy, that looks forward for the strengthening of democracy in Malawi during the period 1994-2007

Trends in Life Expectancy and the Macroeconomy in Malawi

Matchaya, GC
Fonte: Malawi Medical Journal Publicador: Malawi Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
This paper studies the trends in life expectancy in Malawi since independence and offers possible explanations regarding inter-temporal variations. Descriptive analysis reveals that the life expectancy in Malawi has trailed below the Sub Saharan African average. From the 1960s through to the early 1980s life expectancy improved driven mainly by rising incomes and the absence of HIV/AIDS. In the mid 1980s life expectancy declined tremendously and never improved due to the spread of HIV/AIDS, the economic slump that followed the World Bank's Structural Adjustment programmes (SAP) and widespread corruption and poor governance in the era of democracy. At the turn of the new millennium, Malawians were no healthier than their ancestors at the dawn of independence though this improved after 2004. If Malawi is to meet its health Millennium Development Goals by 2015, good governance, improved agricultural performance and an increase in health expenditure should be at the heart of its development policies.

Classification and quality of groundwater supplies in the Lower Shire Valley, Malawi - Part 1: Physico-chemical quality of borehole water supplies in Chikhwawa, Malawi

Grimason,AM; Morse,TD; Beattie,TK; Masangwi,SJ; Jabu,GC; Taulo,SC; Lungu,KK
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
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This paper presents data on the physico-chemical quality of groundwater supplies in Chikhwawa, Malawi. Eighty-four water samples were collected and analysed for a range of chemical constituents (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn, K, Na,Cl-, F-, NO3-, SO4(2-)), pH, temperature, electrical conductivity and turbidity, from 28 boreholes located in 25 remote, rural villages (n=3 per village) distributed along the east (n=15) and west (n=10) banks of the Shire River. Samples were collected every 2 months during the wet season, over a period of 5 months (December to April). Results were compared with national (Malawi Bureau of Standards Maximum Permissible Levels (MBS MPL)) and international (World Health Organization Guideline Values (WHO GV)) drinking-water standards. In general, most parameters complied with the Malawi Bureau of Standards Maximum Permissible Levels (MBS MPL) for borehole water supplies. The MBS MPL standards for iron, sodium and nitrate were slightly exceed at a few boreholes, technically rendering the water supply unwholesome but not necessarily unfit for human consumption. In contrast, significantly high nitrate (<200 mg/ℓ) and fluoride (< 5 mg/ℓ) concentrations at levels which constitute a significant risk to the health of the consumer were detected in borehole samples in a number of villages and warrant further investigation. Water committee members complained of problems associated with taste (saltiness or bitterness) and appearance (discoloured water) primarily on the west bank...

Exploring the role of the wicked in Habakkuk from Malawi socio-economic and political viewpoint

Chitsulo,Takuze Saul
Fonte: Old Testament Essays Publicador: Old Testament Essays
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 Português
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John Saul has qualified decolonisation in Southern Africa (I960-1990) as "false." This is true for Malawi because despite gaining independence in 1964, attaining multiparty democracy in 1994 and has had three presidents in the multiparty era, life for many Mala-wians continues to be a struggle for survival. This article seeks to explore the role of "the wicked " in the book of Habakkuk for pur-poses of letting the text dialogue with Malawi socio-economic and political context, which are both products of internal politics and external forms of imperialism. The theoretical framework relevant to this study is the African contextual biblical hermeneutics model. It is a tri-polar approach because it involves three poles: a) the African context; b) the biblical text; and c) appropriation. In this model, there is a two-way movement between text and context ena-bling each to interrogate the other critically, and constructing potential lines of connection. Since the study deals with the context of Habakkuk and the Malawi context, both of which are substan-tially shaped by social, economic and political conditions, liberation and postcolonial biblical hermeneutics will ser\˜e as the sub-theo-retical frameworks. Within these theoretical frameworks...

Energy supply in Malawi: Options and issues

Taulo,John L; Gondwe,Kenneth Joseph; Sebitosi,Adoniya Ben
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2015 Português
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Inadequate energy supply is one of the major problems confronting Malawi and limiting its social, economic and industrial development. This paper reviews the current status of energy supply and demand in Malawi; examines the major sources of energy, current exploitation status and their potential contribution to the electricity supply of the country; discusses key issues facing the energy sector; and identifies broad strategies to be implemented to tackle the energy supply challenges. Using secondary data for its critical analysis, the paper also presents modelling of long-term energy demand forecast in the economic sectors of Malawi using the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) for a study period from 2008-2030. Three scenarios namely reference (REF), moderate growth (MGS) and accelerated growth (AGS) were formulated to simulate possible future long-term energy demand based on socio-economic and technological development with the base year of 2008. Results from all scenarios suggest an increased energy demand in consuming sectors with biomass being a dominant energy form in household and industry sectors in the study period. Forecast results reveal that energy demand will increase at an annual growth rate of 1.2% and reach 5160 ktoe in 2030 under REF scenario. The growth rates for MGS and AGS are projected at 1.5% each reaching 4639 ktoe and 5974 ktoe in 2030...