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Estudo das pneumonias causadas por Streptococcus pneumoniae em crianças internadas na enfermaria de pediatria do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo; Study of the pneumococcal pneumonia of the childrens hospitalized in the pediatrics ward at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo

Yoshioka, Cristina Ryoka Miyao
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/09/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
Introdução: Atualmente a incidência anual de pneumonia adquirida na comunidade nos países em desenvolvimento é de 150,7 milhões de casos entre crianças menores de 5 anos de idade , dos quais 11 a 20 milhões (7-13%) necessitam de internação hospitalar devido à gravidade. O tratamento geralmente é empírico mas o Streptococcus pneumoniae é o principal agente etiológico bacteriano.É necessário manter monitoramento dos sorotipos e padrão de resistência para melhor orientação terapêutica. Metodologia: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo com inclusão de 107 crianças com diagnóstico clínico e radiológico de pneumonia e com isolamento de Streptococcus pneumoniae em sangue e ou líquido pleural no período de janeiro de 2003 a outubro de 2008. Realizado determinação de concentração inibitória mínima (MIC) para penicilina e antibiograma para outros antimicrobianos. A sensibilidade para penicilina utilizada foi conforme Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI ) de 2008. Realizado sorotipagem de 96 cepas de pneumococos (89,7%) e analisados os dados da população em estudo e da evolução clínica. Resultados:Cerca de 47,5% das internações na enfermaria foram por pneumonia ou broncopneumonia e a média de positividade em cultura para pneumococo (sangue e ou líquido pleural) foi de 2...

Estudo da ação in vitro de nanopartícula de prata; Study of in vitro action of silver nanoparticle

Cavassin, Emerson Danguy
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
O presente estudo avaliou a ação in vitro de diferentes nanopartículas de prata (nanoAg) sintetizadas pelo Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas (IPT) e Universidade Federal de São Carlos (IFSC) e controles de sulfadiazina de prata, nitrato de prata e nanoAg comercial Sigma, frente a bactérias e leveduras. Os objetivos do estudo foram avaliar a ação in vitro de NanoAg sintetizadas no Brasil frente a bactérias sensíveis aos antimicrobianos e multirresistentes (MR), incluindo Gram positivos e negativos, além de candidas isoladas de amostras clínicas. Definir as condições de síntese que resultem em nanoAg com melhor efeito antimicrobiano in vitro frente a isolados sensíveis e MR. Foram utilizadas diferentes metodologias tais como agar well diffusion, determinação de concentração inibitória mínima CIM, concentração bactericida mínima (CBM), curva do tempo de morte e inibição da formação de biofilme. Ao todo, foram avaliados 110 isolados, sendo 37 sensíveis aos antimicrobianos, 54 MR, e 19 candidas frente a 29 nanoAg com diferentes características de síntese. Os testes de difusão em meio sólido apresentaram heterogeneidade de resultados frente aos micro-organismos avaliados. Enquanto as informações de CIM50 e CIM90 evidenciaram não existir variações no efeito inibitório frente isolados sensíveis ou resistentes aos antimicrobianos. As curvas do tempo de morte ilustraram a dinâmica de inibição dos compostos de prata e a interferência do sangue nos testes in vitro. A partir dos testes com biofilme foi possível observar efeito inibitório e de descolamento de biofilme previamente formado. Os resultados permitiram concluir a maior eficácia para nanoAg com Citrato e Quitosana...

Seguimento retrospectivo da sensibilidade de isolados clínicos aos antibióticos utilizados em um hospital terciário brasileiro de 2007 a 2012; Retrospective follow-up of the sensitivity of clinical isolates to antibiotics used in a Brazilian tertiary hospital in the period from 2007 to 2012

Paula, Milena Cristina de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
A resistência bacteriana emergiu como importante problema de saúde pública no mundo. Nesta pesquisa, a distribuição das espécies e a evolução da sensibilidade aos antibióticos entre isolados clínicos obtidos em um hospital terciário foram analisadas no período de 2007 a 2012. As bactérias isoladas foram identificadas por análises bioquímicas convencionais. Segundo as recomendações do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) compatíveis ao ano do processamento microbiológico, o perfil de sensibilidade foi determinado pelo método de disco difusão, entretanto para a sensibilidade a vancomicina utilizou-se a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM). Durante o período da pesquisa totalizou-se 4.464 resultados de culturas distribuídos em 2007 (865), 2008 (981), 2009 (485), 2010 (539), 2011 (704) e 2012 (890). Com relação aos cocos Gram-positivos e as enterobactérias, Staphylococcus aureus e Eschericia coli foram as bactérias mais frequentemente isoladas, respectivamente. Dos antibióticos da classe dos beta-lactâmicos, piperacilina + tazobactam e aztreonam mostraram os melhores resultados de atividade antibacteriana. Todas as cepas isoladas de enterobactérias foram sensíveis aos carbapenêmicos. As cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram mais sensíveis ao imipenem do que ao meropenen...

Evaluation of the in vitro susceptibility and emergence of mutants resistant to ciprofloxacin among multidrug resistant clinical isolates.

Lopes, C. A.; Mendes, R. P.; Curi, P. C.; Watanabe, D. S.; Decarlis, R. M.; Horácio, A.; Michelin, L. A.; Placidelli, B. A.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 345-349
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Two hundred and seventy-seven multidrug resistant clinical isolates [K. pneumoniae, (N = 87); E coli, (N = 30); Salmonella typhimurium (N = 100); P. aeruginosa, (N = 30); S. aureus, (N = 30)] from hospitalized patients specimens, were tested in vitro for sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin. Application of the disk diffusion test and determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the microdilution method indicated that, almost all isolates were sensitive to the drug. Overall, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were the less sensitive organisms. Ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants occurred at frequencies of > or = 10(-5)/CFU.

Antifungal activity of propolis on different species of Candida

Ota, Claudia; Unterkircher, Carmelinda; Fantinato, Vera; Shimizu, M. T.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 375-378
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.88%
Propolis is a resinous material collected by bees from the buds or other parts of plants. It is known for its biological properties, having antibacterial, antifungal and healing properties. The antifungal activity of propolis was studied in sensitivity tests on 80 strains of Candida yeasts: 20 strains of Candida albicans, 20 strains of Candida tropicalis, 20 strains of Candida krusei and 15 strains of Candida guilliermondii. The yeasts showed a clear antifungal activity with the following order of sensitivity: C. albicans > C. tropicalis > C. krusei > C. guilliermondii. Patients with full dentures who used a hydroalcoholic propolis extract showed a decrease in the number of Candida.

In vitro antimicrobial activity of endodontic sealers, MTA-based cements and Portland cement.

Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Tanomaru, Juliane M G; Barros, Danilo B; Watanabe, Evandro; Ito, Izabel Y
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 41-45
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different root-end filling materials - Sealer 26, Sealapex with zinc oxide, zinc oxide and eugenol, white and gray Portland cement, white and gray MTA-Angelus, and gray Pro Root MTA - against six different microorganism strains. The agar diffusion method was used. A base layer was made using Müller-Hinton agar (MH) and wells were formed by removing the agar. The materials were placed in the wells immediately after manipulation. The microorganisms used were: Micrococcus luteus (ATCC9341), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC10538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 10541). The plates were kept at room temperature for 2 h for prediffusion and then incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride 0.05% gel was added for optimization, and the zones of inhibition were measured. Data were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests at a 5% significance level. The results showed that all materials had antimicrobial activity against all the tested strains. Analysis of the efficacy of the materials against the microbial strains showed that Sealapex with zinc oxide, zinc oxide and eugenol and Sealer 26 created larger inhibition halos than the MTA-based and Portland cements (P < 0.05). On the basis of the methodology used...

Influence of TNF-α blockers on the oral prevalence of opportunistic microorganisms in ankylosing spondylitis patients

Pereira, D. F A; Pinheiro, M. M.; Silva, P. N F; Teodoro, G. R.; Brighenti, F. L.; Koga-Ito, C. Y.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 679-685
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Objectives: To compare the oral prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Candida spp., staphylococci, enterobacteriaceae, and pseudomonas spp.from ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients receiving conventional and anti-TNF-α therapy. Methods: The study included 70 AS patients, diagnosed according to the modified New York criteria (1984). The volunteers were divided into 2 groups: a biological group (AS BioG) (n=35) (on anti-TNF-α therapy) and a conventional group (AS ConvG) (n=35). The control group (ContG) (n=70) was made up of healthy individuals matched for age, gender, and oral conditions. After clinical examination, oral rinse samples were collected and plated in specific culture media. The number of colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml) was obtained, and isolates were identified using the API system. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed according to the NCCLS guidelines. Prevalence and counts of microorganisms were statistically compared between the 3 groups, using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: In both the AS BioG and the AS ConvG, staphylococci counts were higher than that in the ContG (p<0.0001). Candida albicans and staphylococcus epidermidis were the most commonly found species in all the groups. Serratia marcescens and klebsiella oxytoca were more prevalent in the AS BioG and the AS ConvG...

Disseminated Amphotericin-Resistant Fusariosis in Acute Leukemia Patients: Report of Two Cases

Pereira, Graziella Hanna; de Angelis, Derlene Attili; Brasil, Roosecelis Araujo; dos Anjos Martins, Marilena; de Matos Castro e Silva, Dulcilena; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Marcia
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 107-114
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
Disseminated fusariosis has emerged as a significant, usually fatal infection in immunocompromised hosts despite antifungal treatment. We describe here two patients with acute leukemia who developed disseminated amphotericin-resistant fusariosis, and review of six studies of cases series in the literature. Two Fusarium solani strains were isolated from blood and skin cultures of one patient, and one strain from the blood culture of the second patient. Both patients died despite antifungal treatment. Strains were identified by sequencing of ITS1 and ITS4 regions. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of the three F. solani isolates showed a low degree of similarity. Screening for Fusarium spp. contaminants within our facility was negative. Using the CLSI M-38-A2 broth dilution method and E tests®, we found that the MICs were low for voriconazole (0. 12 and 0. 5 mg/L, respectively), unexpectedly high for amphotericin B (≥8 and ≥32 μg/mL, respectively) and itraconazole (≥16 mg/ml). Patients with leukemia or persistent neutropenia should be assessed for disseminated fungal infections, including biopsy and skin cultures. Antifungal susceptibility tests are important due to the possibility of the strains being amphotericin resistant. Treatments must be aggressive...

Estudo da microbiota de canais de dentes tratados endodonticamente associados a lesões periapicais e da suscetibilidade de enterococcus faecalis a diferentes antimicrobianos; Microorganisms from canals of root-filled teeth with periapical lesions and the antimicrobial susceptibility to different antibiotics of enterococcus faecalis isolates

Ericka Tavares Pinheiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/01/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
O presente estudo teve por objetivos: identificar a microbiota de canais radiculares de dentes com insucesso do tratamento endodôntico, e testar, in vitro, a suscetibilidade de cepas de Enterococcus faecalis a diferentes antibióticos. Sessenta dentes tratados endodonticamente com lesões periapicais persistentes foram selecionados para esse estudo. Durante o retratamento endodôntico, o material obturador foi removido e foi realizada a coleta microbiológica dos canais radiculares. Foram utilizados meios de transporte, cultura e incubação que propiciam o crescimento de bactérias anaeróbias estritas. Vinte e uma cepas de Enterococcus faecalis foram testadas quanto à suscetibilidade aos seguintes antimicrobianos: benzilpenicilina, amoxicilina, amoxicilina + ácido clavulânico, clindamicina, eritromicina, azitromicina, vancomicina, cloranfenicol, tetraciclina, doxiciclina, ciprofloxacino e moxifloxacino. As concentrações inibitórias mínimas (CIMs) dos agentes antimicrobianos foram determinadas pelo método do E-test. As cepas também foram testadas quanto à produção de beta-lactamase utilizando nitrocefin. Microrganismos foram isolados em 51 casos. A maioria dos canais apresentava somente 1 ou 2 espécies bacterianas. Do total de espécies bacterianas isoladas...

In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of ocular bacteria isolates from the cornea and conjunctiva to moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones

Höfling-Lima,Ana Luisa; Belfort Jr,Rubens; Moeller,Cecília Tobias Aguiar; Castelo Branco,Bruno; Sousa,Luciene Barbosa de; Freitas,Denise de
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
PURPOSE: To assess and compare the in vitro susceptibility of ocular bacterial isolates to fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. METHODS: A total of 154 bacterial ocular isolates from keratitis and conjunctivitis were tested for sensitivity to the studied antibiotics, using the disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Of the 51 corneal isolates, 46 (90.2%) were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 45 (88.2%) to ofloxacin and 41 (80.4%) to lomefloxacin. All corneal isolates were sensitive to moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. Of the 103 bacterial conjunctival isolates, 101 (98.1%) and 103 (100%) were sensitive to gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, respectively. Two strains of Streptococcus sp viridans group were resistant to gatifloxacin. A total of 82 (79.6%) specimens were sensitive to lomefloxacin, 89 (86.4%) and 96 (93.2%) to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fourth generation fluoroquinolones, herein exemplified by moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, seem to be more effective than previous generation fluoroquinolones against frequently encountered organisms isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis.

Superficial corneal foreign body: laboratory and epidemiologic aspects

Macedo Filho,Ednajar Tavares; Lago,Aline; Duarte,Karine; Liang,Shih Jung; Lima,Ana Luísa Höfling; Freitas,Denise de
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.91%
PURPOSE: To determine by bacterioscopy and culture the microorganisms carried by corneal foreign body and their sensitivity to antibiotics by antibiotic sensitivity test. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out and information was collected on 101 patients who presented with corneal foreign body at the São Paulo Hospital Eye Emergency Service. Prior to any treatment, a sample of the ipsilateral inferior conjunctival fornix and the foreign body were collected and immersed in thioglycolate broth. Samples were sown on solid culture media including blood, chocolate and Sabouraud agar. Bacterioscopic examination using Gram and Giemsa staining and sensitivity test were performed. Positive foreign body culture results were compared to ipsilateral conjunctival fornix culture to exclude possible normal flora growth. RESULTS: Approximately 92% of patients were males with a mean age of 35 years and in 62.4% (95% confidence interval: 52.2 - 71.8%) had the right eye was affected. Foreign body positive cultures were achieved in 32.7% (95% confidence interval: 23.7 - 42.7%) of the cases. The microorganisms isolated from the foreign body culture were identified as: Streptococcus, alpha-hemolytic (n=4), Staphylococcus aureus (n=4), Staphylococcus...

Comparison between two culture media for in vitro evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of the Sporothrix schenckii complex

Stopiglia,Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Marchese,Daiane Péres; Heidrich,Daiane; Sorrentino,Julia Medeiros; Vieira,Fabiane Jamono; Scroferneker,Maria Lúcia
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
BACKGROUND: The standard methodology for determining the antifungal sensitivity against the Sporothrix schenckii complex recommends the use of the 1640 Roswell Park Memorial Institute culture medium (RPMI) buffered with morpholinepropanolsulfonic acid (MOPS). However, while this is a high-cost medium which requires a laborious implementation and sterilization by filtration, the Sabouraud dextrose broth is a low-cost medium, widely used in mycology, sterilized by autoclave. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the Sabouraud dextrose broth culture medium as a substitute for the RPMI 1640-MOPS in determining the antifungal sensitivity of S. schenckii. METHODS: Forty-eight clinical isolates were evaluated against five antifungal agents: itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B and terbinafine, using the method of broth microdilution advocated by the M38-A2 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations obtained in the two culture media for all the antifungals, with the exception of the amphotericin B. Regarding this drug, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration range obtained were wider for the Sabouraud dextrose broth than for the Roswell Park Memorial Institute morpholinepropanelsulfonic acid. CONCLUSIONS: The Sabouraud dextrose broth showed potential to be used in the in vitro evaluation of the S. schenckii complex antifungal activity.

Atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos hidroalcoólicos dos frutos do Cerrado Genipa americana L., Dipteryx alata Vog. E Vitex cymosa Bert

Santos, Fabiola Brandão dos
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
A resistência microbiana é um sério problema de saúde pública que ocorre no mundo todo, os microrganismos adquirem mecanismos que os tornam resistentes aos mais diversos agentes antimicrobianos. Assim, buscam-se novas alternativas para o tratamento das infecções causadas por esses agentes. O cerrado brasileiro contém inúmeras espécies com compostos bioativos e potencial antimicrobiano, tais como, os frutos de Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru) e Vitex cymosa Bert. (tarumã). A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos hidroalcoólicos dos frutos jenipapo, baru e tarumã frente aos microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans, através dos testes de difusão em disco e microdiluição. Os principais resultados obtidos em relação ao extrato de jenipapo mostraram halos de inibição frente a todos os microrganismos testados, com destaque para o extrato da polpa a 30% que obteve os maiores halos, em especial para o Staphylococcus aureus (6,5mm). Os extratos do baru apresentaram resultados satisfatórios nos testes de difusão em disco, sendo que a polpa obteve maiores halos de inibição para S. aureus e os extratos da casca a 20 e 30% foram melhores para E. coli. Os extratos de tarumã mostraram bons resultados...

Interlaboratory comparison of results of susceptibility testing with caspofungin against candida and aspergillus species

Odds, F.; Motyl, M.; Andrade, R.; Bille, J.; Canton, E.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Davidson, A.; Durussel, C.; Ellis, D.; Foraker, E.; Fothergill, A.; Ghannoum, M.; Giacobbe, R.; Gobernado, M.; Handke, R.; Laverdiere, M.; Lee-Yang, W.; Merz, W.; Ostrosky-Zeich
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
Seventeen laboratories participated in a study of interlaboratory reproducibility with caspofungin microdilution susceptibility testing against panels comprising 30 isolates of Candida spp. and 20 isolates of Aspergillus spp. The laboratories used materials supplied from a single source to determine the influence of growth medium (RPMI 1640 with or without glucose additions and antibiotic medium 3 [AM3]), the same incubation times (24 h and 48 h), and the same end point definition (partial or complete inhibition of growth) for the MIC of caspofungin. All tests were run in duplicate, and end points were determined both spectrophotometrically and visually. The results from almost all of the laboratories for quality control and reference Candida and Aspergillus isolates tested with fluconazole and itraconazole matched the NCCLS published values. However, considerable interlaboratory variability was seen in the results of the caspofungin tests. For Candida spp. the most consistent MIC data were generated with visual “prominent growth reduction” (MIC2) end points measured at 24 h in RPMI 1640, where 73.3% of results for the 30 isolates tested fell within a mode ± one dilution range across all 17 laboratories. MIC2 at 24 h in RPMI 1640 or AM3 also gave the best interlaboratory separation of Candida isolates of known high and low susceptibility to caspofungin. Reproducibility of MIC data was problematic for caspofungin tests with Aspergillus spp. under all conditions...

Quality Control Guidelines for Amphotericin B, Itraconazole, Posaconazole, and Voriconazole Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Tests with Nonsupplemented Mueller-Hinton Agar (CLSI M51-A Document) for Nondermatophyte Filamentous Fungi

Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Canton, E.; Fothergill, A.; Ghannoum, M.; Johnson, E.; Jones, R.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Schell, W.; Gibbs, D.; Wang, A.; Turnidge, J.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
Although Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) disk diffusion assay standard conditions are available for susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi (molds) to antifungal agents, quality control (QC) disk diffusion zone diameter ranges have not been established. This multicenter study documented the reproducibility of tests for one isolate each of five molds (Paecilomyces variotii ATCC MYA-3630, Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC MYA-3626, A. flavus ATCC MYA-3631, A. terreus ATCC MYA-3633, and Fusarium verticillioides [moniliforme] ATCC MYA-3629) and Candida krusei ATCC 6258 by the CLSI disk diffusion method (M51-A document). The zone diameter ranges for selected QC isolates were as follows: P. variotii ATCC MYA-3630, amphotericin B (15 to 24 mm), itraconazole (20 to 31 mm), and posaconazole (33 to 43 mm); A. fumigatus ATCC MYA-3626, amphotericin B (18 to 25 mm), itraconazole (11 to 21 mm), posaconazole (28 to 35 mm), and voriconazole (25 to 33 mm); and C. krusei, amphotericin B (18 to 27 mm), itraconazole (18 to 26 mm), posaconazole (28 to 38 mm), and voriconazole (29 to 39 mm). Due to low testing reproducibility, zone diameter ranges were not proposed for the other three molds.; A. Espinel-Ingroff, E. Canton, A. Fothergill...

Sensibilidade in vitro de isolados de Clostridium difficile: comparação de duas metodologias (disco-difusão e ágar-diluição); Susceptibility in vitro of isolates of Clostridium difficile: comparison of two methodologies (disk-diffusion and agar-dilution)

Fraga, Edmir Geraldo de Siqueira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/07/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
Introdução: O Clostridium difficile é um bacilo Gram-positivo, anaeróbio estrito, formador de esporos, que produz toxinas que podem causar diarreia, colite pseudomembranosa, dilatação do cólon, sepse e até morte. Nos últimos anos o quadro clínico e epidemiológico das infecções por Clostridium difficile tem se modificado e as limitações das opções terapêuticas tornaram-se mais evidentes. Objetivo Primário: Comparar as metodologias de disco-difusão e ágar-diluição na detecção de sensibilidade/resistência de isolados de Clostridium difficile. Objetivos Secundários: Avaliar prospectivamente o perfil de sensibilidade/resistência de isolados clínicos hospitalares de Clostridium difficile provenientes de seis hospitais terciários da cidade de São Paulo e fornecer evidências para fundamentar o diagnóstico e o tratamento empírico das diarreias causadas por Clostridium difficile. Métodos: utilizamos os métodos de disco-difusão e ágar-diluição, de acordo com os critérios estabelecidos pelo CLSI e EUCAST. Resultados: Os coeficientes de correlação observados entre os diâmetros dos halos de inibição e Concentração Inibitória Mínima foram abaixo do esperado tornando inviável o método de disco-difusão para determinação de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos nitazoxanida...

Laboratory detection methods for methicillin resistance in coagulase negative Staphylococcus isolated from ophthalmic infections

Oliveira,Adália Dias Dourado; d'Azevedo,Pedro Alves; Sousa,Luciene Barbosa de; Viana-Niero,Cristina; Francisco,Waldemar; Lottenberg,Cláudio; Martino,Marines Dalla Valle; Höfling-Lima,Ana Luisa
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
PURPOSE: To evaluate different methods of oxacillin susceptibility testing of ocular isolates, considering polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the 'gold standard', and to compare the in vitro susceptibility to oxacillin with that of other antimicrobials used in ophthalmologic practice. METHODS: The Vitek gram-positive identification card was used to identify ocular coagulase negative Staphylococcus species. The presence of the mecA gene was determined by the polymerase chain reaction assay with a combination of two primer sets (mecA and 16S rRNA) in a single region. Results were analyzed and compared with other oxacillin susceptibility methods: PBP2a detection by rapid slide latex agglutination test (SLA); oxacillin E-test; the Vitek automated gram-positive susceptibility card (GPS-105); the oxacillin salt agar screening test (OSAS) at a concentration of 6.0, 1.0 and 0.75 µg oxacillin per ml and the cefoxitin disk diffusion test (CDD). Automated susceptibility was also determined to other antimicrobial agents (fluoroquinolones, penicillin G, amoxicillin-ampicillin, cefazolin, ampicillin-sulbactam, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin and rifampin. RESULTS: Of the 69 CoNS isolates tested...

Evaluation of conjunctival bacterial flora in patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

Frizon,Luciana; Araujo,Marilia Cavalcante; Andrade,Larissa; Yu,Maria Cecilia Zorat; Wakamatsu,Tais Hitomi; Hofling-Lima,Ana Luisa; Gomes,Jose Alvaro Pereira
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 Português
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45.9%
OBJECTIVE: To determine the conjunctival bacterial flora present in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. METHODS: A prospective study of the conjunctival bacterial flora was performed in 41 eyes of 22 patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The information gathered included the patient's sex and age, the duration of disease, the cause of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and treatments. Scrapings of the inferior conjunctival fornix were performed in both eyes. Fourteen days before scraping, the patients were asked to interrupt all topical medication and start using 0.5% nonpreserved methylcellulose. The microbiological evaluation included microorganism identification and determination of antibiotic sensitivity. RESULTS: Of 22 patients (41 eyes), 14 (64%) were females, and eight (36%) were males. The mean age was 33.2 years, and the mean duration of disease was 15.6 years. Visual acuity ranged from light perception to 20/25 (1.57 logMar). The treatment received by most patients consisted of tear substitutes, topical antibiotics, and contact lenses. Bacterial identification was positive in 39 eyes (95%) and negative in two eyes (5%). Gram-positive cocci accounted for 55.5% of the microorganisms, whereas gram-positive bacilli and gram-negative bacilli accounted for 19% and 25.5%...

Frequency and antimicrobial sensitivity of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in patients with vaginal discharge

Díaz,Leonor; Cabrera,Luis E.; Fernández,Tania; Ibáñez,Inailay; Torres,Yulian; Obregón,Yakelín; Rivero,Yanelys
Fonte: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba Publicador: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 Português
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55.83%
Determination of antimicrobial sensitivity helps establish adequate treatment and avoids future genital tract diseases in women of fertile age. In Cuba, prevalence of mycoplasma in patients with vaginal discharge is unknown. The objective of this research was to determine frequency and antimicrobial sensitivity of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in women with vaginal discharge through analysis of laboratory data from vaginal smears from 255 patients referred to the Municipal Hygiene and Epidemiology Center in Güines, Mayabeque Province, Cuba. Mycoplasma System Plus (Italy) was used for detection, identification, count and sensitivity testing. The finding of mycoplasmas in almost two thirds of specimens examined suggests that the sexually active female population should be screened for these bacteria and that barrier contraception methods should be promoted to decrease their spread and prevent longterm sequelae. Such updating of local patterns of antimicrobial resistance supports decision making for best treatment options in patients with these infections. Our results should help clinicians in our area choose an antibiotic, and also confirm the utility of Mycoplasma System Plus for mycoplasma research in resource-scarce settings...

Nosocomial ventilator-associated pneumonia in Cuban intensive care units: bacterial species and antibiotic resistance

Medell,Manuel; Hart,Marcia; Duquesne,Amílcar; Espinosa,Fidel; Valdés,Rodolfo
Fonte: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba Publicador: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia associated with use of mechanical ventilators is one of the greatest challenges confronted by intensivists worldwide. The literature associates several bacteria with this type of infection; most common in intensive care units are Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and some of the Enterobacteriaceae family. OBJECTIVES: To identify the causal agents of nosocomial ventilatorassociated pneumonia in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the intensive care units of Havana's Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical-Surgical Teaching Hospital in 2011, and to characterize their antibiotic resistance. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using hospital administrative data of quantitative cultures from positive tracheal aspirates for January through December, 2011. Records were analyzed from 77 intensive care unit patients who developed nosocomial ventilator-associated pneumonia. Variables examined were age and sex, and pathogens identified from culture of tracheal aspirate and related antibiotic susceptibility. RESULTS: Species most frequently isolated were: Acinetobacter baumannii in 53 patients (68.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 34 patients (44.2%)...