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Assessment of the Environmental Regulatory Framework of the Mining Sector

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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56.49%
In Nigeria, up to now mining activities have systematically escaped environmental control. In 1989, the Government of Nigeria issue the document "national policy on the environment", which was revised in 1999 in response to the advances in knowledge and the need of integrating development issues concerning all sectors of the economy. The new environmental policy goals followed the sustained development principles of conserving and using natural resources for the benefit of present and future generations, and ensure an adequate environmental quality for good health and well being of the population. Recognizing the sectoral potential to cause serious environmental degradation, strategies regarding the implementation of policy directives in mining development included mandatory preventive environmental impact assessment (EIA), minimization of environmental damages and risks, prescription of regulation and standards specific for mining wastes, and promotion of legal small-scale mining activities. None of them has yet been fully put into practice. Although the EIA decree has been in force since 1992...

Mining Together : Large-Scale Mining Meets Artisanal Mining, A Guide for Action

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.29%
The present guide mining together-when large-scale mining meets artisanal mining is an important step to better understanding the conflict dynamics and underlying issues between large-scale and small-scale mining. This guide for action not only points to some of the challenges that both parties need to deal with in order to build a more constructive relationship, but most importantly it sheds more light on some potential interventions for conflict prevention, management, and even transformation. This guide, then, represents a step in the right direction to start transforming the relationship between large-scale and artisanal miners through win-win solutions that emerge out of the genuine interaction and dialogue of all stakeholders involved: governments, companies, communities, miners and development organizations. Large-Scale Mining (LSM) companies increasingly come across Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM) workers during their exploration or production activities in the developing world. The ASM-LSM relationship is often conflictual because both types of miners compete for the same resource or because they perceive each other as a threat. However the ASM-LSM relationship is now also undergoing a largely positive evolution in part thanks to new Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) commitments. This guide is the result of this collaboration and provides an informative overview of the growing experiences of the most typical ASM-LSM issues and guidance for appropriate interventions.

Financial Surety : Guidelines for the Implementation of Financial Surety for Mine Closure

Sassoon, Meredith
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.45%
It is now accepted practice that when a company relinquishes a mining title, whether for an exploration or mining site, it is responsible for carrying out the rehabilitation of that site prior to departure. To ensure this is the case, most jurisdictions now require some form of closure plan or rehabilitation program to be submitted to the regulatory authority prior to the start of any work on the site. It is an increasingly common requirement for the closure plan to contain details of the estimated cost of rehabilitation and for a financial surety to be established at the same time. This report aims to provide governments with the information they need to make their own informed decisions. It is based on a review of existing financial surety systems in a number of countries. Questionnaires were sent out to a total of fourteen regulatory authorities; of these, nine provided sufficient detail about their existing financial surety systems to be included as full case studies. These are presented in the section case studies along with a summary of the latest European Union (EU) waste directives. Except where otherwise stated...

The effect of the Australian Carbon Trading Scheme on a large scale open pit mining operation

Chanda, E.; Ball, F.; Dunstan, J.; Maier, H.; Mumford, P.; Shaw, C.
Fonte: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy; Victoria Publicador: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy; Victoria
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2010 Português
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46.32%
The mining industry continues to be a major driver of the Australian economy generating over A$130 billion in export earnings in 2008/2009. However, the industry has been cited as a significant contributor to green house gas emissions. Australia’s proposed carbon trading scheme, the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) will financially impact on mining operations; this calls for a holistic planning approach for mining operations taking into account the impact of the emissions trading scheme. Since carbon trading is a new area of study, particularly within Australia, the quantitative effect of the CPRS on the mining industry is uncertain and current mine planning practices do not directly consider emissions. This paper presents results of the study into the impact of the CPRS on a hypothetical large scale open pit operation, using a spreadsheet model based on linear programming and simulation. By varying the production rates, life of mine (LOM), carbon price and ore grades among other variables several scenarios were simulated to determine the impact of emissions trading scheme on the net present value of the project. This study found that the adoption of the proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme could impact mining operations in Australia by a three per cent to six per cent reduction in net present value...

Analysis of the economic feasibility of a mining project due to the presence of natural underground cavities

Aquino,Iure Borges de Moura; Lima,Hernani Mota de
Fonte: Escola de Minas Publicador: Escola de Minas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2015 Português
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56.26%
The legislation for the protection and conservation of caves is recent in Brazil. In 2008, the Decree 6.640 was enacted and in 2009, the Normative Instruction Nº 2 by the Brazilian Environment Ministry (MMA, Portuguese acronyms) was published. Mining operations cause a significant impact on the caves when they are present in or next to the mineral body. The impacts include the suppression of cavities and impacts on physical and bio-speleological stability of the caves. On the other hand, the actual legislation causes a significant impact on the mineable reserves when cavities are present. This article aims to assess the impact of the natural cavities on the feasibility of a mining project, based on the federal legislation, as well as to propose alternatives to combine mining activity with cave protection. For this research, three scenarios of open pit for a hypothetical ore body were considered for the assessments. This paper presents the results achieved for the three and comments on the necessity of researches to conciliate the conservation of the natural underground cavities with the mining activities.

Stranger in One's Own Home : a micropolitical ecological analysis of the engagements of Kanak villagers with a multinational mining project in New Caledonia

Horowitz, Leah
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
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56.43%
This thesis takes an actor-oriented approach to a micropolitical analysis of the engagements of Kanak villagers in the Voh-Koné area, New Caledonia, with the Koniambo Project, a proposed joint nickel mining venture involving a multinational and a local mining company. In the introductory chapter, I outline my theoretical framework, which expands political ecology by applying insights from micropolitical theory to a focus on intracommunity disputes surrounding natural resource exploitation projects. I argue that such a close examination is necessary if we are to understand local tensions and factions and their multiple influences on the outcomes of development projects. ¶ The Koniambo Project promises to redress some of the economic imbalances prevalent in the archipelago by benefiting the largely Kanak, and historically underprivileged, Northern Province. Thus, this mining project has great politico-economic significance, both for pro-independence leaders as well as for those who wish to maintain New Caledonia as a part of France. However, while people expected benefits for the Kanak people as a whole, the project sparked intracommunity conflicts at the local level. I argue that villagers’ claims to the right to authorize mining activities as well as their desires to receive recognition from the mining company reflected their eagerness to prove a high social position. Meanwhile...

Articulating kin groups and mines : the case of the Gold Ridge Mining Project in the Solomon Islands

Naitoro, John Houainamo Rautorasu
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
Português
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46.51%
In the world of increasing globalisation and nation state development, many traditional cultures are increasingly under pressure. This is to not only change their ways of life, but also even to surrender the natural environment in which they have lived for many generations. Natural resources development is one of the most important forces exerting major changes on traditional culture in Melanesia. The dilemma is in finding the balance, if there is any such thing between natural resources development for nation building and the survival of cultural groups that have always depended on those environmental areas accessed for commercial development. This thesis is about social groups and their relationship with natural resource development projects. It hopes to contribute to the understanding of the nature of that relationship. Further on, the idea is to improve understanding of how natural resource development relations are practised. The focus is on the sector of mineral resources development, in both Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The investigation focuses on forms and practices of articulations in the context of mining project relations. The underlying assumption is that the nature of relationship in any scheme of things matters for the actors involved. The methodology used is that of case studies. The Gold Ridge Mining project in the Solomon Islands constitutes the major case research for this work. The selection of the Gold Ridge Mining project is important because of its relevance for understanding social group relations in mineral resources development. Apart from Gold Ridge case...

Stranger in one's own home: Kanak people's engagements with a multinational nickel mining project in New Caledonia

Horowitz, Leah
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 2083785 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
More than perhaps any other form of economic development, large-scale industrial resource extraction activities clearly threaten to turn customary landowners into ‘strangers’ on their own lands by acquiring rights to the natural resources that the lands contain and radically altering the surrounding environment. However, local communities are neither homogenous entities nor helpless, static victims of powerful manifestations of global capitalism. In this paper, I discuss my research in a few New Caledonian villages near a potential mining project. I analyze the diversity of individuals’ responses to industrial activities, the intra-community conflicts that this development triggers, and local people’s sources of power in relation to mobilizers of global capital. I argue that, through their interactions with the mining company, what many if not most of these villagers primarily seek is respect of their social positions and control of their own destinies. They especially aspire to determine what happens to their land, the source of their identity and dignity – the only place where they feel completely ‘at home’.; no

Enhancing Environmental and Social Sustainability of Mining in Armenia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Mining/Oil and Gas
Português
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46.29%
This paper aims to inform Armenia's policy dialogue on environmental and social issues in the mining sector. The paper is based on the premise that for the mining sector to have positive, long-term impacts in Armenia, it is necessary to take into consideration the short- and long-term environmental and social impacts of the sector and to promote strategic planning and efficient management of natural resources. The mining sector in Armenia has yet to adopt global best practices in this sector, and this paper aims to provide guidance on some of the mechanisms that can be adopted to improve the governance and overall impact of mining in the country. The document is structured as follows: chapter one presents an introduction to this thematic paper. Chapter two provides an overview of the mining sector in Armenia, including its underpinning institutional and regulatory framework. It also singles out policy gaps and regulatory inconsistencies that need to be addressed. Chapter three presents some useful lessons of the application of Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment (SESA) as a tool for sustainable planning of mining development in the country. This chapter also compares uses of an SESA versus Environmental Impact Assessments and defines the need and use of Cumulative Impact Assessment (CIA). Chapter four describes the principles of valuation of natural capital as a means to complement traditional cost-benefit analysis and comparisons of development alternatives in the decision-making process. Chapter five looks at the design and implementation of benefit-sharing mechanisms to ensure that the mining activities lead to positive social impacts across the country. Chapter six looks at the process of determining and dealing with the social costs of mining in Armenia. Chapter seven provides a series of conclusions and recommendations as well as implementation challenges that will summarize the application of such recommendations in present-day Armenia and its mining sector.

Mining Industry as a Source of Economic Growth in Kyrgyzstan

Bogdetsky, Valentine; Ibraev, Karybek; Abdyrakhmanova, Jyldyz
Fonte: World Bank, Bishkek Publicador: World Bank, Bishkek
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
The study 'Mining as a source of economic growth in Kyrgyzstan' is developed by the project implementation unit of the World Bank for 'building capacity in governance and revenues streams management for mining and natural resources'. This study is aimed at defining a role for the mining industry in the country and evaluating its possible impacts on economic development in the future. Mineral resources development is an essential condition for successful economic development of Kyrgyz Republic. In fact, it is the only possible way to raise social welfare in remote high mountainous regions. At the present time, some recovery of investment activities in mining industry has been observed. However, the lack of long-term capital investments in mining and geological exploration projects is still acutely felt. International experts have noted more than once that in spite of the significant size of territory and good level of geological study, the minerals potential of the country remains underdeveloped. At present...

Seafloor Massive Sulphides: Assessment of Sustainable Mining Potential through an Iterative Decision-making Framework

AVERY, CHRISTOPHER SCOTT
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
Extraction of metals from the seafloor has been considered for decades, beginning with manganese nodules in the 1970s. Today, the targets are massive sulphide deposits rich in copper, zinc, gold, and silver that are associated with hydrothermal vents or black smoker chimneys that occur at divergent and convergent plate margins such as mid-ocean ridges and volcanic island arcs respectively. A recent objective of the mining industry is to develop industry practices that coincide with concepts of sustainability or sustainable development. This objective, known by some as sustainable mining, has indeed become an essential part of the commissioning of any new project, regardless of geographical location. While there has been much work on sustainable mining practice for terrestrial mining, these frameworks are not directly applicable to seafloor projects. There are two problems facing the development of a seabed mining industry. First, there is a regulatory vacuum when considering the mining of seabed deposits, leading to important policy issues. Second, the economic, environmental, and social impacts of a seabed mining project are theoretical, and the real impacts are unknown. Thus, the identification, characterization, and analysis of the sustainability issues facing a seabed mining project are essential steps. To assist with performing these three steps...

INTERROGATING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF LARGE-SCALE MINING IN COLOMBIA

Rivera-Sotelo, AIDA-SOFIA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
In this thesis, I examine the case of the Canadian-based multinational mining corporation GreyStar resources Ltd. in Colombia. Angosturas is GreyStar’s large-scale gold mining project in the sensitive wet highland of páramo de Santurbán in the northeast of the Andes. Although GreyStar has undertaken explorations in this area since 1994, Colombia’s Ministry of Environment denied the environmental license to the company to start with extractions in 2011. I suggest that the government’s decision must be understood in the context of massive mobilizations against the project in large cities such as Bucaramanga and Bogotá as well as the principle of sustainable development (hereafter SD). The latter forms part of the 1991 Colombian constitution, and thus, through this legal presence, is considered to provide environmental protection in the country. Despite this government’s recent ruling, GreyStar (which renamed itself ‘Eco Oro’ after the 2011 decision) and other mining companies (e.g. Ventana Gold) have continued their quest to gain permission to begin with extractions in Santurbán. I explore why these continued attempts to persuade the government regarding extraction licensing is possible. In doing so, I critically investigate the principle of SD...

Desativação de empreendimentos mineiros: estratégias para diminuir o passivo ambiental. ; Mining enterprises deactivation: estrategies to mitigate environmental passive.

Oliveira Júnior, José Baptista de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2001 Português
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46.34%
A desativação de um empreendimento mineiro é uma etapa importante do planejamento de uma mina e o seu estudo tem a finalidade de reduzir ou eliminar o passivo ambiental após o fechamento de uma mina. Para isto, são necessárias ações e programas desenvolvidos durante a vida da mina, com a participação de todos os interessados. É também relevante a previsão dos gastos com recuperação e desativação na fase de viabilidade econômica por meio de índices confiáveis. Foram avaliadas três empresas com áreas desativadas: uma desativada totalmente, a outra com frente de lavra desativada e a terceira paralisada. Ficou evidente, neste trabalho, a falta de roteiros e normas na legislação ambiental para a preparação da desativação no início de uma mina. Esta falta induz o empreendedor a só se preocupar com a desativação e a preparação de um plano quando o fechamento da mina é iminente; neste momento, as empresas estão descapitalizadas e os custos com a recuperação serão elevados. Foram propostos, modelo de Plano de Desativação, a ser preparado na etapa de planejamento da mina, e um índice econômico que relaciona os custos de recuperação aos custos de produção da mina na fase de viabilidade econômica.; One of the most important stages in the mine planning is the closure of a mine. This study has the aim to minimize or eliminate the well-known environmental damage left after the closure of the mine site. In order to carry out the process of mine closure...

Environmental Risk Sharing in the Oyu Tolgoi Mining Project

Mancinelli, Lauri
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' Project Formato: 220858 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
In 2005, Ivanhoe Mines Ltd. released a development plan for open pit and underground copper and gold mining of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry deposits in Mongolia’s Gobi desert. Ivanhoe refers to the project as the largest copper-gold development project in the world. Under Mongolian law, the national government maintains ownership of all mineral reserves, and private parties license exploration and mining rights from the government. A contract agreement between the government and the private mining company stipulates the terms of the license. The size of the state’s share in the copper deposit will be determined by the contract and the Minerals Law of Mongolia. The purpose of this project is to analyze how the contract under consideration distributes environmental risk when environmental financial assurance is included. The basis for this analysis is a cash flow model developed by Robert Conrad for the Open Society Forum Mongolia and Revenue Watch. Two new cash flow models are created by adding self insurance and environmental fund assurance schemes to the Conrad model. Monte Carlo simulations are used to estimate the effects of environmental damages on the relative risk shares born by the Mongolian government and Ivanhoe Mines. Under both financial assurance models...

Outsourcing in the mining industry: decision-making framework and critical success factors

Steenkamp,C.J.H.; van der Lingen,E.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Theoretically, the main driver behind a mining operations' sourcing decision should differ from company to company, and within a company from project to project, but in reality it often relates to cost. Research confirms that there are a number of factors, including cost, to consider when choosing between in-house and outsourced mining. While the literature is rife with factors to consider, little information exists on how to apply these in practice and the relative importance of the different factors to be considered. A study was conducted to determine whether mining is truly a core competency for a mid-tier commodity specialist mining company. Furthermore, a decision-making framework for mining operations sourcing was developed, and the critical success factors that should be adhered to if outsourced mining is chosen were determined. The research showed that owner mining is not a core competency for the mining company investigated. A decision-making framework was developed using the order winner/order qualifier structure, which can be used to facilitate the mining sourcing decision. The most important tools at the disposal of a mine owner's team to manage a contractor miner are the social and output control mechanisms, according to the critical success factors study.

A quantitative method for selecting renewable energy projects in the mining industry based on sustainability

Mostert,M.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Mining companies sponsor a range of non-core, corporate social responsibility projects to adhere to social and labour plans and environmental management prerequisites that form part of a mining licence application. Some companies go above and beyond such projects, sponsoring initiatives that generate renewable energy through solar power, wind energy, natural gas, etc. The challenge for these companies is to choose between a variety of projects to ensure maximum value, especially in times when the economic climate might be less favourable for such projects. The focus of this research was to analyse the concept of sustainability as it exists today, and to apply that to the triple bottom line accounting method in an attempt to quantify the sustainability of a project. Research was done on the methane burn-off project at Sibanye Gold's Beatrix Mine to establish how such projects are planned and financed, and what impact they have on the triple bottom line of a company. The financial bottom line is, by definition, one that executives understand. This paper also proposes a quantitative method for defining the social and environmental bottom lines as well. By considering the financial, social, and environmental values, the study attempts to determine a monetary value for a sustainable renewable energy project. This monetary value can be compared to similar values obtained for other sustainable renewable energy projects under consideration. The research suggests that monetary value alone is not enough to base a sustainable decision on...

Case study on quantitative risk modelling to obtain a realistic risk-adjusted project valuation

Lane,G.R; Terblanche,M; Meyer,G; Sasto,N
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
A large opencast gold mining company in Africa had just completed a feasibility study for an expansion of the operations. A traditional net present value project valuation methodology had been used that showed a very positive net present value (NPV). The project team had conducted a qualitative risk assessment that identified and logged all potential project risks and had subjectively incorporated 'risk' via the discount rate and other assumption contingencies around gold price expectations, operating parameters, etc. Management requested that an independent quantitative risk modelling approach be adopted to obtain a better understanding of the impact of risk on the overall project valuation and confidence level in the final valuation. A detailed project valuation model was configured in the Cyest Carbon Modelling Technology platform, and the stochastic modelling module used to perform the Monte Carlo simulations. Analysis of historical operational performance data relating to actual achievements versus planned and budget determined the historical variability of the underlying parameters as well as variance to budget. This was done at a detailed level for mining rates and costs, processing rate, costs and recovery, and other operational efficiency measures. External market assumptions relating to gold price...

Mining off-Earth minerals: a long-term play?

Craig,G. A.; Saydam,S.; Dempster,A.G.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
The Moon, asteroids, and planets of the solar system represent the most distant caches of wealth that humanity has ever considered recovering. Yet, in addition to the potentially recoverable values represented there, harvesting off-Earth resources has a second, almost incalculable sustainable benefit in that they can be retrieved with absolutely no damage to Earth. Previous research mostly assessed the potential of asteroids and the Moon for mining purposes from a theoretical and scientific point of view. These studies investigated drawbacks that could be experienced in this type of operation, but no detailed economic evaluation that is meaningful for mining project management has been conducted and the parameters that are most likely to make an operation feasible are unknown. This paper provides a preliminary economic and sensitivity analysis of a possible off-Earth mining business extracting minerals from an existing asteroid.

Managing uncertainty in typical mining project studies

Kühn,C.; Visser,J.K.
Fonte: South African Journal of Industrial Engineering Publicador: South African Journal of Industrial Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
Mining project studies and their evaluation are characterised by high uncertainties. These uncertainties range in magnitude from, and are prevalent in, the geological data on which the project is based, through to the final prices received for the ore, metal, or mineral being sold to the market. The process for managing uncertainties in mining projects could have a huge impact on the decision about the final option and on the project composition. It is therefore critical that a systematic process is followed that manages these uncertainties effectively and consistently throughout the project phases, and when evaluating various options one against the other. This paper discusses the results of an investigation to determine the extent to which risk management was applied in twenty different project studies in the mining environment. The results of these studies indicate that uncertainties relating to typical mining project studies are not well understood or managed. A process to manage these uncertainties throughout the project development phases was developed and used in a typical pre-feasibility study. The results indicate that the process can be successfully implemented; and that the process helps to develop the project faster by focusing the project teams most on the uncertainties that affect the project need or requirement.

No. 5 seam mining at Kriel Colliery opencast

Raganya,M.D.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
The Kriel Colliery is an Anglo Coal mine which is contracted with Eskom to produce No. 4 seam for Kriel power station. The mine previously found it uneconomical to mine No. 5 seam due to the low qualities and tonnages of the seam, both at the opencast and underground sections. An area has been encountered for the first time at Kriel Colliery opencast pit 5, where the tonnage and qualities of No. 5 seam warrant further investigation. The primary reason for the investigation of No. 5 seam by Kriel Colliery is because of the advantage of the high selling price (R450/t) that the market is currently prepared to pay for the No. 5 seam. The aim of this project is to mine No. 5 seam economically without interrupting No. 4 seam mining operations. The problem is that the equipments that are currently being used at the mine belong to Eskom and are dedicated to mining No. 4 seam only, not No. 5 seam. Through geology investigation, it is found that the whole No. 5 seam (No. 5 seam upper and lower) has an average thickness of 1.8 m. It also contains a parting of carbonaceous shale which divides the seam into two parts. No. 5 seam upper contains less tonnage compared to No. 5 seam lower. The calorific value and ash content of No. 5 seam lower is far better than No. 5 seam upper...