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Biochemical responses of the ethylene-insensitive Never ripe tomato mutant subjected to cadmium and sodium stresses

MONTEIRO, Carolina C.; CARVALHO, Rogerio F.; GRATAO, Priscila L.; CARVALHO, Giselle; TEZOTTO, Tiago; MEDICI, Leonardo O.; PERES, Lazaro E. P.; AZEVEDO, Ricardo A.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In order to further address the known interaction between ethylene and components of the oxidative system, we have used the ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (Nr) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L) mutant, which blocks ethylene responses. The mutant was compared to the control Micro-Tom (MT) cultivar subjected to two stressful situations: 100 mM NaCl and 0.5 mM CdCl(2). Leaf chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in roots, leaves and fruits, and Na and Cd accumulation in tissues were determined. Although we verified a similar growth pattern and Na and Cd accumulation for MT and Nr, the mutant exhibited reduced leaf chlorophyll degradation following stress. In roots and leaves, the patterns of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production under the stressful conditions tested were very similar between MT and Nr mutant. However, Nr fruits showed increased H(2)O(2) production, reduced and enhanced APX activity in NaCl and CdCl(2), respectively, and enhanced GPOX in NaCl. Moreover, through non-denaturing PAGE, a similar reduction of SOD I band intensity in both...

Salmonella antibiotic-mutant strains reduce fecal shedding and organ invasion in broiler chicks

REVOLLEDO, L.; FERREIRA, A. J. P.
Fonte: POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOC INC Publicador: POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOC INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We investigated the exposure to antibiotics in the production of antibiotic-mutant strains of Salmonella. Ten isolates of poultry origin were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities. One strain of Salmonella Enteritidis, one of Salmonella Heidelberg, and one of Salmonella Typhimurium were selected to induce antimicrobial resistance. Each strain was exposed to high concentrations of streptomycin, rifampicin, and nalidixic acid, respectively. Parent and antibiotic-mutant strains were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities using a commercial microdilution test and the disk susceptibility test. The strains were assessed for virulence genes and evaluated for fecal shedding, cecal colonization, organ invasion, and mean Salmonella counts after inoculation in 1-day-old chicks. The study revealed that exposure to high concentrations of streptomycin produced the antibiotic-mutant strain SE/LABOR/USP/08 and the exposure to rifampicin produced the antibiotic-mutant SH/LABOR/USP/08. These strains showed significantly reduced fecal shedding (P = 0.05) and organ invasion, persisting less than the parental strains and showing no clinical signs in inoculated chicks. High concentrations of nalidixic acid produced the antibiotic-mutant strain ST/LABOR/USP/08...

Catalase-peroxidase activity is decreased in a Caulobacter crescentus rho mutant

ITALIANI, Valeria C. S.; BRAZ, Vania S.; XIAO, Huifang; STEINMAN, Howard M.; MARQUES, Marilis V.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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A Caulobacter crescentus rho:Tn5 mutant strain presenting a partially functional transcription termination factor Rho is highly sensitive to hydrogen peroxide in both exponential and stationary phases. The mutant was shown to be permanently under oxidative stress, based on fluorophore oxidation, and also to be sensitive to tert-butyl hydroperoxide and paraquat. However, the results showed that the activities of superoxide dismutases CuZnSOD and FeSOD and the alkylhydroperoxide reductase ahpC mRNA levels in the rho mutant were comparable to the wild-type control in the exponential and stationary phases. In contrast, the KatG catalase activity of the rho mutant strain was drastically decreased and did not show the expected increase in the stationary phase compared with the exponential phase. Transcription of the katG gene was increased in the rho mutant and the levels of the immunoreactive KatG protein do not differ considerably compared with the wild type in the stationary phase, suggesting that KatG activity is affected in a translational or a post-translational step.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)

Uma contribuição para determinação de um conjunto essencial de operadores de mutação no teste de programas C.; A contribution for the determination of a sufficient mutant operators set for C-program testing.

Barbosa, Ellen Francine
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/11/1998 Português
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Estudos empíricos têm mostrado que a Análise de Mutantes – um dos critérios de teste baseado em erros – é bastante eficaz em revelar a presença de erros. Entretanto, seu alto custo, decorrente principalmente do grande número de mutantes gerados, tem motivado a proposição de diversas abordagens alternativas para a sua aplicação. Um estudo relevante nesse sentido resultou na determinação de um conjunto essencial de operadores de mutação para a linguagem Fortran, mostrando-se que é possível reduzir o custo de aplicação do critério, preservando um alto grau de adequação em relação à Análise de Mutantes. Alguns estudos também têm demonstrado que a redução da eficácia não é significativa. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar alternativas pragmáticas para a aplicação do critério Análise de Mutantes e, nesse contexto, é proposto um procedimento para a determinação de um conjunto essencial de operadores de mutação para a linguagem C, a partir dos operadores implementados na ferramenta Proteum. Procurando aplicar e validar o procedimento proposto, dois grupos distintos de programas são utilizados. Para ambos os grupos, o conjunto essencial obtido apresenta resultados bastante significativos quanto à redução de custo...

Construction and characterization of a bovine herpesvirus 5 mutant with a deletion of the GI, GE and US9 genes

Franco, Ana Claudia; Hübner, Sílvia de Oliveira; Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho Ruthner; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Rijsewijk, Franciscus Antonius Maria
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) is a important cause of viral encephalitis in cattle in South America. Within the framework of developing a differential vaccine against BoHV-5, a deletion mutant was constructed based on a Brazilian BoHV-5 isolate. The target of the deletions were genes that code proteins implicated in the neurovirulence of BoHV-5, the glycoprotein I (gI), glycoprotein E (gE) and membrane protein US9. To construct the deletion mutant of BoHV-5, the flanking regions of all three genes were cloned in a prokaryotic plasmid. This deletion fragment was co-transfected with the viral DNA into bovine cells. Identification of deletion mutants was performed by immunostaining with an anti-gE monoclonal antibody. One of the gE negative viral populations found was purified, amplified and further examined by restriction endonuclesase analysis of its genomic DNA. The plaque sizes and penetration kinetics of the deletion mutant and wild type viruses were compared. The plaque sizes of the deletion mutant were significantly smaller than those of the parental strain (p ≤ 0.05), but no statistical differences were observed in penetration kinetics. The results indicate that the gI/ gE/US9 deletion mutant of BoHV-5 may have a reduced virulence in the host and is still viable enough to be a good candidate for the development of a BoHV-5 vaccine.

Control of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum in birds by using live vaccine candidate containing attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strain

Casarin Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio; de Paiva, Jacqueline Boldrin; da Silva, Mariana Dias; de Almeida, Adriana Maria; Berchieri Junior, Angelo
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2853-2859
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); The ideal ideal live vaccine to control Salmonella in commercial chicken flocks should engender protection against various strains. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the attenuation of a Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) mutant strain with deletion on genes cobS and cbiA, that are involved in the biosynthesis of cobalamin. Furthermore, evaluate its use as a live vaccine against Salmonella. For the evaluation of the vaccine efficacy, two experiments were conducted separately. Birds from a commercial brown line of chickens were used to perform challenge with SG wild type strain and birds from a commercial white line of chickens were used to perform challenge with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) wild type strain. In both experiments, the birds were separated in three groups (A, B and C). Birds were orally vaccinated with the SG mutant as the following programme: group A, one dose at 5 days of age; group B, one dose at 5 days of age and a second dose at 25 days of age; and group C, birds were kept unvaccinated as controls. At 45 days of age, birds from all groups, including the control, were challenged orally by SG wild type (brown line) or SE wild type (white line). Lastly...

The Deoxyhypusine Synthase Mutant dys1-1 Reveals the Association of eIF5A and Asc1 with Cell Wall Integrity

Galvão, Fabio Carrilho; Rossi, Danuza; Silveira, Wagner da Silva; Valentini, Sandro Roberto; Zanelli, Cleslei Fernando
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The putative eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a highly conserved protein among archaea and eukaryotes that has recently been implicated in the elongation step of translation. eIF5A undergoes an essential and conserved posttranslational modification at a specific lysine to generate the residue hypusine. The enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase (Dys1) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (Lia1) catalyze this two-step modification process. Although several Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF5A mutants have importantly contributed to the study of eIF5A function, no conditional mutant of Dys1 has been described so far. In this study, we generated and characterized the dys1-1 mutant, which showed a strong depletion of mutated Dys1 protein, resulting in more than 2-fold decrease in hypusine levels relative to the wild type. The dys1-1 mutant demonstrated a defect in total protein synthesis, a defect in polysome profile indicative of a translation elongation defect and a reduced association of eIF5A with polysomes. The growth phenotype of dys1-1 mutant is severe, growing only in the presence of 1 M sorbitol, an osmotic stabilizer. Although this phenotype is characteristic of Pkc1 cell wall integrity mutants, the sorbitol requirement from dys1-1 is not associated with cell lysis. We observed that the dys1-1 genetically interacts with the sole yeast protein kinase C (Pkc1) and Asc1...

A ClpB Chaperone Knockout Mutant of Mesorhizobium ciceri Shows a Delay in the Root Nodulation of Chickpea Plants

Brígido, Clarisse; Robledo, Marta; Menéndez, Esther; Mateos, Pedro F.; Oliveira, Solange
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Português
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Several molecular chaperones are known to be involved in bacteria stress response. To investigate the role of chaperone ClpB in rhizobia stress tolerance as well as in the rhizobiaplant symbiosis process, the clpB gene from a chickpea microsymbiont, strain Mesorhizobium ciceri LMS-1, was identified and a knockout mutant was obtained. The ClpB knockout mutant was tested to several abiotic stresses, showing that it was unable to grow after a heat shock and it was more sensitive to acid shock than the wild-type strain. A plant-growth assay performed to evaluate the symbiotic performance of the clpB mutant showed a higher proportion of ineffective root nodules obtained with the mutant than with the wild-type strain. Nodulation kinetics analysis showed a 6- to 8-day delay in nodule appearance in plants inoculated with the Delta clpB mutant. Analysis of nodC gene expression showed lower levels of transcript in the Delta clpB mutant strain. Analysis of histological sections of nodules formed by the clpB mutant showed that most of the nodules presented a low number of bacteroids. No differences in the root infection abilities of green fluorescent protein tagged clpB mutant and wild-type strains were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study that presents evidence of the involvement of the chaperone ClpB from rhizobia in the symbiotic nodulation process.

Characterization and mapping of a spotted leaf mutant in rice (Oryza sativa)

Xu,Xue; Zhang,Lili; Liu,Binmei; Ye,Yafeng; Wu,Yuejin
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
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Spotted leaf mutant belongs to a class of mutants that can produce necrotic lesions spontaneously in plants without any attack by pathogens. These mutants have no beneficial effect on plant productivity but provide a unique opportunity to study programmed cell death in plant defense responses. A novel rice spotted leaf mutant (spl30) was isolated through low-energy heavy ion irradiation. Lesion expression was sensitive to light and humidity. The spl30 mutant caused a decrease in chlorophyll and soluble protein content, with marked accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) around the lesions. In addition, the spl30 mutant significantly enhanced resistance to rice bacterial blight (X. oryzae pv. oryzae) from China (C1-C7). The use of SSR markers showed that the spl30 gene was located between markers XSN2 and XSN4. The genetic distance between the spl30 gene and XSN2 and between spl30 and XSN4 was 1.7 cM and 0.2 cM, respectively. The spl30 gene is a new gene involved in lesion production and may be related to programmed cell death in rice. The ability of this mutant to confer broad resistance to bacterial blight provides a model for studying the interaction between plants and pathogenic bacteria.

Monitoring the effect of pyrene on the germination and radial growth of the wild and mutant strains of Rhizopus arrhizus UCP402

Shiosaki,Ricardo Kenji; Albuquerque,Clarissa Daisy da Costa; Okada,Kaoru; Fukushima,Kazutaka; Campos-Takaki,Galba Maria
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2008 Português
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The physiological mutant of Rhizopus arrhizus was obtained in the pyrene resistance gradient test. Comparative studies were carried out about the behavior of the germination process and the radial growth of the mutant and wild strains of R. arrhizus UCP 402. Sabouraud Sucrose and Yeast Malt Broth cultures containing pyrene (10 mg/L) induced the germination process of the sporangiospores of the wild and mutant strains of R. arrhizus. The radial growth of the strains was inversely proportional to the pyrene concentration in the culture medium. The results showed an adaptation of R. arrhizus UCP 402x (mutant) in the pyrene (50mg/L) and suggested a higher ability of application in the removal of pyrene from the contaminated areas.

Construction and characterization of a bovine herpesvirus 5 mutant with a deletion of the gI, gE and US9 genes

Franco,Ana Cláudia; Hübner,Sílvia de Oliveira; Oliveira,Anna Paula de; Batista,Helena B. de C. Ruthner; Roehe,Paulo Michel; Rijsewijk,Franciscus A.M.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) is a important cause of viral encephalitis in cattle in South America. Within the framework of developing a differential vaccine against BoHV-5, a deletion mutant was constructed based on a Brazilian BoHV-5 isolate. The target of the deletions were genes that code proteins implicated in the neurovirulence of BoHV-5, the glycoprotein I (gI), glycoprotein E (gE) and membrane protein US9. To construct the deletion mutant of BoHV-5, the flanking regions of all three genes were cloned in a prokaryotic plasmid. This deletion fragment was co-transfected with the viral DNA into bovine cells. Identification of deletion mutants was performed by immunostaining with an anti-gE monoclonal antibody. One of the gE negative viral populations found was purified, amplified and further examined by restriction endonuclesase analysis of its genomic DNA. The plaque sizes and penetration kinetics of the deletion mutant and wild type viruses were compared. The plaque sizes of the deletion mutant were significantly smaller than those of the parental strain (p <= 0.05), but no statistical differences were observed in penetration kinetics. The results indicate that the gI/gE/US9 deletion mutant of BoHV-5 may have a reduced virulence in the host and is still viable enough to be a good candidate for the development of a BoHV-5 vaccine.

Assessment of immunity against avian colibacillosis induced by an aroA mutant containing increased serum survival gene in broilers

Salehi,Taghi Zahraei; Tabatabaei,Saeid; Karimi,Vahid; Fasaei,Bahar Nayeri; Derakhshandeh,Abdollah; Jahromi,Omid Ali Nekoui
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2012 Português
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Colibacillosis is an important disease in the poultry industry which causes serious economic damages. As it is suggested that vaccination is one of the means to control colibacillosis, we tried to investigate the vaccine potential of a ΔaroA derivative of an O78:K80 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli containing increased serum survival gene. 490 chicks were selected as follows: For assessment of virulence of ΔaroA mutant, 30 chicks were divided into three groups and injected with 0.5ml of PBS or bacterial suspension containing either10(7)colony forming units (CFU) of mutant or parent strains via subcutaneous route. Macroscopic lesions and mortality rate were recorded in different groups during the week after challenge. For assessment of safety and immunogenicity of the ΔaroA mutant, three groups of 20 chicks were vaccinated by aerosol administration of 250 ml of suspension containing 10(8) CFU of mutant strain at days 1 and 14, while the two other groups received PBS or wild type strain. Macroscopic lesions and mortality rate were recorded in different groups until day 21. To determine whether the vaccination is protective against challenges or not, the chickens were vaccinated at days 1 and 14 and challenged intramuscularly with either a homologous or heterologous strains at day 21. Macroscopic lesions and mortality rate were recorded in different groups during the week after challenge. The results revealed that the ΔaroA mutant was slightly virulent...

Morphological characterisation and genetic analysis of a bi-pistil mutant ( bip ) in Medicago truncatula Gaertn.

Nair, R.; Peck, D.; Dundas, I.; Samac, D.; Moore, A.; Randles, J.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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A floral organ mutant was observed in transgenic Medicago truncatula Gaertn. plants that had two separate stigmas borne on two separate styles that emerged from a single superior carpel primordium. We propose the name bi-pistil, bip for the mutation. We believe this is the first report of such a mutation in this species. Genetic and molecular analyses of the mutant were conducted. The mutant plant was crossed to a mtapetala plant with a wild-type pistil. Expression of the mutant trait in the F1 and F2 generations indicates that the bi-pistil trait is under the control of a single recessive gene. Other modifying genes may influence its expression. The mutation was associated with the presence of a T-DNA insert consisting of the Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein gene in antisense orientation and the nptII selectable marker gene. It is suggested that the mutation is due to gene disruption because multiple copies of the T-DNA were observed in the mutant. The bi-pistil gene was found to be independent of the male-sterile gene, tap. This novel mutant may assist in understanding pistil development in legumes.; Ramakrishnan M. Nair, David M. Peck, Ian S. Dundas, Deborah A. Samac, Adam Moore and John W. Randle; Published online: 12 March 2008 The original publication can be found at www.springerlink.com

Mutant p53 drives multinucleation and invasion through a process that is suppressed by ANKRD11

Noll, J.; Jeffery, J.; Al-ejeh, F.; Sharma, R.; Khanna, K.; Callen, D.; Neilsen, P.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Mutations of p53 in cancer can result in a gain of function associated with tumour progression and metastasis. We show that inducible expression of several p53 ‘hotspot’ mutants promote a range of centrosome abnormalities, including centrosome amplification, increased centrosome size and loss of cohesion, which lead to mitotic defects and multinucleation. These mutant p53-expressing cells also show a change in morphology and enhanced invasive capabilities. Consequently, we sought for a means to specifically target the function of mutant p53 in cancer cells. This study has identified ANKRD11 as a key regulator of the oncogenic potential of mutant p53. Loss of ANKRD11 expression with p53 mutation defines breast cancer patients with poor prognosis. ANKRD11 alleviates the mitotic defects driven by mutant p53 and suppresses mutant p53-mediated mesenchymal-like transformation and invasion. Mechanistically, we show that ANKRD11 restores a native conformation to the mutant p53 protein and causes dissociation of the mutant p53–p63 complex. This represents the first evidence of an endogenous protein with the capacity to suppress the oncogenic properties of mutant p53.; JE Noll, J Jeffery, F Al-Ejeh, R Kumar, KK Khanna, DF Callen and PM Neilsen

Mutant p53 uses p63 as a molecular chaperone to alter gene expression and induce a pro-invasive secretome

Neilsen, P.; Noll, J.; Suetani, R.; Schulz, R.; Al-ejeh, F.; Evdokiou, A.; Lane, D.; Callen, D.
Fonte: Impact Journals LLC Publicador: Impact Journals LLC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Mutations in the TP53 gene commonly result in the expression of a full-length protein that drives cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Herein, we have deciphered the global landscape of transcriptional regulation by mutant p53 through the application of a panel of isogenic H1299 derivatives with inducible expression of several common cancer-associated p53 mutants. We found that the ability of mutant p53 to alter the transcriptional profile of cancer cells is remarkably conserved across different p53 mutants. The mutant p53 transcriptional landscape was nested within a small subset of wild-type p53 responsive genes, suggesting that the oncogenic properties of mutant p53 are conferred by retaining its ability to regulate a defined set of p53 target genes. These mutant p53 target genes were shown to converge upon a p63 signalling axis. Both mutant p53 and wild-type p63 were co-recruited to the promoters of these target genes, thus providing a molecular basis for their selective regulation by mutant p53. We demonstrate that mutant p53 manipulates the gene expression pattern of cancer cells to facilitate invasion through the release of a pro-invasive secretome into the tumor microenvironment. Collectively, this study provides mechanistic insight into the complex nature of transcriptional regulation by mutant p53 and implicates a role for tumor-derived p53 mutations in the manipulation of the cancer cell secretome.; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3282078/; Paul M. Neilsen...

Mutant p53 enhances MET trafficking and signalling to drive cell scattering and invasion

Muller, P.; Trinidad, A.; Timpson, P.; Mortin, J.; Zanivan, S.; van den Berghe, P.; Nixon, C.; Karim, S.; Caswell, P.; Noll, J.; Coffill, C.; Lane, D.; Sansom, O.; Neilsen, P.; Norman, J.; Vousden, K.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Tumour-derived mutant p53 proteins promote invasion, in part, by enhancing Rab coupling protein (RCP)-dependent receptor recycling. Here we identified MET as an RCP-binding protein and showed that mutant p53 promoted MET recycling. Mutant p53-expressing cells were more sensitive to hepatocyte growth factor, the ligand for MET, leading to enhanced MET signalling, invasion and cell scattering that was dependent on both MET and RCP. In cells expressing the p53 family member TAp63, inhibition of TAp63 also lead to cell scattering and MET-dependent invasion. However, in cells that express very low levels of TAp63, the ability of mutant p53 to promote MET-dependent cell scattering was independent of TAp63. Taken together, our data show that mutant p53 can enhance MET signalling to promote cell scattering and invasion through both TAp63-dependent and -independent mechanisms. MET has a predominant role in metastatic progression and the identification of mechanisms through which mutations in p53 can drive MET signalling may help to identify and direct therapy.; PAJ Muller, AG Trinidad, P Timpson, JP Morton, S Zanivan, PVE van den Berghe, C Nixon, SA Karim, PT Caswell, JE Noll, CR Coffill, DP Lane, OJ Sansom, PM Neilsen, JC Norman and KH Vousden

Using mycorrhiza-defective mutant genotypes of non-legume plant species to study the formation and functioning of arbuscular mycorrhiza: a review

Watts-Williams, S.J.; Cavagnaro, T.R.
Fonte: Springer Verlag Publicador: Springer Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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A significant challenge facing the study of arbuscular mycorrhiza is the establishment of suitable non-mycorrhizal treatments that can be compared with mycorrhizal treatments. A number of options are available, including soil disinfection or sterilisation, comparison of constitutively mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plant species, comparison of plants grown in soils with different inoculum potential and the comparison of mycorrhiza-defective mutant genotypes with their mycorrhizal wild-type progenitors. Each option has its inherent advantages and limitations. Here, the potential to use mycorrhiza-defective mutant and wild-type genotype plant pairs as tools to study the functioning of mycorrhiza is reviewed. The emphasis of this review is placed on non-legume plant species, as mycorrhiza-defective plant genotypes in legumes have recently been extensively reviewed. It is concluded that non-legume mycorrhiza-defective mutant and wild-type pairs are useful tools in the study of mycorrhiza. However, the mutant genotypes should be well characterised and, ideally, meet a number of key criteria. The generation of more mycorrhiza-defective mutant genotypes in agronomically important plant species would be of benefit, as would be more research using these genotype pairs...

Mutantes de Salmonella enterica en el gen de ADN adenina metil transferasa (dam). ¿Cepas ideales para la construccion de vacunas?; Salmonella enterica DNA adenine methyltransferase mutant: ideal strains for vaccine development?

Sarnacki, Sebastián Hernán
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 Português
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La enzima ADN adenina metiltransferasa (Dam) es un regulador global de la expresión de genes en bacterias. En estudios previos, las mutantes dam de Salmonella Typhimurium han sido postuladas como excelentes cepas vacunales por su atenuación y su capacidad protectiva. Por extensión, la mutación en el gen dam se ha propuesto como método de atenuación para una gran variedad de especies bacterianas. Dado nuestro interés en el estudio y prevención de las infecciones por Salmonella Enteritidis (serovariedad que con mayor frecuencia causa enterocolitis en humanos) generamos mutantes dam de dicha serovariedad, mediante mutagénesis por transposición y por mutagénesis dirigida por reemplazo. Curiosamente, los estudios en ratones Balb/c mostraron que las mutantes dam de S. Enteritidis, son sólo moderadas en su atenuación, ya que un 30 % de los animales inoculados por la vía intragástrica con la mutante muere dentro de las 3 semanas. Por otro lado, la protección de los animales inmunizados, contra el desafío con la cepa virulenta de Salmonella Enteritidis #5694, no alcanzó niveles aceptables. Dado el papel crítico que los macrófagos desempeñan en la inmunidad innata contra Salmonella, analizamos la interacción entre la mutante SEΔdam y la línea celular de macrófagos RAW 264.7. Mediante ensayos de Western blot pudo determinarse que la expresión de moléculas proinflamatorias en los macrófagos infectados con SEΔdam está atenuada. Como en parte...

Wall architecture in the cellulose-deficient rsw 1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana: Microfibrils but not microtubules lose their transverse alignment before microfibrils become unrecognizable in the mitotic and elongation zones of roots

Sugimoto, K; Williamson, Richard; Wasteneys, Geoffrey
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The rsw1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has a single amino acid substitution in a putative glycosyl transferase that causes a temperature-dependent reduction in cellulose production. We used recently described methods to examine root growth by surface marker particles, cell wall structure by field emission scanning electron microscopy and microtubule alignment by immunofluorescence after the mutant is transferred to its restrictive temperature. We find that raising the temperature quickly accelerates root elongation in both wild type and mutant, presumably as a result of general metabolic stimulation, but that in the mutant, the rate declines within 7-8 h and elongation almost ceases after 24 h. Radial swelling begins at about 6 h in the mutant and root diameter continues to increase until about 24 h. The normal transverse alignment of microfibrils is severely impaired in the mutant after 8 h, and chemical inhibition of cellulose synthesis by 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile causes a similar loss of orientation. After 24 h, microfibrils are not clearly visible in the walls of cells that would have been in the mitotic and early-elongation zone of wild-type roots. Changes in older cells are less marked; loss of transverse microfibril orientation occurs without disruption to the transverse orientation of cortical microtubules. The wild type shows none of the changes except for acceleration of elongation...

Histocytological examination on organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of HBsAg-transgenic cherry tomato mutant

Guan,Z-J; Guo,B; Huo,Y-L; Dai,J-K; Wei,Y-H
Fonte: Phyton (Buenos Aires) Publicador: Phyton (Buenos Aires)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
The initiation and development of organogenic buds and somatic embryos in HBsAg-transgenic cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. cerasiforme) mutant were studied histologically. The leaf explants of the mutant were cultured on Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 6-BA 1.0 mg/L and IAA 0.05 mg/L for callus induction. Histological studies on the leaf explants of the mutant at various developmental stages revealed that organogenic buds first appeared in the axillary position of explants on the 14th cultured day, and then somatic embryos formed in the same mutant explants after 35 days of culture. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that there were significant changes in morphology and quantity of some organelles in the mutant callus cells compared with the control. On the 7th day of culture, embryogenic callus cells of the control showed dense cytoplasm and abundant organelles; at the same time, there was little cytoplasm or less organelles, except for a great number of dense lipid bodies in the mutant callus cells. In the later stage, the chloroplasts, Golgi bodies and mitochondria in the mutant cells also had obvious differences. These findings demonstrated that the regeneration pathway in vitro of the HBsAg-transgenic cherry tomato mutant showed variation...