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Self-organization in leaky threshold systems: The influence of near-mean field dynamics and its implications for earthquakes, neurobiology, and forecasting

Rundle, J. B.; Tiampo, K. F.; Klein, W.; Sá Martins, J. S.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/02/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.54%
Threshold systems are known to be some of the most important nonlinear self-organizing systems in nature, including networks of earthquake faults, neural networks, superconductors and semiconductors, and the World Wide Web, as well as political, social, and ecological systems. All of these systems have dynamics that are strongly correlated in space and time, and all typically display a multiplicity of spatial and temporal scales. Here we discuss the physics of self-organization in earthquake threshold systems at two distinct scales: (i) The “microscopic” laboratory scale, in which consideration of results from simulations leads to dynamical equations that can be used to derive the results obtained from sliding friction experiments, and (ii) the “macroscopic” earthquake fault-system scale, in which the physics of strongly correlated earthquake fault systems can be understood by using time-dependent state vectors defined in a Hilbert space of eigenstates, similar in many respects to the mathematics of quantum mechanics. In all of these systems, long-range interactions induce the existence of locally ergodic dynamics. The existence of dissipative effects leads to the appearance of a “leaky threshold” dynamics, equivalent to a new scaling field that controls the size of nucleation events relative to the size of background fluctuations. At the macroscopic earthquake fault-system scale...

Dynamics of fully coupled rotators with unimodal and bimodal frequency distribution

Olmi, Simona; Torcini, Alessandro
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/08/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.5%
We analyze the synchronization transition of a globally coupled network of N phase oscillators with inertia (rotators) whose natural frequencies are unimodally or bimodally distributed. In the unimodal case, the system exhibits a discontinuous hysteretic transition from an incoherent to a partially synchronized (PS) state. For sufficiently large inertia, the system reveals the coexistence of a PS state and of a standing wave (SW) solution. In the bimodal case, the hysteretic synchronization transition involves several states. Namely, the system becomes coherent passing through traveling waves (TWs), SWs and finally arriving to a PS regime. The transition to the PS state from the SW occurs always at the same coupling, independently of the system size, while its value increases linearly with the inertia. On the other hand the critical coupling required to observe TWs and SWs increases with N suggesting that in the thermodynamic limit the transition from incoherence to PS will occur without any intermediate states. Finally a linear stability analysis reveals that the system is hysteretic not only at the level of macroscopic indicators, but also microscopically as verified by measuring the maximal Lyapunov exponent.; Comment: 22 pages...

A comparative study of Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams of arterial road networks governed by adaptive traffic signal systems

Zhang, Lele; Garoni, Timothy M.; de Gier, Jan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.56%
Using a stochastic cellular automaton model for urban traffic flow, we study and compare Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams (MFDs) of arterial road networks governed by different types of adaptive traffic signal systems, under various boundary conditions. In particular, we simulate realistic signal systems that include signal linking and adaptive cycle times, and compare their performance against a highly adaptive system of self-organizing traffic signals which is designed to uniformly distribute the network density. We find that for networks with time-independent boundary conditions, well-defined stationary MFDs are observed, whose shape depends on the particular signal system used, and also on the level of heterogeneity in the system. We find that the spatial heterogeneity of both density and flow provide important indicators of network performance. We also study networks with time-dependent boundary conditions, containing morning and afternoon peaks. In this case, intricate hysteresis loops are observed in the MFDs which are strongly correlated with the density heterogeneity. Our results show that the MFD of the self-organizing traffic signals lies above the MFD for the realistic systems, suggesting that by adaptively homogenizing the network density...

Programmable reaction-diffusion fronts

Zadorin, Anton S.; Rondelez, Yannick; Galas, Jean-Christophe; Estevez-Torres, André
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/07/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.49%
Morphogenesis is central to biology but remains largely unexplored in chemistry. Reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanisms are, however, essential to understand how shape emerges in the living world. While numerical methods confirm the incredible potential of RD mechanisms to generate patterns, their experimental implementation, despite great efforts, has yet to surpass the paradigm of stationary Turing patterns achieved 25 years ago. The principal reason for our difficulty to synthesize arbitrary concentration patterns from scratch is the lack of fully programmable reaction-diffusion systems. To solve this problem we introduce here a DNA-based system where kinetics and diffusion can be individually tuned. We demonstrate the capability to precisely control reaction-diffusion properties with an autocatalytic network that propagates in a one-dimensional reactor with uniform velocity, typically 100 {\mu}m min-1. The diffusion coefficient of the propagating species can be reduced up to a factor 2.7 using a species-specific strategy relying on self-assembled hydrodynamic drags. Our approach is modular as we illustrate by designing three alternative front generating systems, two of which can pass through each other with little interaction. Importantly...

Route to extreme events in excitable systems

Karnatak, Rajat; Ansmann, Gerrit; Feudel, Ulrike; Lehnertz, Klaus
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.47%
Systems of FitzHugh-Nagumo units with different coupling topologies are capable of self-generating and -terminating strong deviations from their regular dynamics that can be regarded as extreme events due to their rareness and recurrent occurrence. Here we demonstrate the crucial role of an interior crisis in the emergence of extreme events. In parameter space we identify this interior crisis as the organizing center of the dynamics by employing concepts of mixed-mode oscillations and of leaking chaotic systems. We find that extreme events occur in certain regions in parameter space, and we show the robustness of this phenomenon with respect to the system size.