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Nível de adesão de empresas latino-americanas aos princípios de governança corporativa recomendados pela Oecd; Level of Adhesion of the Latin-American Companies to the Principles of Corporate Governance Recommended by Oecd

Kitagawa, Carlos Henrique
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/11/2007 Português
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A governança corporativa pode ser definida como um conjunto de mecanismos cujo objetivo é de amenizar os problemas de agência. No intuito de convergir esses mecanismos para um modelo aceito internacionalmente, a Oecd criou uma lista com seus Princípios de Governança Corporativa, adotados inicialmente por cerca de 30 países membros. A partir de então, foram promovidos encontros regionais objetivando a adaptação desses princípios à realidade sócioeconômica de determinadas regiões do planeta. Uma dessas regiões foi a América Latina, onde após os encontros ocorridos no Brasil, Argentina, México e Chile, esta Instituição formulou um documento contendo as diretrizes básicas com recomendações a respeito de práticas de governança específicos para esta região. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho busca identificar o nível de adesão de empresas latino-americanas aos princípios recomendados pela Oecd para a América Latina. Para tanto, o relatório da Oecd que expõe suas recomendações de governança foram transformadas em 49 questões, subdivididas em cinco princípios. A coleta de dados se deu em duas etapas: a primeira consistiu na confrontação dessas questões com as legislações desses quatro países. A segunda etapa confronta as questões com as práticas das empresas...

Linhas diretrizes da OCDE para as empresas multinacionais e sua implementação no Brasil; The OECD guidelines for multinational entreprises and its implementation in Brazil

Alle, Saulo Stefanone
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/02/2013 Português
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Este estudo visa analisar a implementação, no Brasil, das Linhas Diretrizes da OCDE para as Empresas Multinacionais, documento que integra a Declaração sobre o Investimento Internacional e as Empresas Multinacionais. De acordo com os termos estabelecidos nessa Declaração, os Estados devem promover essas Linhas Diretrizes, bem como instalar um Ponto de Contato Nacional (PCN) mecanismo criado para consolidar os padrões de conduta e para receber reclamações atinentes à violação de seus termos por empresas multinacionais. A observância aos termos da Declaração é obrigatória para os Estadosmembros da Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômicos (OCDE) e condição para não membros participarem das atividades do Comitê de Investimentos situação na qual o Brasil se inclui. O ato internacional brasileiro de adesão à Declaração não se submeteu ao crivo parlamentar a que alude o artigo 49, inciso I, da Constituição Federal (CF) e, além disso, as medidas adotadas internamente para implementar as Diretrizes incluindo a instalação de PCN foram ordenadas por uma Portaria , que constitui ato do Ministério da Fazenda. Essas circunstâncias evidenciam como a cooperação e legitimidade fundada no consenso são base importante para que se promovam os direitos através das fronteiras sem desrespeitar a legislação brasileira...

Desempenho operacional e energético, segundo a norma OECD – code 2 de dois tratores agrícolas 4x2 TDA com motores de 132 kw em pista concreto e solo agrícola

Monteiro, Leonardo de Almeida
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: viii, 85 f. : il. color., grafs., tabs.
Português
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Pós-graduação em Agronomia (Energia na Agricultura) - FCA; O trator agrícola é uma das principais fontes de potência no meio rural. A utilização correta dos pneus, tanto em relação ao seu tipo quanto à calibração de sua pressão interna, são fatores que influenciam, significativamente, no seu desempenho. Outros fatores de regulagem do trator, tais como, a lastragem e a velocidade de deslocamento ideal para cada condição de superfície de solo, são fatores que modificam sua eficiência trativa. Neste trabalha avaliou-se o desempenho operacional e energético de dois tratores agrícolas 4x2 TDA com potência nominal no motor de 132 kW (180 cv), através do consumo horário e específico de combustível, patinagem, rendimento e potência na barra de tração em pista de concreto e em pista de solo agrícola, segundo a norma OECD – Code 2 (2008), para três velocidades teóricas de deslocamento do trator 6,5 km.h-1 , 7,5 km.h-1 e 8,5 km.h-1, correspondentes às marchas B2, B3 e C1 marcadas no painel dos tratores . Aplicou-se um delineamento experimental em faixas, denominadas pistas, e definidas pelas condições da superfície de rolamento (Concreto e Solo Agrícola). Em cada pista foram dispostos os tratamentos com um arranjo fatorial de 2x2x3...

Are stock and housing returns complements or substitutes? Evidence from OECD countries

Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Sousa, Ricardo M.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2011 Português
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In this paper we use a representative consumer model to analyse the equilibrium relation between the transitory deviations from the common trend among consumption, aggregate wealth, and labour income, cay, and focus on the implications for both stock returns and housing returns. The evidence based on data for 15 OECD countries shows that when agents expect future stock returns to be higher, they will temporarily allow consumption to rise. Regarding housing returns, if housing assets are seen as complements to stocks, then investors react in the same way, but if they are instead treated as substitutes consumption will be temporarily reduced.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Political and Institutional Determinants of the Cyclicality of Fiscal Policy: Evidence from the OECD and Latin America

Venes, Nuno
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2006 Português
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In this paper, we analyse the role of political and institutional variables on the cyclical patterns of central government expenditure and revenue. Working with a sample of 38 OECD and Latin-American countries in 1960-2003, we find that higher levels of income inequality are associated with stronger expenditure procyclicality, and that better institutions do not seem to mitigate this effect. IMF interventions are, in general, statistically insignificant in explaining the cyclical behaviour of expenditure, as well as the degree of development of financial systems. On the revenue side, income inequality leads to less procyclical policies. In general, political and institutional variables explain the cyclicality of government expenditure better than that of revenue.

Health systems efficiency after the crisis in the OECD

Luís, Ana Beatriz Mateus D’Avó
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /01/2015 Português
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This work evaluates the efficiency position of the health system of each OECD country. It identifies whether, or not, health systems changed in terms of quality and performance after the financial crisis. The health systems performance was calculated by fixed-effects estimator and by stochastic frontier analysis. The results suggest that many of those countries that the crisis affected the most are more efficient than the OECD average. In addition, some of those countries even managed to reach the top decile in the efficiency ranking. Finally, we analyze the stochastic frontier efficiency scores together with other health indicators to evaluate the health systems’ overall adjustments derived from the crisis.

Integrating Human Rights into Development : Donor Approaches, Experiences, and Challenges, 2nd ed.

World Bank; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Fonte: World Bank and OECD, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank and OECD, Washington, DC
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The past two decades have witnessed a convergence between human rights and development, particularly at the level of international political statements and policy commitments. This phenomenon is captured in milestones such as the 2007 OECD DAC Action Oriented Policy Paper on Human Rights and Development (“AOPP”), the 2010 UN World Summit Outcome Document, the commitments of the 2005 and 2011 High-Level For an Aid Effectiveness in Accra and Busan. The connections between rights violations, poverty, exclusion, environmental degradation, vulnerability and conflict continue to be explored and better understood. More positively, there is growing recognition of the intrinsic importance of human rights in a range of contexts, as well as their potential instrumental relevance for improving development processes and outcomes. This second edition of Integrating Human Rights into Development: Donor Approaches, Experiences and Challenges consolidates the research and findings complied in 2006 with relevant developments that have occurred in the intervening six years. It brings together the key political and policy statements of recent years with a discussion of the approaches and experiences of bilateral and multilateral agencies engaged in integrating human rights in their development cooperation activities in a variety of ways. Despite rapid changes in the donor landscape and acute budget pressures resulting from the financial crisis...

Pensions at a Glance : Latin America and the Caribbean

OECD; Inter-American Development Bank; World Bank Group
Fonte: Paris: OECD Publishing Publicador: Paris: OECD Publishing
Português
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The biggest pension policy challenge faced by most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) today is low coverage of formal pension systems, both in terms of the proportion of workers participating in pension schemes and the proportion of the elderly receiving some kind of pension income. Efforts to close the coverage gap, for example, through non-contributory pensions, are therefore at the heart of the pension policy debate in the region. However, these policies might pose significant fiscal challenges in the next decades as the population ages. Chapter 2 presents three main indicators describing the demographic conditions relevant for pension policy, namely fertility rates, life expectancy and old-age support ratios. This is followed by a systematic comparison, in Chapter 3, of system designs across countries using the standard OECD Pensions at a Glance typology and presenting several key indicators of adequacy, including gender-specific gross and net replacement rates and pension wealth at different income levels. Finally, Chapter 4 provides the profiles of each pension system in Latin America and the Caribbean in terms of their architecture, rules and parameters.

Grocery market concentration and food price- a case of Australia in comparison with other OECD countries

Kuswini, Mira
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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This report provides an examination of the level grocery market concentration, food price, and correlation between grocery market concentration ratio and food price level in Australia and a number of other OECD countries. Methods of analysis uses in this report include time-series and cross-national comparison of market concentration ratio and the level of food price. Furthermore, correlation analysis between market concentration ratio and food price level is applied to understand an approximate pattern of the relationship between market concentration and food price. All data and calculations can be found in the report and in the appendices. Results of data analysed show that the level of market concentration is varied among countries under study but most of those countries experienced increase in market concentration in different paces. Average food inflation rate also vary among those countries, and an increase in food price did not always associated with an increase in the level of food price for all countries. However, the level of market concentration positively correlated with food price level in the majority of countries. The report finds that Australia, in comparison with other OECD countries under study has the highest grocery market concentration ratio and the highest average food inflation rate. In addition...

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: OECD/NEA Nuclear Safety Response and Lessons Learnt

TIIPPANA Petteri; VINCKE Marc; KHOUAJA Hatem; WEBSTER Philip; TIPEK Z.; FOUCHER Laurent; EVRARD Jean-Michel; MAQUA Michael; KUMAR Hari; ABE Kiyoharu; LEE Durk-Hun; NUNEZ Alejandro; JANSENS Rob; CHARAFOUTDINOV Rashet; UHRIK Peter; ALONSO Jose Ramon; HALLMA
Fonte: OECD Publicador: OECD
Tipo: Books Formato: Printed
Português
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The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident that occurred on 11 March 2011 following a massive earthquake and tsunami was one of the most severe accidents ever experienced at a nuclear power plant and will have to be dealt with for many years by those in charge of nuclear safety (operators, safety bodies). Following the accident, nuclear regulatory authorities, governments and international organisations around the world took immediate actions to support Japan in its response. Under the control of nuclear regulatory authorities, operators begans undertaking a series of analyses and follow-up measures to ensure the safety of all nuclear facilities. This report outlines the actions taken by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and its member countries. Key messages and their implications for ensuring high levels of nuclear safety are also summarised.; JRC.F.5-Nuclear Reactor Safety Assessment

Economic Freedom in the Long Run: Evidence from OECD Countries (1850-2007)

Prados de la Escosura, Leandro
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper
Publicado em /03/2014 Português
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This paper presents historical indices for the main dimensions of economic freedom and an aggregate index for nowadays developed countries -(pre-1994) OECD, for short-. Economic liberty expanded over the last one-and-a-half centuries, reaching two thirds of its maximum possible. Its evolution has been, however, far from linear. After a substantial improvement since mid-nineteenth century, World War I brought a major setback. The post-war recovery up to 1929 was followed by a dramatic decline in the 1930s and significant progress took place during the Golden Age but fell short from the pre-World War I peak. A steady expansion since the early 1980s has resulted in the highest levels of economic liberty of the last two centuries. Each main dimension of economic freedom exhibited a distinctive trend and its contribution to the aggregate index varied over time. Nonetheless, improved property rights provided the main contribution to the long-run advancement of economic liberty.

OECD Reviews of School Resources; Kazakhstan 2015

Pons, Anna; Amoroso, Jeremie; Herczynski, Jan; Kheyfets, Igor; Lockheed, Marlaine; Santiago, Paulo
Fonte: Paris: OECD Publishing Publicador: Paris: OECD Publishing
Tipo: Book; Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
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The primary and secondary education system in Kazakhstan has accomplished significant achievements. Kazakhstan has embarked on profound reforms to improve the quality of the education system and is increasingly looking to international standards and best practices. Reform initiatives include the expansion of the pre-primary education network, the development of new mechanisms of school financing (including a new per capita funding scheme), the creation of resource centers to support small-class schools, further investment in school infrastructure, and a wider use of information technologies in schools. In this context of reforms, while there is an apparent desire to increase resources devoted to education and awareness that spending per student remains markedly lower than the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average and that of other neighboring countries, there remains an official reluctance to expand public expenditure on education. This report analyses the effectiveness of the Kazakh school system and identifies policy areas with potential efficiency gains or requiring further public investment. The following policy priorities were identified to improve the effectiveness of resource use in the Kazakh school system: increase overall public spending on education as the sector gains absorptive capacity...

Natech Risks Management in OECD- and EU-Countries

KRAUSMANN Elisabeth
Fonte: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) - Environment Directorate Publicador: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) - Environment Directorate
Tipo: Articles in books Formato: Printed
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This chapter provides a summary of the results of the questionnaire survey on Natech risk reduction performed by the JRC in OECD Member Countries. The analysis is based on the replies received from 19 countries. This work was performed in the frame of the JRC membership in the Steering Group of the OECD Working Group on Chemical Accidents' Natech project.; JRC.DG.G.7-Traceability and vulnerability assessment

OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2010-2019 Highlights

JONES Wayne; VAVRA Pavel; VON LAMPE Martin; FOURNIER Alexis; FULPONI Linda; GINER Céline; LIAPIS Pete; SMITH Gary; TALLARD Gregoire; TAYA Shinichi; HUANG Hsin; SCHMIDT Carl-Christian; GAY Stephan; PELLOW Scott; ELASRI Armelle; GOUARIN Gaelle; NENERT Clau
Fonte: OECD/FAO Publicador: OECD/FAO
Tipo: Articles in books Formato: Printed
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This is the sixteenth edition of the Agricultural Outlook and the sixth co-edition prepared by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The edition covers the outlook for commodity markets during the 2010 to 2019 period, and brings together the commodity, policy and country expertise of both organisations. The report analyses world market trends for the main agricultural products, as well as for biofuels. It provides an assessment of agricultural market prospects for production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices of the commodities analysed. The macroeconomic assumptions that condition the commodity projections examined are more positive in this year's edition as compared to last year. The anticipated return to global economic growth, a rising population, emerging biofuel markets, and a higher cost structure are expected to underpin international commodity markets and prices over the outlook period under study. Developing countries are expected to be the driving force behind the expected growth in agricultural production, consumption and trade. The projections and past trends are presented in the statistical annex and can be viewed in more detail at www.agri-outlook.org. This year's report also includes a special section on price volatility and price transmission from world to domestic markets. Governments are concerned about price volatility because it affects farm viability...

Choosing between the UN and OECD Tax Policy Models: An African case study

DAURER, Veronika; KREVER, Richard
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Almost all the world's tax treaties are based on precedents found in an OECD model tax convention or a UN model tax convention. Both model divide taxing rights on cross-border investment and business activities. The OECD model shifts taxing rights to capital exporting treaty partners while the UN treaty allows capital importing countries to retain more taxing rights. This paper examines the use of OECD and UN precedents in the tax treaties of a group of 11 East African countries. It is difficult to see a link between reduced taxation by the capital importing countries and increased foreign investment. While there are variations within the group, as a group the African countries may have conceded more taxing rights to capital exporting nations than counterparts in Asia.

Australian National Internship Program Research Report - Review major family policy initiatives across four OECD countries

Roche, Lauren
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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This report has been designed to review major family policy initiatives in place in four selected member nations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and consider the potential for any or all of the policies reviewed to be introduced to the Australian context. The four countries selected for review are the United Kingdom, New Zealand, France and Japan. Each of these nations has developed policy initiatives relating to families in their respective nations which take into consideration the economic, cultural, political and social context in which the policies will be introduced. A brief outline of major family policy initiatives of each of the selected nations and their potential for adaptation to the Australian context is outlined below. The United Kingdom has developed policies in recent years to assist working families, and to show that there are greater financial benefits for those engaging in employment than for those receiving social welfare benefits alone. The National Family and Parenting Institute (NFPI) was established in recent years in order to advocate on behalf of all families in the United Kingdom , to conduct research relating to the status of families, to promote the interests of families to government and non-government organisations and to provide support for parents. The NFPI is an independent charitable body established under by an Act of Parliament. Much like Britain...

The Power of Ideas: The OECD and Labour Market Policy in Canada, Denmark and Sweden

GRINVALDS, HOLLY S
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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This thesis advances our understanding of how ideas play a role in policy making by examining the processes and conditions that facilitate their international diffusion into domestic debates, their acceptance by policy actors, and the ways in which their acceptance alters policy processes and policy itself. Specifically, the thesis studies the impact of labour market policy ideas from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and its large-scale study on unemployment, the Jobs Study, in three OECD member states: Canada, Denmark and Sweden. This thesis shows that ideas play a number of roles: sometimes they are simply employed to help legitimize pre-determined policy positions; but sometimes a process of learning takes place, and new ideas change actors’ beliefs about what is and what ought to be, and as well their conception of their own interests and goals. Consistent with previous research, policy failure and uncertainty open actors up to the policy learning process and acceptance of new ideas. More than earlier studies, however, this thesis highlights the role of pre-existing beliefs. Accepting one new idea over another is largely determined by the values and beliefs actors bring to bear when judging new ideas; and thus...

Governança corporativa na América Latina: a relevância dos princípios da OCDE na integridade dos conselhos e autonomia dos conselheiros; Corporate governance in Latin America: the relevance of OECD principles for the board's integrity and directors' independence

KITAGAWA, Carlos Henrique; RIBEIRO, Maísa de Souza
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade, Departamento de Contabilidade e Atuária Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade, Departamento de Contabilidade e Atuária
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Os conselhos de administração são caracterizados como um importante elemento da boa governança corporativa. Nesse sentido, este trabalho busca identificar as práticas de governança das empresas latino-americanas aos princípios recomendados pela Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico, OCDE, para essa região (Brasil, Argentina, México e Chile). Dentre os sete princípios por ela recomendados para a América Latina, este trabalho tem como foco apenas o quinto princípio, que trata das "Responsabilidades do Conselho de Administração", mais especificadamente das recomendações com respeito à "Integridade dos Conselhos e Autonomia dos Conselheiros". O principal objetivo é de verificar o posicionamento das empresas em relação às responsabilidades e a supervisão dos administradores como forma de garantir o controle e os resultados esperados pelos acionistas. Para atingir esse objetivo, formulou-se um questionário que expressa as principais recomendações de governança da OCDE para a América Latina e confrontou-se com as legislações desses quatro países e com as práticas societárias das empresas da amostra, de modo a identificar procedimentos adicionais em relação aos exigidos pela legislação. Os resultados evidenciam que o México é o país com maior índice de atendimento às recomendações da OCDE...

OECD Cooperative Programme On Eutrophication

Janus, Lorraine L.; Vollenwelder, Richard A.
Fonte: Universidade de Delaware Publicador: Universidade de Delaware
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 13731814 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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The OECD International Programme on Eutrophication has been designed for cross sectional comparison of lakes to provide management with simple tools to evaluate nutrient reduction, particularly phosphorus, necessary to alleviate excessive eutrophication. The scope of the Canadian programme was to test the applicability of the overall OECD results on a set of data not included in the original elaboration with three main objectives in mind: a) clarification of the extent to which lakes of an unspecified nature exhibit statistical properties similar to the OECD lakes b) clarification and identification of the limits of transferability c) identification of conditions which need further evaluation. The Canadian lakes data base represents a collection of formation from personal communication with various workers involved in major limnological projects as well as that contained in the literature. It has been subdivided into seven major geographical regions which are treated separately.

Governança corporativa na América Latina: a relevância dos princípios da OCDE na integridade dos conselhos e autonomia dos conselheiros; Corporate governance in Latin America: the relevance of OECD principles for the board's integrity and directors' independence

Kitagawa, Carlos Henrique; Ribeiro, Maísa de Souza
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2009 Português
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Os conselhos de administração são caracterizados como um importante elemento da boa governança corporativa. Nesse sentido, este trabalho busca identificar as práticas de governança das empresas latino-americanas aos princípios recomendados pela Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico, OCDE, para essa região (Brasil, Argentina, México e Chile). Dentre os sete princípios por ela recomendados para a América Latina, este trabalho tem como foco apenas o quinto princípio, que trata das "Responsabilidades do Conselho de Administração", mais especificadamente das recomendações com respeito à "Integridade dos Conselhos e Autonomia dos Conselheiros". O principal objetivo é de verificar o posicionamento das empresas em relação às responsabilidades e a supervisão dos administradores como forma de garantir o controle e os resultados esperados pelos acionistas. Para atingir esse objetivo, formulou-se um questionário que expressa as principais recomendações de governança da OCDE para a América Latina e confrontou-se com as legislações desses quatro países e com as práticas societárias das empresas da amostra, de modo a identificar procedimentos adicionais em relação aos exigidos pela legislação. Os resultados evidenciam que o México é o país com maior índice de atendimento às recomendações da OCDE...