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Crops use-efficiency of nitrogen from manures permitted in organic farming

Rodrigues, M.A.; Pereira, A.; Cabanas, J.E.; Dias, L.G.; Pires, Jaime; Arrobas, Margarida
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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56.61%
The current increase in the organic agriculture segment has created a new market for fertilisers permitted for use in organic farming. Off-farm N sources for organic farming are scarce, considering the restriction on the use of chemical fertilisers. Thus, when some products are permitted in organic agriculture, commercial opportunities become available. In this study we compare the performances of Vegethumus (Veg) and Phenix (Phe), two manures that are permitted in organic farming, with several other manures, ammonium nitrate (AN) and control treatments. A 3-year field trial and a pot experiment were carried out in order to estimate dry matter yield, N uptake, and N nutritional status of the crops, as well as soil N availability, the latter was assessed by using anion exchange membranes inserted into the soil. Apparent N recovery (ANR) values in the field trial were 6.3% and 58.2% in Veg and AN plots, respectively, after the application of 380 kg N/ha in the previous five growing seasons. In the pot experiment, the ANR of Veg and Phe, the organic amendments permitted in organic farming, were 5.0% and 13.6%, while Beiraadubo (Bei) and Nutrisoil (Nut) had ANR of 27.2% and 42.0%. The poor results of the amendments permitted in organic farming...

Energy efficiency and GHG emissions impact from traditional to organic vineyard cultivations in Greece and Portugal

Balafoutis, A; Baptista, F; Briassoulis, D; Silva, LL; Panagakis, P; Marques da Silva, JR
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
Traditional farming systems are based on achieving high yields using high inputs, targeting acceptable farmers’ income. Nowadays, traditional farming shifts towards maximum possible crop yield using minimal inputs in an optimized way or towards organic farming, namely accomplishing low yield of high quality products without using conventional agrochemicals (i.e. fertilizers, pesticides). The last approach leads, in general, to lower energy consumption per unit area of land, therefore lower cost and lower greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). However, in a global perspective it has the risk of significant reduction in total production. Hence, it is vital to consider energy efficiency, namely the ratio between an input of energy and a unit of product, as a key comparison unit affecting the overall efficiency of crop farming systems in terms of energy and GHG emissions. In the present paper, two show cases of vineyard cultivations are presented to illustrate the energy efficiency and GHG emissions impact when switching from traditional to organic vineyard cultivations in Greece and Portugal. In the Greek vineyard case, organic farming leads to significantly lower grape yield (31%) resulting in a 0.4% reduction of energy efficiency and a 6.7% reduction of GHG emissions. In the Portuguese vineyard case...

Comparative studies on energy efficiency and GHG emissions between conventional and organic olive groves in Greece and Portugal

Balafoutis, A; Baptista, F; Briassoulis, D; Silva, LL; Panagakis, P; Murcho, D
Fonte: EurAgeng Publicador: EurAgeng
Tipo: Aula
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
Nowadays, traditional farming based on achieving high yields using high inputs, shifts gradu-ally towards maximum possible crop yield using minimal inputs in an optimized way or to-wards organic farming. This is usually accomplishing by low yield of high quality products without using conventional agrochemicals (i.e. fertilizers, pesticides). In general, this last ap-proach leads to lower energy consumption per unit area of land, therefore lower cost and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, in a global perspective it has the risk of significant total production reduction. Hence, it is vital to consider energy efficiency im-provement, namely the decrease of primary energy consumption for the production of a unit of agricultural product (expressed in weight or volume units), within the farm boundaries. Im-provement of energy efficiency is a key parameter affecting positively the overall efficiency of crop farming systems in terms of energy and GHG emissions. In the present paper, two show cases of olive groves in Greece (“Sterea Ellada” region) and Portugal (“Alentejo” re-gion) were compared to illustrate the effect on energy efficiency and GHG emissions when moving from conventional to organic olive grove cultivations in these different locations. The analysis was based on two simple framework models using information provided by farmers and literature data regarding the inputs and outputs of each olive grove. The models were adjusted according to the olives’ variety...

Phenolic Compounds in Red Fruits Produced in Organic Farming at Maturation Stage

Soutinho, Susana; Guiné, Raquel; Jordão, António; Gonçalves, Fernando
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
The agricultural organic farming is different from conventional farming in a way that is aimed at providing a balanced and constructive action in agricultural systems. With the increase in intensive agriculture, undesirable changes were being observed in ecosystems with irreparable damage being caused to the natural equilibrium. This is the reason for the increasing interest in organic farming as an environment friendly agricultural production method. In the present work three red fruits produced in organic farming were analysed, namely raspberry, gooseberry and blueberry. The samples were harvested in a local farm when at plain maturation. The results obtained allowed to conclude that the blueberry contained higher amounts of phenolic compounds, total tannins and total anthocyanins than raspberry and gooseberry. Furthermore, the HPLC analysis allowed to identify monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids in the three fruits studied

Phenolic Compounds in Red Fruits Produced in Organic Farming at Maturation Stage

Soutinho, Susana; Guiné, Raquel; Jordão, Antonio; Gonçalves, Fernando
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
The agricultural organic farming is different from conventional farming in a way that is aimed at providing a balanced and constructive action in agricultural systems. With the increase in intensive agriculture, undesirable changes were being observed in ecosystems with irreparable damage being caused to the natural equilibrium. This is the reason for the increasing interest in organic farming as an environment friendly agricultural production method. In the present work three red fruits produced in organic farming were analyzed, namely raspberry, gooseberry and blueberry. The samples were harvested in a local farm when at plain maturation. The results obtained allowed to conclude that the blueberry contained higher amounts of phenolic compounds, total tannins and total anthocyanins than raspberry and gooseberry. Furthermore, the HPLC analysis allowed to identify monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids in the three fruits studied

Family and organic farming. New apprenticeship through m-learning

Costa, Cristina; Correia, Paula; Correia, Helena; Guiné, Raquel; Gouveia, João; Rodrigues, Pedro; Teixeira, Daniela; Tourino, Luis; Castro, Moises; Basile, Salvatore
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
Recently, family farming has become a central element in the public debate over its fundamental role in rural areas. Family farms ensure agricultural and forestry production, as well as fishing and grazing, managed by a family that mostly depends on unpaid family labour, both women and men. From the 570 million farms in the world, over 500 million are family farms. There are numerous examples in which, through organic farming, family farming can be lead to new heights of success and innovation, with direct increase in the farm income. The benefits that may accrue from the adoption of organic farming on family farms in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Italy and Spain are analysed, together with its impact and major constraints, as well as the contribution that new forms of teaching and learning can give to its spread and success, including through m-learning, as it is the case of the project ECONewFARMERS - Building a future for new farmers in ecological farming through vocational training.

The relationships between organic farming and agroecology.

BELLON, S.; LAMINE, C.; OLLIVIER, G.; ABREU, L. S. de
Fonte: ISOFAR SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE, 3.; IFOAM ORGANIC WORLD CONGRESS, 17., 2011, Gyeonggi Paldang. Organic is life. Knowledge for tomorrow: proceedings. Bonn: ISOFAR, 2011. p. 235-238. Publicador: ISOFAR SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE, 3.; IFOAM ORGANIC WORLD CONGRESS, 17., 2011, Gyeonggi Paldang. Organic is life. Knowledge for tomorrow: proceedings. Bonn: ISOFAR, 2011. p. 235-238.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
Abstract: While acknowledging an extension of agroecology in the organic sector and a growing influence of agroecology in the academic world, we explore their relationships. These relationships cannot be reduced to an opposition between a scientific field and a practical domain. A Brazilian case study based on the analysis of researchers and social actors trajectories exemplifies the diversity of existing relations, whether inclusive or exclusive. With a literature review, this allows characterising the specific attributes of both organic agriculture and agroecology. We discuss them in the light of current challenges for organic farming research and development.; 2011

Organic Farming in India: Problems and Potential

Poulton, Claire
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.69%
Over the past ten years, the organic farming movement has rapidly expanded in India and worldwide. Throughout the twentieth century, organic farming movements developed in various places around the world in response to the ecological and social destruction caused by industrial agriculture. Primarily, increasing consumer demand in Europe and North America has fuelled the recent consolidation of a global organic farming movement and encouraged its rapid growth. In light of its increasing popularity, organic farming requires further policy attention and research. In particular, it is important that organic farming be considered for its potential as a rural development strategy. In examining the role of the organic farming movement in India, this paper argues that organic farming in India has the potential to improve livelihoods, provide food security and food sovereignty, and serve as part of a climate change mitigation and adaptation strategy. However, there are many obstacles and limitations to be overcome before organic farming can become a powerful force for change in India. Poor agricultural investment and government support for conventional agriculture, undeveloped domestic markets, and costly and complicated certification processes all pose significant obstacles for organic farmers. The success of the movement hinges on further institutional support...

How Dr. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer Contributed to Organic Agriculture in Australia

Paull, John
Fonte: Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania Publicador: Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%
Biodynamic pioneer Ehrenfried Pfeiffer was a major contributor to Australia’s first organic farming journal, the Organic Farming Digest. He was the leading contributor from the USA. Pfeiffer was living in the USA when his articles appeared in the ‘Organic Farming Digest’ (later called the ‘Farm & Garden Digest’). The Digest was Australia’s first organic journal, and the world’s first organic journal to be published by an organic association (Paull, 2008). Pfeiffer’s ten articles published in Australia from 1949 to 1950 served to give Australia’s organic pioneers a taste of biodynamic thought and practice, and forged early links in Australia between biodynamic and other organic practices. A visit to Australia by Pfeiffer in 1953 was promoted in Australia but cancelled on short notice due to illness. At that time, Pfeiffer was the leading advocate of bio-dynamics in the Anglo-world. Pfeiffer’s insights and experience traced back directly to his induction with Rudolf Steiner at the Goetheanum in Switzerland.

The Lost History of Organic Farming in Australia

Paull, John
Fonte: Journal of Organic Systems Publicador: Journal of Organic Systems
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.7%
It has not been previously reported that the world’s first “organic” farming society was the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society (AOFGS) which was founded in Australia in October 1944. The association was based in Sydney, New South Wales, and the first issue of its journal, the Organic Farming Digest (OFD), was dated April 1946. This was Australia’s first, and the world’s second, “organic” farming journal. The eighteen month delay between the founding of the society and the first publication of the journal was because paper was unavailable in Australia for that purpose during WWII. The society published a total of 378 articles in 29 issues from 1946 to 1954. Articles from Australia, UK, USA, New Zealand, South Africa, Germany and Denmark were published. Topics included: farming and gardening; health; environment; politics and economics; and animal welfare. More than 190 authors were published. British authors published included Sir Albert Howard, Lady Louise Howard, Lady Eve Balfour, and Friend Sykes. American authors published included Dr. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Jerome Rodale, Gaylord Hauser, and Louis Bromfield. Australian authors from the states of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and Queensland were published. These included Sir Stanton Hicks...

The Living Soil Association: Pioneering Organic Farming and Innovating Social Inclusion

Paull, John
Fonte: Journal of Organic Systems Publicador: Journal of Organic Systems
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.63%
The Living Soil Association of Tasmania (LSAT) (1946-1960) pioneered the concepts of organic food and farming in Australia's smallest state, for the decade immediately after WWII. The LSAT was one of the world's first organisations to promote organic farming. It was preceded by New Zealand's Humic Compost Society (founded in 1941), the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society (1944), Australia's Victorian Compost Society (1945), and England's Soil Association (1946). The Tasmanian Association engaged, or was officially affiliated, with each of these four organisations. The LSAT actively courted and recruited a broad spectrum of organisations and government departments, particularly those with interests, or responsibilities, in agriculture, health, and education. The Association consistently sought a co-operative approach while avoiding a confrontational approach. An innovation of the LSAT was the provision for 'Junior members'; the LSAT constitution included separate and specific Objects for Junior Groups, one of which was for school children to eat organic food.

Mr Carbon Farming

Paull, John
Fonte: Acres Australia Publicador: Acres Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
Carbon farming is the process of managing the land to sequester carbon. Farming techniques that can facilitate carbon sequestration include organic farming and biodynamic farming. This article introduces Australia's 'Mr Carbon Farming', Michael Kiely. He co-founded Australia’s Carbon Coalition Against Global Warming in February 2006. The Carbon Coalition lobbies for the right of Australian landholders to trade, on an emissions offset market, the credits that they can earn by sequestering carbon in their soils. Kiely asks: is soil carbon the new cash crop? He speaks with the zeal of an evangelist and calls himself a ‘carbon farmer’. According to Kiely: “Carbon farming is not a new practice. It is a new way to describe a collection of techniques which can increase soil organic carbon in agricultural land ... It’s about changing the way we farm ”.

Henry Shoobridge, Tasmania's pioneer of organic farming

Paull, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Journal article; Accepted Version Formato: 7 pages
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
Henry Shoobridge (1874-1963) was the pioneer of organic farming in Tasmania. He was the founder and the president of the island's earliest organic advocacy group, the Living Soil Association of Tasmania (1946-1960). The Shoobridge family had emigrated from Kent, England in 1822 bringing with them the hops cuttings with which they established hops as a successful primary industry in Tasmania and Henry followed his forebears in this work. Henry Shoobridge attended The Friend's School, the Quaker school in Hobart. He was both a successful farmer and an accredited Methodist preacher. At the age of 71 years, Henry Shoobridge founded the Living Soil Association of Tasmania (LSAT) at a public meeting in Hobart on 30 August 1946. The LSAT affiliated with the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society (AOFGS) which was founded in Sydney in October 1944, and with the UK's Soil Association which was founded in England in May 1946.; Archived at Organic EPrints. Journal also known as Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania

Comunidades de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares nos manejos convencional e orgânico de citros e suas interações com Phytophthora parasitica.; Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities in citrus conventional and organic farming and their interactions with Phytophthora parasitica.

França, Soraya de Carvalho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/04/2004 Português
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66.61%
Agricultores e técnicos envolvidos na citricultura orgânica procuram desenvolver sistemas de produção com maior atividade microbiana no solo. Dessa maneira, esperam obter benefícios dos processos que ocorrem no solo, entre eles, o controle natural de pragas e doenças. Porém, são poucos os estudos sobre a influência desse tipo de manejo sobre a microbiota do solo, em especial sobre os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs) e o patógeno Phytophthora parasitica. Os objetivos dessa tese foram: avaliar a colonização micorrízica e conhecer a diversidade de FMAs nos sistemas de produção convencional e orgânico de citros; avaliar a aplicação de benomyl e da radiação γ na obtenção de testemunhas não micorrizadas para estudo de interação de comunidade de FMAs nativos e P. parasitica; verificar a capacidade indutora de resistência local e sistêmica dos FMAs nativos a P. parasitica; estudar atividade da quitinase no sistema radicular de limão 'Cravo' colonizado por fungos micorrízicos nativos. Foram realizadas amostragens em dois sistemas de produção de citros em São Paulo, um convencional e um orgânico. A riqueza e a diversidade de espécies de FMAs foram maiores no manejo orgânico. No entanto, a porcentagem de colonização micorrízica nas plantas no campo não variou com o tipo de manejo. Em casa de vegetação...

Conversion to organic farming in mainland Portugal

Costa, Leonardo; Sottomayor, Miguel; Ribeiro, Ricardo
Fonte: European Association of Agricultural Economists Publicador: European Association of Agricultural Economists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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66.43%
Paper prepared for presentation at the 11th Congress of the EAAE: Conversion to Organic Farming in Mainland Portugal, Copenhagen, Denmark, 24-27 August, 2005; The objectives of the research were: i) to assess the in-conversion period as a barrier impeding farms conversion to organic; ii) to assess the potential of conversion-grade markets in removing this barrier; iii) to identify other barriers (drives) along the food chain impeding (easing) farms conversion in mainland Portugal. Results show that the in-conversion period is not the major barrier to conversion nor is a good idea the set-up of conversion grade markets to help Portuguese farms' conversion. Conversion feasibility depends of the organic market premium prices, in intensive farms, and of the CAP organic agri-environmental area payments, in extensive farms.

Contribution for Rural Development through Training in Organic Farming

Guiné, Raquel; Costa, Daniela; Correia, Paula; Castro, Moisés; Guerra, Luís; Costa, Cristina
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
The aim of this work was to characterize a potential target group of people interested in participating into a training program in organic farming in the context of mobile-learning. The information sought addressed in particular, but not exclusively, possible contents, formats and forms of evaluation that will contribute to define the course objectives and curriculum, as well as to ensure that the course meets the needs of the learners and their preferences. The sample was selected among different European countries. The questionnaires were delivered electronically for answering on-line and in the end 135 consented valid questionnaires were obtained. The results allowed characterizing the target group and identifying their training needs and preferences towards m- learning formats, giving valuable tools to design the training offer

Contribution for Rural Development through Training in Organic Farming

Guiné, Raquel; Costa, Daniela; Correia, Paula; Castro, Moisés; Guerra, Luís; Costa, Cristina
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
The aim of this work was to characterize a potential target group of people interested in participating into a training program in organic farming in the context of mobile-learning. The information sought addressed in particular, but not exclusively, possible contents, formats and forms of evaluation that will contribute to define the course objectives and curriculum, as well as to ensure that the course meets the needs of the learners and their preferences. The sample was selected among different European countries. The questionnaires were delivered electronically for answering on-line and in the end 135 consented valid questionnaires were obtained. The results allowed characterizing the target group and identifying their training needs and preferences towards m- learning formats, giving valuable tools to design the training offer

Physical attributes of ultisol of Brazil's northeastern semiarid under organic farming of wine grapes

Feitosa,Jardenia R.; Mendes,Alessandra M.S.; Olszevski,Nelci; Cunha,Tony J.F.; Cortez,Jorge W.; Giongo,Vanderlise
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic farming of wine grapes under physical and chemical characteristics of Ultisol Brazil's northeastern semiarid region. The samples of soil were collected from the row and interrow of the farming and from the fallow area, at the depths of 0.0-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.30 and 0.30-0.60 m. The samples were collected at six and twelve months after the culture implementation to evaluate the state of aggregation, bulk density and total soil porosity, flocculation index and organic matter contents, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. The results were submitted to statistical analysis. The adoption of organic farming contributed to the soil aggregation process. The bulk density and total soil porosity did not differ significantly between the evaluations, but were within the critical limits for sandy soils. The index flocculation did not have a great influence on the aggregates formation, being this process influenced by organic matter. The period of one year was considered short to obtain conclusive results in improving the soil quality by organic farming, since there are difficulties in tropical soils in promoting significant increases in organic matter content in short time.

Soil microbial biomass in organic farming system

Araújo,Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de; Melo,Wanderley José de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2010 Português
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56.66%
Agricultural production systems have to combine management practices in order to sustain soil's profitability and quality. Organic farming is gaining worldwide acceptance and has been expanding at an annual rate of 20% in the last decade, accounting for over 24 million hectares worldwide. Organic practices avoid applications of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, rely on organic inputs and recycling for nutrient supply, and emphasize cropping system design and biological processes for pest management, as defined by organic farming regulation in the world. In comparison with conventional farming, organic farming has potential benefits in improving food quality and safety. Plant production in organic farming mainly depends on nutrient release as a function of mineralization processes in soils. The build-up of a large and active soil microbial biomass is important pool of accessible nutrients, therefore, is an important priority in organic farming. In organic farming, there is positive effect of quantity and quality of inputs of organic residues on soil microbial biomass. In this way, the organic systems are extremely important for the increase of the soil fertility and the maintenance of the environmental sustainability.

The world's first and newest organic magazines are Australian

Paull, John
Fonte: The Organic Way; Clean Food Organic Publicador: The Organic Way; Clean Food Organic
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.73%
After years of published claims that the organic agriculture movement in Australia dates from the 1980s it will surprise most to learn that Australia was in fact an early adopter and indeed a world pioneer in sustainable agriculture and organic magazine publishing. The world's first farming organisation to adopt "organic" into its title was the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society (1944-1955). The Society published the Organic Farming Digest, starting in April 1946. The Organic Farming Digest was the first "organic" agriculture journal in the world to be published by an association. The Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society and the Organic Farming Digest both predate the founding of the UK Soil Association. The Australian Society developed and published a set of 10 principles of organic farming, the first institution to do so. The principles enunciated by the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society condemned the use of toxic sprays in agriculture, expressed concern for soil micro-organisms, worms, bees and birds, decried the pollution of rivers, urged water conservation, condemned deforestation, urged large-scale tree planting, and advocated mixed farming rather than monocultural farming practices. This account of Australia's organic pioneering society is published in the first edition of Australia's new organic business magazine: The Organic Way.