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Padrões de Campo Sujo Seco na paisagem da bacia hidrográfica do ribeirão Taquaruçu Grande no município de Palmas - TO; Field patterns in the landscape of Campo Sujo Seco River watershed Taquaruçu Grande in the municipality of Palmas - TO

Medeiros, Thereza Christina Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
O presente trabalho visou compreender os padrões florísticos e fitogeográficos de Campo Sujo Seco na bacia hidrográfica do ribeirão Taquaruçu Grande, no município de Palmas (TO). A análise de sua paisagem baseou-se na produção de mapas de vegetação; localização e medição da área de distribuição; caracterização fitossociológica e florística, buscando identificar padrões de Campo Sujo Seco; e, verificação da influência dos solos e do relevo na formação de tais padrões. O trabalho foi realizado em etapas de laboratório e campo. O mapeamento foi feito com base na carta da Diretoria do Serviço Geográfico (DSG) do Ministério do Exercito e IBGE de 1979 e imagens LANDSAT de 2011. Utilizou-se o software SPRING 5.1.8 (INPE). A caracterização pedológica foi feita por meio de delineamento em blocos casualizados, com aplicação do teste T e análise de variância com comparação das médias pelo teste de Tukey, usando o software Bio Estat 5.0. A caracterização da vegetação foi feita pelo método de parcelas e os parâmetros biométricos medidos foram diâmetro a altura do solo e altura de arbustos e árvores. Os parâmetros fitossociológicos analisados foram densidade, frequência, dominância absolutas e relativas e valor de importância específica. Foram calculados índices de similaridade de Sørensen...

Descoberta e análise de associações entre padrões de atividade em modelos de processos de negócio; Discovery and analysis of associations between activity patterns in business process models

Lau, Jean Michel
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
A tecnologia de workflow tem-se mostrado cada vez mais importante para o mercado de automação de processos e para que as organizações desempenhem suas funções da melhor maneira possível (MUTSCHLER, 2008). A modelagem de processos ganhou em importância neste contexto, tornando-se alvo de pesquisas, inclusive acadêmicas. Nestas pesquisas, certas estruturas recorrentes que precisam ser redesenhadas a cada nova modelagem foram identificadas. Conhecidas também como padrões, existem com variados focos e objetivos (AALST, 2003), (RUSSEL, 2004a), (RUSSEL, 2004b), (BRADSHAW, 2005), (RUSSEL, 2006), (THOM, 2006a), (THOM, 2009). O conjunto de padrões apresentados em Thom (2006a), (2009) é interessante, pois apresenta padrões de atividade os quais representam funções de negócio recorrentes, tais como aprovação de documentos, notificação de pagamento e solicitação de execução de tarefa. Estes padrões são mais próximos do nível de descrição dos especialistas do domínio e, por isto, mostram-se como bastante promissores para serem aplicados durante a análise e modelagem de processos. Diversos pesquisadores defendem a ideia de que a padronização de estruturas de processo e a re-utilização dos padrões resultantes deste exercício podem incrementar a produtividade...

Descoberta e análise de co-ocorrências entre padrões de atividade de workflow : um estudo empírico; Discovery and analysis of co-occurences between workflow activity patterns – an empirical study

Chiao, Carolina Ming
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
O trabalho de qualquer organização pode ser representado e analisado através dos processos de negócio que desenvolve. O relacionamento da organização com clientes e fornecedores é implementado por processos de negócio, assim como a interface interna entre o nível estratégico e operacional da organização. Também o trabalho das áreas de engenharia, produção, financeira e gestão pode ser representado na forma de processos de negócio. O projeto ProWAP (Process Modelling based on Workflow Activity Patterns), desenvolvido em conjunto com o grupo de pesquisa em workflow da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul e o grupo de pesquisa em Banco de Dados e Sistemas de Informação da Universidade de Ulm, na Alemanha, tem como objetivo criar uma abordagem de reuso de funções de negócio recorrentes. Estes fragmentos, ou funções de negócio recorrentes, são representados através de padrões de atividade de bloco para modelagem de processos e possuem uma semântica bem definida e auto-contida (THOM, 2006b). A modelagem de processos é baseada, hoje em dia, somente em elementos sintáticos, além de os modelos serem geralmente modelados desde o início, o que significa altos custos, tanto de tempo quanto financeiros. Uma ferramenta que ofereça suporte ao (re- )uso de estruturas recorrentes pode reduzir estes custos...

Uma contribuição para o desenvolvimento de assentamentos humanos mais sustentáveis : identificação de padrões urbanos relacionados aos princípios de sustentabilidade; A contribution to the development of more sustainable human settlements: identification of patterns related to urban sustainability principles

Moehlecke, Juliana
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
O termo sustentabilidade compreende uma abordagem vinculada à manutenção das condições favoráveis à sobrevivência humana no Planeta. Mesmo diante da repercussão do tema em todos os cenários, muitas questões ainda precisam ser melhor exploradas e discutidas, sobretudo no campo de assentamentos humanos. Embora documentos institucionais orientem para o desenvolvimento de assentamentos humanos sustentáveis, tem-se observado que as intervenções no ambiente físico destes, pouco têm incorporado das recomendações, seja pelo grau de abrangência e generalidade, seja pela carência de estudos sobre os padrões urbanos, do ambiente físico, que poderiam contribuir para o desenvolvimento sustentável. Nesse contexto, a obra “Uma Linguagem de Padrões”, de Alexander e colaboradores, mostrou-se como uma relevante oportunidade de estudos, na medida em que os patterns identificados pelos autores apresentam-se como estratégias potencialmente capazes de contribuir para a sustentabilidade, embora a obra à época não esboçasse formulação teórica nesse sentido. Frente a isso, o objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi identificar padrões urbanos, na obra de Alexander, relacionados aos princípios de sustentabilidade, utilizando-se o método de pesquisa bibliográfica. A pesquisa dividiu-se em três etapas. Primeiramente...

Analysis of support for modularity in object teams based on design patterns

Gomes, João Luís Lopes
Fonte: FCT- UNL Publicador: FCT- UNL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Informática; The paradigm of Aspect-Oriented Programming is currently being studied and matured. Many aspectoriented languages have been proposed, including Object Teams for Java (OT/J). However, to date few studies were carried out to assess the contribution of the various languages available and compare their relative advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to fill this gap. In the past, implementations of design patterns in Java and AspectJ were successfully used as case studies to derive conclusions on the relative advantages and disadvantages of the language under consideration. This dissertation follows this approach, with the development of a suitable collection of examples based on the well-known Gang-of-Four design patterns. Two repositories of implementations in OT/J of the complete collection of 23 Gang-of-Four design patterns have been developed, to be used as a basis for subsequent analysis. The scenarios used for the examples are based on Java repositories by independent authors, freely available on the Web. Based on the repositories developed, an analysis of the modularizations obtained with OT/J is presented and compared with the results obtained using Java and AspectJ. OT/J provides direct language support for 3 of the patterns. 20 patterns yielded separate modules for the patterns...

Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

Gubbels, Jessica S.; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P. J.
Fonte: Current Science Inc. Publicador: Current Science Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/04/2013 Português
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Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentary-snacking and healthy intake patterns, as well as more unique or local patterns), child and parental characteristics predicting such patterns (e.g., child gender and maternal educational level), and the relationship of these patterns with overweight and related measures.

Behavioural Preservation in Fault Tolerant Patterns

Dias, Diego Machado; Iyoda, Juliano Manabu (Advisor); Farias, Adalberto Cajueiro de (Co-Advisor)
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
In the development of critical systems it is common practise to make use of redundancy in order to achieve higher levels of reliability. There are well established design patterns that introduce redundancy and that are widely documented in the literature and adopted by the industry. However there have been few attempts to formally verify them with respect to behavioural preservation. In this work, we purpose an approach to specify such design patterns, called here fault tolerant patterns, using HOL. We use the theorem prover HOL4 to prove the compositionality and correctness of the fault tolerant patterns. We illustrate our approach by modelling three classical fault tolerant patterns: homogeneous redundancy, heterogeneous redundancy and triple modular redundancy. Our model takes into account that the original system (without redundancy) computes a certain function with some delay and is amenable to random failures. In order to prove that a fault tolerant pattern preserves the behaviour of its subsystems, we defined new notions of refinement. Systems engineers commonly accept the fact that fault tolerant patterns do not change the functionality of a system. However, this practise is not compatible with the classical refinement notions. Thus we defined axiomatic notions of refinement to prove that the formalised fault tolerant patterns preserve the behaviour of its subsystems. We also proved that our fault tolerant patterns are compositional in the sense that we can apply fault tolerant patterns consecutively and for an arbitrary number of times. The result of that is still a system whose delay...

Macroecologia do zooplâncton continental: padrões latitudinais e componentes locais e regionais na determinação da diversidade global; Macroecology of continental zooplankton: latitudinal patterns and local and regional components in determining global diversity

PINESE, Olívia Penatti
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ecologia e Evolucao; Ciencias Biologicas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ecologia e Evolucao; Ciencias Biologicas
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
One of the oldest and best known global biological patterns in ecology is the latitudinal gradient of richness, characterized by a decrease in the number of species from Equator toward the poles. Several hypotheses, even today, attempt to explain the variation that occurs in the pattern of diversity of many animal and plants. Despite the advances that have been followed in Biogeography and Macroecology in recent decades, studies on biodiversity at a global scale have yet targeted mainly terrestrial and marine groups. This study presented three main objectives, first, to create a representative database of continental zooplankton diversity at global scale, that could demonstrate the distribution of richness patterns for their major groups (Total Zooplankton, Microcrustacea, Copepoda, Cladocera, Rotifera); second, to analyze the adequacy of global richness data to the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE); and third, to establish the balance between local and regional components which determined the observed gradients. In this research, data collection was made from scientific papers concerning the diversity of continental zooplankton around the world. The sampling methodology effect on richness data was controlled through regressions, whose residuals were assumed as being the corrected richness. Latitudinal patterns analyses were performed with the corrected richness...

Les patterns de Christopher Alexander appliqués aux cuisines domiciliaires modernes

Tessier, Virginie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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36.19%
La présente recherche traite des conflits d’aménagement pouvant être décelés dans les cuisines domiciliaires modernes. L’ajout d’objets mécanisés au rituel alimentaire quotidien a su changer la dynamique du lieu. En effet, l’architecture des cuisines modernes en Occident présente de grandes contradictions. Basées sur des standards architecturaux, les cuisines modulaires ne reflètent pas la variété et l’unicité des aliments auxquels les cuisines sont dédiées. Les cuisines devraient être le miroir de la vivacité naturelle des aliments et des échanges humains que la nourriture génère à travers le plaisir et le partage. Dans l’espoir de proposer des outils afin de rééquilibrer la dynamique de cette pièce, un cadre théorique basé sur les théories architecturales de l’architecte et mathématicien anglais Christopher Alexander a été établi. Supportant la présente recherche, ces théories architecturales s’inspirent de la structure et de la composition des choses de la nature et des monuments anciens afin d’établir des balises d’aménagement simples et équilibrées (qualité de vie, patterns, configuration des événements, configurations de l’espace, ...). Ces théories ont aidé à concevoir une formule d’ateliers participatifs qui visent à outiller les occupants...

Associations between dietary patterns at 6 and 15 months of age and sociodemographic factors

Smithers, L.; Brazionis, L.; Golley, R.; Mittinty, N.; Northstone, K.; Emmett, P.; McNaughton, S.; Campbell, K.; Lynch, J.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) have previously shown that dietary patterns are observable by 3 years. However, it is not clear when dietary patterns emerge. We aimed to describe dietary patterns in early life and their associations with maternal and infant sociodemographic characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Principal component analysis was applied to diet questionnaires of ALSPAC participants at 6 months (n¼7052) and 15 months (n¼5610) to extract dietary patterns. The sociodemographic factors associated with dietary patterns were investigated using regression analyses. RESULTS: Four dietary patterns were extracted at both 6 and 15 months. A traditional-style pattern characterized by home-prepared meats, vegetables and desserts, a second pattern characterized by ready-prepared baby foods and a third pattern characterized by discretionary foods such as biscuits, sweets and crisps were identified at both ages. At 6 months, the fourth pattern was characterized predominantly by breastfeeding and at 15 months, by contemporary-style foods including herbs, legumes, nuts, raw fruit and vegetables. Higher maternal age and education, number of siblings and lower body mass index (BMI) was associated with higher scores on the breastfeeding or meat...

Dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months of age are associated with IQ at 8 years of age

Smithers, L.; Golley, R.; Mittinty, N.; Brazionis, L.; Northstone, K.; Emmett, P.; Lynch, J.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Diet supplies the nutrients needed for the development of neural tissues that occurs over the first 2 years of life. Our aim was to examine associations between dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 8 years. Participants were enrolled in an observational birth cohort (ALSPAC study, n = 7,097). Dietary data was collected by questionnaire and patterns were extracted at each time using principal component analysis. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at 8 years. Associations between dietary patterns and IQ were examined in regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding and by propensity score matching, with data imputation for missing values. At all ages, higher scores on a Discretionary pattern (characterized by biscuits, chocolate, sweets, soda, crisps) were associated with 1–2 point lower IQ. A Breastfeeding pattern at 6 months and Home-made contemporary patterns at 15 and 24 months (herbs, legumes, cheese, raw fruit and vegetables) were associated with 1-to-2 point higher IQ. A Home-made traditional pattern (meat, cooked vegetables, desserts) at 6 months was positively associated with higher IQ scores, but there was no association with similar patterns at 15 or 24 months. Negative associations were found with patterns characterized by Ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months and positive associations with a Ready-to-eat foods pattern at 24 months. Propensity score analyses were consistent with regression analyses. This study suggests that dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months may have a small but persistent effect on IQ at 8 years.; Lisa G. Smithers...

Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns are associated with demographic and cardiovascular health variables in an older community-dwelling Australian population

Hosking, D.; Danthiir, V.
Fonte: C A B I Publishing Publicador: C A B I Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Dietary patterns derived from factor analytic procedures have been demonstrated to predict demographic and health outcomes across a wide range of populations. To examine the potential utility of long-term dietary recall, in the present study, we examined associations between dietary patterns from across the lifespan and demographic and later-life cardiovascular-related health variables, using the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire (LDQ). The LDQ is a self-administered, non-quantitative, retrospective FFQ designed to assess dietary intake from childhood to older age. Participants (n 352) from the Older People, Omega-3 and Cognitive Health trial, aged 65–91 years, completed the LDQ. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the LDQ and plausible dietary patterns were derived. As a result, three patterns were extracted from each life period, with five distinct patterns overall; these were ‘traditional Australian’ and ‘non-traditional Australian’, ‘high-sugar and high-fat’, ‘vegetable’ and ‘fruit and vegetable’ patterns. In separate adjusted regression models, age, sex, education, income, parental background and childhood physical activity all significantly predicted dietary patterns across the lifespan. A ‘traditional Australian’ pattern in childhood predicted higher HDL-cholesterol levels and lower odds of cholesterol medication use; lower HDL-cholesterol levels were predicted by the adult ‘processed...

Diversificación de patrones en rutinas de solo en natación sincronizada de alto nivel; Patterns of solo routines in high-performance synchronized swimming; Diversificação de padrões em rotinas de solo na natação sincronizada de alto-rendimento

Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara; Chaverri, Diego; Clapés, Pilar; Rodríguez, Ferran A.; Anguera Argilaga, Mª Teresa
Fonte: Murcia: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia Publicador: Murcia: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar y caracterizar la existencia de diferencias estructurales y T-Patterns en la disposición corporal entre las rutinas de solo técnico y libre en la natación sincronizada de alto nivel. Se utilizó un diseño observacional puntual, nomotético y multidimensional. El instrumento de registro fue el programa LINCE v. 1.1. La fiabilidad en la observación se determinó mediante el grado de concordancia intra e interobservador con valores de 0,9 en el índice Kappa. Se analizaron 15 nadadoras finalistas del campeonato del Mundo y 11 del campeonato de España), en 19 rutinas de solo técnico) y 23 de solo libre). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo e inferencial de los registros, así como una detección de T-Patterns, mediante 6eme 6 Edu. Se detectó un mayor número de T-Patterns en el solo técnico que en el solo libre. El 69,3 % (±5,7) del tiempo total de rutina, las nadadoras están en fase de apnea, siendo mayores estos porcentajes en la rutina técnica que en la libre (p<0,05). Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tipos de rutina en el análisis de la posición corporal y los niveles de inmersión. En conclusión, podemos afirmar que existen diferencias significativas entre las rutinas de solo libre y solo técnico tanto en la estructura temporal como en los T-Patterns detectados. Los programas técnicos se caracterizan por mayores porcentajes temporales en fases de apnea...

Discovering Craniofacial Patterns Using Multivariate Cephalometric Data for Treatment Decision Making in Orthodontics

Araya-Díaz, Pamela; A. Ruz, Gonzalo; Palomino, Hernán M.
Fonte: 2014 Sociedad Chilena de Anatomía Publicador: 2014 Sociedad Chilena de Anatomía
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Indexación: Scielo; The aim was to find craniofacial morphology patterns in a multivariate cephalometric database using a clustering technique. Cephalometric analysis was performed in a sample of 100 teleradiographs collected from Chilean orthodontic patients. Thirty cephalometric measurements were taken from commonly used analysis. The computed variables were used to perform a clustering analysis with the k-means algorithm to identify patterns of craniofacial morphology. The J48 decision tree was used to analyze each cluster, and the ANOVA test to determine the statistical differences between the clusters. Four clusters were found that had significant differences (P<0.001) in 24 of the 30 variables studied, suggesting that they represent different patterns of craniofacial form. Using the decision tree, 8 of the 30 variables appeared to be relevant for describing the clusters. The clustering analysis is effective in identifying different craniofacial patterns based on a multivariate database. The distinct clusters appear to be caused by differences in the compensation process of the facial structure responding to a genetically determined cranial and mandible form. The proposed method can be applied to several databases, creating specific classifications for each one of them. KEY WORDS: Craniofacial patterns; Morphological patterns; Clustering technique; Orthodontics. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- RESUMEN: El objetivo fue encontrar patrones morfológicos craneofaciales...

THE INFLUENCE OF DISPERSAL ON ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND SPECIES CO-OCCURRENCE PATTERNS

TURNER, KATELYN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
The influence of regional processes, such as dispersal, on ecological communities has been the focal point of considerable ecological research. Evidence has shown that dispersal can impact community composition through interactions with predation, the introduction of keystone species, and maintenance of species lost due to competitive exclusion. Ecological communities can be characterized by several metrics including species richness, diversity, evenness, abundance and species co-occurrence patterns. Negative species co-occurrence patterns have historically been attributed to competitive interactions between species causing pairs of species to never co-occur. However, little attention has been paid to the contribution of dispersal on species co-occurrence patterns. I have experimentally investigated the influence of dispersal on species co-occurrence patterns in addition to local species richness, total species abundance, evenness, and Simpson’s diversity. Local species richness significantly increased with dispersal, with variation in total local richness being mainly attributed to differences in the rotifer community. Local diversity, total abundance, and evenness were not significantly influenced by changes in the level of dispersal. Species co-occurrence patterns were greatly affected by changes in dispersal...

Acoustic composition : exploring metaphorical and perceived connections between patterns of sound in the Opera The Beast in the Jungle

Suchan, Paul E.
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
Les cinquante dernières années ont vues beaucoup de progrès dans la compréhension du comment nous comprenons et écoutons la musique. Malheureusement, la terminologie musicale ainsi que la philosophie de la composition n’ont pas évoluées en tenant compte de ces progrès. C’est en raison de ces obstacles, que la Theory of Patterns a été conçue et développée. La Theory of Patterns met l'accent sur la nature de la perception musicale ainsi que sur la façon d'assimiler les différents formes d’une œuvre. Cette philosophie propose une méthode de composition ou le sujet principal est la relation entre les différents motifs, avec comme objectif, une création musicale pure, vivante et sans ego. Cette philosophie a été développée et utilisée dans la création d'un nouvel opéra en un acte: The Beast in the Jungle. En analysant les différentes formes et motifs de l’œuvre, on retrouve les différents éléments pratiques de cette théorie.; The last fifty years has seen much progress made in the understanding of how we comprehend and hear music. Unfortunately, the terminology of music and philosophy of composition have not developed to reflect this progress. As a result of this obstacle the Theory of Patterns was conceived and developed. The Theory of Patterns focuses on the nature of musical perception...

Patterns and quality of object-oriented software systems

Khomh, Foutse
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Lors de ces dix dernières années, le coût de la maintenance des systèmes orientés objets s'est accru jusqu' à compter pour plus de 70% du coût total des systèmes. Cette situation est due à plusieurs facteurs, parmi lesquels les plus importants sont: l'imprécision des spécifications des utilisateurs, l'environnement d'exécution changeant rapidement et la mauvaise qualité interne des systèmes. Parmi tous ces facteurs, le seul sur lequel nous ayons un réel contrôle est la qualité interne des systèmes. De nombreux modèles de qualité ont été proposés dans la littérature pour contribuer à contrôler la qualité. Cependant, la plupart de ces modèles utilisent des métriques de classes (nombre de méthodes d'une classe par exemple) ou des métriques de relations entre classes (couplage entre deux classes par exemple) pour mesurer les attributs internes des systèmes. Pourtant, la qualité des systèmes par objets ne dépend pas uniquement de la structure de leurs classes et que mesurent les métriques, mais aussi de la façon dont celles-ci sont organisées, c'est-à-dire de leur conception, qui se manifeste généralement à travers les patrons de conception et les anti-patrons. Dans cette thèse nous proposons la méthode DEQUALITE...

Padrões de Turing e processos dinâmicos em redes complexas; Turing patterns and dynamical processes on complex networks

Lucas Dias Fernandes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Sistemas de reação-difusão podem apresentar, sob certas condições, formação de padrões espaciais heterogêneos estacionários. Chamados padrões de Turing (ou instabilidades de Turing) devido ao trabalho de Alan Turing, sua formulação matemática é importante para o estudo da formação de padrões em geral e desempenha papel central em muitos campos da biologia, tais como ecologia e morfogênese. No presente estudo, focamos no papel exercido pelos padrões de Turing na descrição de distribuições de abundância de espécies de predadores e presas que habitam ambientes fragmentados com estrutura de rede livre de escala, onde as conexões indicam caminhos de dispersão dessas espécies. Para estudar formação de padrões em cadeias tróficas maiores, nós estendemos o modelo de presa-predador original, proposto por Nakao e Mikhailov (Nature Physics, 2010), incluindo pares de presa-predador adicionais. Mostramos que esses sistemas dinâmicos com mais de dois graus de liberdade apresentam não apenas padrões de Turing, mas também transições entre regimes caóticos, sincronizados e estacionários, dependendo dos parâmetros do sistema. Para o caso dos padrões estacionários em uma cadeia trofica com 6 espécies, identificamos distribuições não triviais das presas nos sítios da rede...

Spatial Metrics to Study Urban Patterns in Growing and Shrinking Cities

Reis, Jos? P.; Silva, Elisabete A.; Pinho, Paulo
Fonte: Spatial Metrics to Study Urban Patterns in Growing and Shrinking Cities Publicador: Spatial Metrics to Study Urban Patterns in Growing and Shrinking Cities
Tipo: Article; accepted version
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Taylor & Francis via http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02723638.2015.1096118; This article reviews existing literature on spatial metrics, presenting a portfolio of metrics addressing the spatial patterns of growing and shrinking cities and discussing their potential and limitations. A wide and diverse set of spatial metrics was found. While these metrics address most of the identified spatial patterns of urban growth, spatial metrics used in urban shrinkage studies are much scarcer and not nearly sufficient to provide a comprehensive assessment of its spatial patterns. The article concludes that there is great potential for the development of new spatial metrics or mixed indicators, particularly in shrinkage contexts. The article builds on recent literature focusing on reviewing and developing metrics for particular spatial patterns (notably patterns of urban sprawl), while considering a very broad and multidisciplinary set of metrics. It focuses not only on the outcomes of urban growth but also on those of the increasingly common shrinking phenomenon.; This research was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (SFRH/BD/71970/2010), co-financed by the European Social Fund through the POPH Programme.

A Porous Convection Model for Grass Patterns

Thompson, Sally E.; Daniels, Karen
Fonte: The American Naturalist Publicador: The American Naturalist
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2010 Português
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36.16%
Spatial ecological patterns are usually ascribed to Turingtype reaction-diffusion or scale-dependent feedback processes, but morphologically indistinguishable patterns can be produced by instabilities in fluid flow. We present a new hypothesis that suggests that fluid convection and chill damage to plants could form vegetation patterns with wavelengths ≈1–2 times the plant height. Previous hypotheses for small-scale vegetation pattern formation relied on a Turing process driven by competition for water, which is thought to occur in large vegetation patterns. Predictions of the new hypothesis were consistent with properties of natural grass patterns in North Carolina, contradicting the Turing hypothesis. These results indicate that similarities in pattern morphology should not be interpreted as implying similarities in the pattern-forming processes, that small-wavelength vegetation patterns may arise from mechanisms that are distinct from those generating long-wavelength vegetation patterns, and that fluid instabilities should be recognized as a cause of ecological patterns.