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Impactos socioeconômicos da expansão do setor sucroenergético: uma análise espacial dinâmica sobre o bem-estar social no Estado de São Paulo (2000-2008); Impact of sugarcane sector expansion on social-economical concerns: a dynamic spatial analysis about social welfare in Sao Paulo State (2000-2008)

Satolo, Luiz Fernando
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/08/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
Na primeira década dos anos 2000, houve uma intensa expansão do setor sucroenergético no Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar os impactos socioeconômicos dessa expansão, tendo como base a representação de bem-estar social proposta por Deaton & Muellbauer (2009). Os impactos da expansão do setor sucroenergético sobre o nível médio da renda per capita e sobre sua distribuição entre os municípios paulistas foi estimado através de um modelo de painel espacial dinâmico desenvolvido a partir da decomposição da renda per capita em seus principais determinantes proposta por Barros et al. (2004). Além da proporção de adultos na população municipal, da taxa de utilização da força de trabalho e do rendimento médio dos vínculos empregatícios, também foram incluídas como variáveis de controle no modelo a taxa de utilização da força de trabalho na agropecuária e o rendimento médio dos vínculos empregatícios na agropecuária. Adicionalmente, para isolar os impactos socioeconômicos da expansão do setor sucroenergético, a participação da agropecuária na área do município, a participação da agricultura na área da agropecuária, a participação da cana-deaçúcar na área da agricultura e uma dummy para os municípios com usina em operação foram incluídas no modelo. As séries abrangem os 645 municípios paulistas no período de 2000 a 2008. Os resultados do modelo Método Generalizado de Momentos em Sistema GMM-SYS evidenciam a existência de relação de dependência espacial e temporal positiva no PIB real per capita. Os efeitos diretos e indiretos estimados indicam que a expansão do setor sucroenergético apresentou um impacto positivo sobre o nível médio da renda per capita e...

Convergência do crescimento econômico no Estado de Roraima

Mendoza, Salma Said Rezek
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
Esta pesquisa analisa a convergência da renda per capita dos municípios do Estado de Roraima, no período compreendido entre os anos de 1999 a 2004. Para determinar a hipótese de convergência, aplicou-se os testes de β - convergência e σ -convergência e utilizou-se o método de estimação de Barro e Sala-i-Martin (1991,1992). Para este método é aplicado um modelo linear simples de mínimos quadrados ordinários da taxa de crescimento da renda per capita em relação ao logaritmo da renda per capita inicial. Os resultados denotam a existência de β -convergência absoluta entre os municípios, o que indica que as economias menos desenvolvidas cresceram mais que as mais desenvolvidas, de forma que reduziu as disparidades entre os municípios neste período. Relacionada a β -convergência condicional, foi obtido o crescimento com redução das disparidades, contudo é apresentada uma diferença ínfima em relação à β - convergência absoluta, em que a variável de controle educação, representada pela taxa de matrícula, não influenciou de forma intensa. Concernente a β - convergência, os resultados demonstraram a ocorrência de redução da dispersão da renda per capita, indicando a mesma tendência da β -convergência absoluta.; This research examines the convergence of per capita income of the municipalities of the State of Roraima...

An investigation on the role of institutions for income and growth models

Vieira,Flávio Vilela; Damasceno,Aderbal Oliveira
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.14%
This work evaluates the role of institutions on per capita income levels (cross-section) and growth models (panel data). The cross-section results suggest that there is some evidence regarding the role of institutions since all the estimated coefficients are positive and statistically significant but there is evidence of weak instruments. The results from the panel growth models suggest that there is scarce evidence for the role of institutions in fostering long-run growth. In one word, there is no indication of an empirical consensus to claim that institutions have a primary role, meaning that institutions cause growth and difference in income levels.

A Normal Relationship? Poverty, Growth, and Inequality

Lopez, J. Humberto; Servén, Luis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
Using a large cross-country income distribution dataset spanning close to 800 country-year observations from industrial and developing countries, the authors show that the size distribution of per capita income is well approximated empirically by a lognormal density. The 0 hypothesis that per capita income follows a lognormal distribution cannot be rejected-although the same hypothesis is unambiguously rejected when applied to per capita consumption. The authors show that lognormality of per capita income has important implications for the relative roles of income growth and inequality changes in poverty reduction. When poverty reduction is the overriding policy objective, poorer and relatively equal countries may be willing to tolerate modest increases in income inequality in exchange for faster growth-more so than richer and highly unequal countries.

Inequality of Opportunity, Income Inequality and Economic Mobility : Some International Comparisons

Brunori, Paolo; Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Peragine, Vito
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.52%
Despite a recent surge in the number of studies attempting to measure inequality of opportunity in various countries, methodological differences have so far prevented meaningful international comparisons. This paper presents a comparison of ex-ante measures of inequality of economic opportunity (IEO) across 41 countries, and of the Human Opportunity Index (HOI) for 39 countries. It also examines international correlations between these indices and output per capita, income inequality, and intergenerational mobility. The analysis finds evidence of a "Kuznets curve" for inequality of opportunity, and finds that the IEO index is positively correlated with overall income inequality, and negatively with measures of intergenerational mobility, both in incomes and in years of schooling. The HOI is highly correlated with the Human Development Index, and its internal measure of inequality of opportunity yields very different country rankings from the IEO measure.

Inequalities in Health in Developing Countries: Swimming Against the Tide?

Wagstaff, Adam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
Inequalities in health have recently started to receive a good deal of attention in the developing world. But how large are they? An how large are the differences across countries? Recent data from a 42-country study, show large, but varying inequalities in health across countries. The author explores the reasons for these inter-country differences, and concludes that large inequalities in health, are not apparently associated with large inequalities in income, or with small shares of publicly financed health spending. But they are associated with higher per capita incomes. Evidence from trends in health inequalities - in both the developing, and the industrial world - supports the notion that health inequalities rise with rising per capita incomes. The association between health inequalities, and per capita incomes is probably due in part, to technological change going hand-in-hand with economic growth, coupled with a tendency for the better-off to assimilate new technology ahead of the poor. Since increased health inequalities...

Dynamics of Income Inequality and Welfare in Latvia in the Late 1990s

Fofack, Hippolyte; Monga, Celestin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.25%
This paper analyzes the dynamics of poverty and income inequality during the recovery phase of the transition that characterized the Republic of Latvia in the late 1990s. Despite a continued rise in income inequality, empirical evidence suggests an improvement in living standards, owing largely to a significant surge in per capita income growth, particularly in urban areas. In a context of rising income inequality and widening urban-rural income and poverty gaps, the benefits of growth were not equally distributed, and poverty persisted in a number of regions (particularly the regions of Latgale and Vitzeme) and among some socioeconomic groups (particularly households deriving their main income from social benefits). In addition to income inequality and asset endowments, poverty appears to be highly correlated with a number of labor market-related variables, particularly unemployment, suggesting that the labor market could be an important transmission channel from growth to poverty. However, though positive...

Traffic Fatalities and Economic Growth

Kopits, Elizabeth; Cropper, Maureen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
The authors examine the impact of income growth on the death rate due to traffic fatalities, as well as on fatalities per motor vehicle and on the motorization rate (vehicles/population) using panel data from 1963-99 for 88 countries. Specifically, they estimate fixed effects models for fatalities/population, vehicles/population, and fatalities/vehicles and use these models to project traffic fatalities and the stock of motor vehicles to 2020.The relationship between motor vehicle fatality rate and per capita income at first increases with per capita income, reaches a peak, and then declines. This is because at low income levels the rate of increase in motor vehicles outpaces the decline in fatalities per motor vehicle. At higher income levels, the reverse occurs. The income level at which per capita traffic fatalities peaks is approximately $8,600 in 1985 international dollars. This is within the range of income at which other externalities, such as air and water pollution, have been found to peak. Projections of future traffic fatalities suggest that the global road death toll will grow by approximately 66 percent between 2000 and 2020. This number...

The Effect of Aid on Growth : Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment

Galiani, Sebastian; Knack, Stephen; Xu, Lixin Colin; Zou, Ben
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
The literature on aid and growth has not found a convincing instrumental variable to identify the causal effects of aid. This paper exploits an instrumental variable based on the fact that since 1987, eligibility for aid from the International Development Association (IDA) has been based partly on whether or not a country is below a certain threshold of per capita income. The paper finds evidence that other donors tend to reinforce rather than compensate for reductions in IDA aid following threshold crossings. Overall, aid as a share of gross national income (GNI) drops about 59 percent on average after countries cross the threshold. Focusing on the 35 countries that have crossed the income threshold from below between 1987 and 2010, a positive, statistically significant, and economically sizable effect of aid on growth is found. A one percentage point increase in the aid to GNI ratio from the sample mean raises annual real per capita growth in gross domestic product by approximately 0.35 percentage points. The analysis shows that the main channel through which aid promotes growth is by increasing physical investment.

Understanding Latin America and the Caribbean’s Income Gap

Thompson Araujo, Jorge; Vostroknutova, Ekaterina; Wacker, Konstantin M.; Clavijo, Mateo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.42%
Even nearly ten years of solid growth cannot guarantee long-term income convergence. The countries of the Latin America and Caribbean region (LAC), like other emerging economies, have benefited from a decade of remarkable growth and some income per capita convergence towards the United States and other industrialized countries. Yet, despite this recent progress, LAC still faces a significant per capita income gap with the developed world. The studies in this volume contribute to the ongoing debate on the reasons for this persistent income gap and the potential drivers of convergence, and propose some broad avenues for reform.

Nonfarm Income, Inequality, and Poverty in Rural Egypt and Jordan

Adams, Richard H.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.35%
The rural economy of developing countries has long been regarded as synonymous with agriculture but in recent years this view has begun to change. Such diverse activities as government, commerce, and services are now seen as providing most income in rural households. Applying decomposition analysis to two new nationally representative sets of household data from Egypt and Jordan, the author examines how different sources of income--including nonfarm income--affect inequality in rural income. He concludes: 1) Nonfarm income has different impacts on poverty and inequality in the two countries. In Egypt the poor (those in the lowest quintile) receive almost 60 percent of their per capita income from nonfarm income. In Jordan the poor receive less than 20 percent of their income from nonfarm income. So nonfarm income decreases inequality in Egypt and increases it in Jordan. 2) Access to land accounts for this difference between the two countries. In Egypt the cultivated land base is totally irrigated and very highly productive. Egypt's large rural population seeks access to land but because the land-to-people ratio is so unfavorable...

Decomposing World Income Distribution : Does the World Have a Middle Class?

Milanovic, Branko; Yitzhaki, Shlomo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.35%
Using national income and expenditure distribution data from 119 countries, the authors decompose total income inequality between the individuals in the world, by continent and by "region" (countries grouped by income level). They use a Gini decomposition that allows for an exact breakdown (without a residual term) of the overall Gini by recipients. Looking first at income inequality in income between countries is more important than inequality within countries. Africa, Latin America, and Western Europe and North America are quite homogeneous continent, with small differences between countries (so that most of the inequality on these continents is explained by inequality within countries). Next the authors divide the world into three groups: the rich G7 countries (and those with similar income levels), the less developed countries (those with per capita income less than or equal to Brazil's), and the middle-income countries (those with per capita income between Brazil's and Italy's). They find little overlap between such groups - very few people in developing countries have incomes in the range of those in the rich countries.

Sustaining Economic Welfare : Estimating Changes in Per Capita Wealth

Hamilton, Kirk
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.55%
The World Bank's "World Development Indicators 1999" highlights for the first time the "genuine" rate of saving for more than 100 countries around the globe. Genuine saving values the total change in economic assets, thereby providing an indicator of whether an economy is on a sustainable path. The Bank's new estimates of genuine saving broaden the usual national accounts definitions of assets to include human capital, minerals, energy, forest resources, and the stock of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Genuine saving measures the change in total assets rather than the change in per capita assets. Genuine saving data may answer the question, "Did total wealth rise or fall over the acoounting period?" But they do not address the question of whether an economy is sustainable with a growing population. Genuine saving could be positive even though per capita wealth is declining. The author explores the issue of measuring changes in per capita wealth--factoring in both growth in total assets (as measured by genuine saving) and population growth--as a more comprehensive indicator of sustainability. First he develops a theoretical approach to estimating total wealth. Then he presents cross-country estimates of changes in per capita wealth. Based on preliminary estimates...

Small Is Beautiful, at Least in High-Income Democracies : The Distribution of Policy-Making Responsibility, Electoral Accountability, and Incentives for Rent Extraction

Hamilton, Alexander
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.18%
Why is there significant variation in rent extraction among high-income democracies? A large number of political economy investigations into this research question have found that a long period of democratic rule and high per capita income are associated with less rent extraction among public policy-makers. However, attempts to explain the residual, yet significant, variation in rent extraction among countries that possess both these characteristics have been significantly more circumspect and disputed. This paper explores how the distribution of policy-making responsibilities between electorally accountable decision-makers and their electorally unaccountable public policy-making counterparts determines the optimal level of rents extracted in any given high-income democracy context. Specifically, the paper formally models how: (1) variation in the ratio of electorally accountable decision-makers to electorally unaccountable decision-makers, by altering (2) voters' evaluation of incumbent competency, changes (3) the incentives that policy-makers...

Interactions Among Donors' Aid Allocations : Evidence from an Exogenous World Bank Income Threshold

Knack, Stephen; Xu, Lixin Colin; Zou, Ben
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.22%
This study investigates the effects of the World Bank's exogenously-determined income threshold for eligibility for concessionary International Development Association (IDA) loans on the allocations of bilateral donors. The donors might interpret the World Bank's policies and allocations across recipients as informative signals of where their own aid might be used most effectively. Alternatively, other donors might compensate for reduced IDA allocations by increasing their own aid. This paper shows that the signaling effect dominates any crowding out effects. The analysis uses panel data with country fixed effects and finds that aid from the bilateral donor countries is significantly reduced after countries cross the IDA income cutoff, controlling for other determinants of aid. Allocations by other donors are not sensitive to actual IDA disbursements, only to the IDA income threshold. Because crossing the income cutoff for eligibility significantly reduces aid levels from other donors as well as from the World Bank...

Making Regional Cooperation Work for South Asia's Poor

Ahmed, Sadiq; Ghani, Ejaz
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
South Asia has attracted global attention because it has experienced rapid GDP growth over the last two decades. What is not so well known is that South Asia is the least integrated region in the world. South Asia has opened its door to the rest of the world but it remains closed to its neighbors. Poor market integration, weak connectivity, and a history of friction and conflict have resulted in two South Asias. The first South Asia is dynamic, growing rapidly, highly urbanized, and is benefiting from global integration. The second South Asia is rural, land locked, full of poverty, and lagging. The divergence between the two South Asias is on the rise. Policy makers in South Asia have realized that countries and regions can not grow in isolation. The unique geography of South Asia-distance and density--has the potential to raise growth through increased flow of labor, capital, ideas, technology, goods and services within the region and with the rest of the world. Most lagging regions, in terms of both per capita income and poverty incidence...

Renda per capita, desigualdades de renda e educacional, e participação política no Brasil; Texto para Discussão (TD) 827: Renda per capita, desigualdades de renda e educacional, e participação política no Brasil; Per capita income, income and educational inequalities, and political participation in Brazil

Oliveira, João Barbosa de
Fonte: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Ipea) Publicador: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Ipea)
Tipo: Texto para Discussão (TD)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.3%
Esta dissertação realiza investigação empírica sobre a validade das principais relações testáveis, derivadas em modelo teórico desenvolvido por Ferreira (2001), a respeito da interação entre desigualdades de renda e educacional, e de poder político, bem como da influência dessas formas de desigualdade sobre a renda per capita de uma economia. A análise é feita aplicando-se técnicas de estimação de dados em painel, para uma amostra de municípios brasileiros de grande porte ou pertencentes a regiões metropolitanas, chamados de auto-representativos na composição da amostra da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD). Foram utilizados dados das PNADs de 1988, 1992, 1996 e 1999. As principais conclusões obtidas são: a) desigualdades de renda e educacional têm correlação negativa com a renda per capita; b) maior grau de participação política está associado a maior nível de renda e a menor desigualdade de renda; e c) desigualdades de renda e educacional são positivamente correlacionadas. Além disso, observa-se que as características específicas dos municípios, captadas via efeitos fixos, são importantes na explicação das relações estudadas, e que só foi possível captar os efeitos da participação política quando se utiliza variável que reflete mais diretamente a disposição dos agentes de influir no processo de decisão política.; 62 p.

Diferencial salarial público-privado e desigualdade de renda per capita no Brasil; The public-private wage gap and per capita income inequality in Brazil

Souza, Pedro Herculano Guimarães Ferreira de; Medeiros, Marcelo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/01/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.31%
We estimate the contribution of the wage differential between workers with the same attributes in the public and private sectors to the household per capita income inequality in Brazil. The estimate is based on counterfactual simulations and the contribution to inequality on a factor decomposition of the Gini coefficient. Data comes from the Brazilian National Household Survey PNAD 2009. The differential corresponds approximately to 17% of the total wages bill, is regressive and highly concentrated. However, because it amounts to a small share of the total income its contribution to the total inequality is of 3%. The sector composition effects on inequality are times higher than the segmentation (price) effects. These conclusions are robust to changes in the definition of the sectors and to different estimation techniques.; O estudo estima a contribuição específica do diferencial salarial entre trabalhadores com características semelhantes dos setores público e privado para a desigualdade na renda domiciliar per capita no Brasil. A estimação se baseia em simulações contrafactuais e o cálculo das contribuições para a desigualdade em uma decomposição de fatores do coeficiente de Gini. Os dados são provenientes da PNAD 2009. O diferencial equivale a cerca de 17% da massa salarial dos servidores públicos...

An investigation on the role of institutions for income and growth models

Vieira, Flávio Vilela; Damasceno, Aderbal Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.31%
This work evaluates the role of institutions on per capita income levels (cross-section) and growth models (panel data). The cross-section results suggest that there is some evidence regarding the role of institutions since all the estimated coefficients are positive and statistically significant but there is evidence of weak instruments. The results from the panel growth models suggest that there is scarce evidence for the role of institutions in fostering long-run growth. In one word, there is no indication of an empirical consensus to claim that institutions have a primary role, meaning that institutions cause growth and difference in income levels.; O presente trabalho examina o papel das instituições em modelos de renda per capita (corte transversal) e de crescimento (painel). Os resultados das estimações de corte transversal sugerem que há alguma evidência quanto ao papel das instituições dado que os coeficientes estimados são positivos e estatisticamente significativos, mas existem evidências de que os instrumentos utilizados são fracos. Os resultados para os modelos de crescimento sugerem que há poucas evidências quanto arelevância das instituições para estimular o crescimento. Sumarizando, não há indicação de um consenso empírico capaz de sustentar o argumento do papel primordial das instituições...

Total Factor Productivity, Per Capita Income and Social Divergence

Grafton, R Quentin; Knowles, Stephen; Owen, P Dorian
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.11%
The paper introduces the concept of social divergence, defined as the social barriers to communication and exchange between individuals and groups within a society, and analyses its impact on total factor productivity and per capita income. Using a cross