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Involvement of the central nervous system in the chronic form of Chagas` disease

WACKERMANN, Paula Viana; FERNANDES, Regina Maria Franca; ELIAS JR., Jorge; SANTOS, Antonio Carlos dos; MARQUES JR., Wilson; BARREIRA, Arnilton Antunes
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.94%
Background and purpose: Apart from the central nervous system parasitic invasion in chagasic immunodeficient patients and strokes due to heart lesions provoked by the disease, the typical neurological syndromes of the chronic phase of Chagas` disease (CD) have not yet been characterized, although involvement of the peripheral nervous system has been well documented. This study aims at investigating whether specific signs of central nervous system impairment might be associated with the disease. Methods: Twenty-seven patients suffering from the chronic form of Chagas` disease (CCD) and an equal number of controls matched for sex, age, educational and socio-cultural background, and coming from the same geographical regions, were studied using neurological examinations, magnetic resonance images, and electroencephalographic frequency analysis. Results: Nineteen patients were at the stage A of the cardiac form of the disease (without documented structural lesions or heart failure). Dizziness, brisk reflexes, and ankle and knee areflexia were significantly more prevalent in the patients than in the controls. The significant findings in quantitative electroencephalogram were an increase in the theta relative power and a decrease in the theta dominant frequency at temporal-occipital derivations. Subcortical...

Peripheral nervous system and grounds for the neural insult in leprosy

CHACHA, Jorge Joao; SOTTO, Miriam N.; PETERS, Lothar; LOURENCO, Silvia; RIVITTI, Evandro A.; MELNIKOV, Petr
Fonte: SOC BRASILEIRA DERMATOLOGIA Publicador: SOC BRASILEIRA DERMATOLOGIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.96%
The mechanism of interaction between Mycobacterium leprae and neural cells has not been elucidated so far. No satisfactory interpretation exists as to the bacterium tropism to the peripheral nervous system in particular. The present study is a review of the micro-physiology of the extracellular apparatus attached to Schwann cells, as well as on the description of morphological units probably involved in the process of the binding to the bacterial wall.

Características do envolvimento do Sistema Nervoso Central na Polirradiculoneuropatia Inflamatória Desmielinizante Crônica: um estudo mediante técnicas quantitativas de Imagem por Ressonância Magnética; Characteristics of involvement of the central nervous system in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

Carmo, Samuel Sullivan
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.87%
A polineuropatia inflamatória desmielinizante crônica (PIDC) é uma síndrome caracterizada fundamentalmente pela disfunção do Sistema Nervoso Periférico e que afeta muito a qualidade de vida dos pacientes. O envolvimento da PIDC com o Sistema Nervoso Central tem sido descrito, maiormente como sendo subclínico, porém não há estudos sobre a caracterização deste envolvimento de uma forma ampla e quantitativa. Avaliamos 11 pacientes com PIDC, todos tratados e sem sinais clínicos de alterações centrais, e 11 controles, pareados em gênero e faixa etária de 19 a 69 anos. Foram adquiridas neuroimagens em uma máquina de Ressonância Magnética de alto campo (3T) usando diferentes técnicas de imagens; volumétricas ponderadas em T1, volumétricas de inversão e recuperação com atenuação de fluidos e ponderadas em T2, relaxométricas de cinco ecos para mapas de T2, de transferência de magnetização e por tensor de difusão. As imagens foram processadas em diferentes ferramentas computacionais e foram obtidos resultados para estudos da difusibilidade, volumetria, morfometria, tratometria e conectividade cerebral, além de achados radiológicos para os pacientes. As análises de grupos foram executadas por; 1) testes paramétricos monocaudais de duas amostras pareadas para os resultados da volumetria...

Pediatric neurotoxocariasis with concomitant cerebral, cerebellar, and peripheral nervous system involvement : case report and review of the literature; Neurotoxocaríase infantil com acometimento cerebral, cerebelar e periférico simultâneo : relato de caso e revisão da literatura

Salvador, Sócrates; Ribeiro, Ricardo de Moraes; Winckler, Maria Isabel Bragatti; Ohlweiler, Lygia; Riesgo, Rudimar dos Santos
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.04%
Objetivo: Alertar a comunidade pediátrica às consequências neurológicas da toxocaríase e descrever o primeiro caso pediátrico de neurotoxocaríase com acometimento simultâneo do cérebro, cerebelo e sistema nervoso periférico. Descrição: Relatamos um caso de neurotoxocaríase em criança do sexo masculino, 5 anos de idade, previamente hígido, com sintomas incomuns e acometimento multifocal dos sistemas nervosos central e periférico. Discutimos o diagnóstico diferencial e fazemos uma breve revisão da literatura. Desde o início da década de 1950, menos de 50 casos de neurotoxocaríase foram descritos, a maioria em adultos. Comentários: A toxocaríase é uma das helmintíases mais comuns em humanos. A neurotoxocaríase, porém, é uma patologia rara, especialmente na população pediátrica. Embora a toxocaríase costume seguir um curso autolimitado, sem envolvimento do sistema nervoso central, as manifestações neurológicas podem ser devastadoras quando ocorrem. A neurotoxocaríase deve fazer parte do diagnóstico diferencial de pacientes pediátricos com sintomas neurológicos atípicos e eosinofilia no líquor. Se diagnosticada e tratada precocemente, é possível evitar as sequelas neurológicas a longo prazo.; Objective: To alert pediatricians to the neurologic consequences of toxocariasis and to describe the first pediatric case of neurotoxocariasis with concomitant cerebral...

O sistema nervoso periferico na doença de Machado-Joseph : aspectos clinicos e neurofisiologicos; Clinical and neurophysiological study of the peripheral nervous system um Machado-Joseph disease

Marcondes Cavalcante França Junior
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/11/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
A ataxia espinocerebelar tipo 3 ou doença de Machado-Joseph (SCA3/DMJ) é a ataxia autossômica dominante mais freqüente em nosso meio e tem como causa a expansão anormal do tripleto (CAG) no 10º éxon do gene MJD1 situado no cromossomo 14q. Trata-se de uma doença neurológica crônica e incapacitante cuja principal manifestação é a ataxia cerebelar, usualmente associada a disfunções piramidais, extra-piramidais, alterações da motilidade ocular extrínseca e neuropatia periférica (NP). Habitualmente, ocorre o envolvimento de múltiplas populações neuronais, tanto no sistema nervoso central (SNC) quanto periférico (SNP). No entanto, o envolvimento dos nervos periféricos na SCA3/DMJ apesar de freqüente e descrito previamente, é ainda pouco estudado. Nesse contexto, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar o envolvimento do SNP na SCA3/DMJ, com o intuito específico de estimar a relevância de suas repercussões clínicas, determinar seus fatores causais e caracterizar sua história natural. Inicialmente, investigamos manifestações habituais em enfermidades do SNP mas pouco exploradas na SCA3/DMJ, como dor, câimbras e fasciculações,além de queixas de disautonomia. Em uma coorte de 70 indivíduos com SCA3/DMJ, encontramos dor crônica em 47% dos pacientes...

PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL SCREENING IN CHILDREN WITH CELIAC DISEASE

IŞIKAY,Şedat; IŞIKAY,Nurgül; KOCAMAZ,Halil; HIZLI,Şamil
Fonte: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE ; Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD ; Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD ; Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBG; Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBH; Sociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED Publicador: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE ; Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD ; Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD ; Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBG; Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBH; Sociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.01%
Background The involvement of the peripheral nervous system in children with celiac disease is particularly rare. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the need for neurophysiological testing in celiac disease patients without neurological symptoms in order to detect early subclinical neuropathy and its possible correlations with clinical and demographic characteristics. Methods Two hundred and twenty consecutive children with celiac disease were screened for neurological symptoms and signs, and those without symptoms or signs were included. Also, patients with comorbidities associated with peripheral neuropathy or a history of neurological disease were excluded. The remaining 167 asymptomatic patients as well as 100 control cases were tested electro-physiologically for peripheral nervous system diseases. Motor nerve conduction studies, including F-waves, were performed for the median, ulnar, peroneal, and tibial nerves, and sensory nerve conduction studies were performed for the median, ulnar, and sural nerves with H reflex of the soleus muscle unilaterally. All studies were carried out using surface recording electrodes. Normative values established in our laboratory were used. Results Evidence for subclinical neuropathy was not determined with electrophysiological studies in any of the participants. Conclusion In this highly selective celiac disease group without any signs...

Biology of the repair of central nervous system demyelinated lesions: an appraisal

Peireira,L. A. V; Cruz-Höfling,M. A.; Dertkigil,M. S. J.; Graça,D. L.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.99%
The integrity of myelin sheaths is maintained by oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells respectively in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the peripheral nervous system. The process of demyelination consisting of the withdrawal of myelin sheaths from their axons is a characteristic feature of multiple sclerosis, the most common human demyelinating disease. Many experimental models have been designed to study the biology of demyelination and remyelination (repair of the lost myelin) in the CNS, due to the difficulties in studying human material. In the ethidium bromide (an intercalating gliotoxic drug) model of demyelination, CNS remyelination may be carried out by surviving oligodendrocytes and/or by cells differentiated from the primitive cell lines or either by Schwann cells that invade the CNS. However, some factors such as the age of the experimental animals, intensity and time of exposure to the intercalating chemical and the topography of the lesions have marked influence on the repair of the tissue.

Genotypical diversity of HIV clades and central nervous system impairment

Rotta,Indianara; Almeida,Sérgio Monteiro de
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.88%
The central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system are considered major target organs for HIV infection. The neurological manifestations directly related to HIV are acute viral meningitis, chronic meningitis, HIV associated dementia, vacuolar myelopathy and involvement of the peripheral nervous system. Changes in diagnosis and clinical management have changed the aspect of HIV infection so that it is no longer a fatal disease, and has become a chronic disease requiring sustained medical management. After HAART the incidence of most opportunistic infections, including those affecting the CNS, has dropped markedly. Some studies suggest that neurological involvement of infected patient occur with different frequency, depending on HIV subtype involved in the infection. Subtype C may have reduced neuroinvasive capacity, possibly due to its different primary conformation of HIV transactivating regulatory protein (Tat), involved in monocyte chemotaxis. This review focus on physiopathologic aspects of HIV infection in CNS and its correlation with HIV clades.

EXPERIMETAL MICRONEUROSURGERY OF THE CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IN THE STUDY OF THE NEURONAL AND GLIAL TROPHISM AND PLASTICITY

Chadi,Gerson; Castelucci,Patrícia; Gomide,Vânia C.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.05%
Trauma and neurodegenerative diseases commit the nervous system. After an axotomy or nerve injury in the peripheral nervous system the regeneration of the nerve fibers and reinervation of the target are seen. In central nervous system these events are restrictive, however their occurrence are related to the state of glial reaction and the synthesis of neurotrophic factors. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been considered an important trophic factor for neurons and astrocytes of many central nervous system regions. In this study rats were submitted to one of following neurosurgery procedures: callosotomy, pyramidectomy or complete transection of hypoglossal nerve (XII). Sham operations were made in control animals. Seven days later animals were sacrificed and their brains processed for immunohistochemistry. Coronal sections were taken from the central nervous system and incubated with antisera against the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or neurofilament (NF), markers for astrocyte and neuronal cell body and fibers, respectively, as well as with the antiserum against the bFGF. The degree of the labelling was quantified with computer assisted stereological methods. The analysis of the NF immunoreactivity revealed a disappearance of fibers in the white matter distal to the pyramidectomy and callosotomy...

Human immunodeficiency virus and the central nervous system

Almeida,Sergio Monteiro de; Letendre,Scott; Ellis,Ron
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.88%
The pandemic of HIV/AIDS continues to grow daily. Incident cases among women, intravenous drug users and ethnic minorities comprise the fastest growing segment of the HIV-infected population, and the number of HIV-infected individuals over the age of 50 is growing rapidly. Today, the central nervous system and the immune system are seen as main targets of HIV infection. Significant progress in the knowledge and treatment of AIDS has been obtained in recent years. The neurological manifestations directly related to HIV are acute viral meningitis, chronic meningitis, HIV-associated dementia (HAD), vacuolar myelopathy, and involvement of the peripheral nervous system.

Cloning of a big tau microtubule-associated protein characteristic of the peripheral nervous system.

Goedert, M; Spillantini, M G; Crowther, R A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/1992 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
Microtubule-associated protein tau consists in brain of a series of isoforms of 48- to 67-kDa apparent molecular mass that are encoded by mRNAs of approximately 6 kilobases (kb) and that are generated from a single gene by alternative splicing. Previously, a tau-like protein of 110-kDa apparent molecular mass was described in peripheral ganglia and in peripheral neuronlike cell lines. We now report the cloning and sequencing of a rat cDNA encoding this big tau. The corresponding protein contains sequence identical to the longest of the previously cloned small tau isoforms but with an additional 254 amino acid insert in the amino-terminal half. Big tau is produced from an 8-kb mRNA generated by alternative splicing from the same gene that encodes small tau. Production of big tau from the cloned sequence gives a protein of 110-kDa apparent molecular mass that aligns on SDS/PAGE with big tau protein extracted from peripheral ganglia. RNA blots show that in peripheral ganglia from adult rats only the 8-kb mRNA band corresponding to big tau is found, whereas in ganglia from newborn rats both 6- and 8-kb tau mRNA bands are found. In tissues from the central nervous system only the 6-kb mRNA band can be detected. Big tau protein is therefore produced specifically in the peripheral nervous system...

Immunocytochemical localization of rat peripheral nervous system myelin proteins: P2 protein is not a component of all peripheral nervous system myelin sheaths.

Trapp, B D; McIntyre, L J; Quarles, R H; Sternberger, N H; Webster, H D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1979 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Specific antibodies have been developed against P1, P2, and P0 myelin proteins and were used to study the localization of these proteins in the rat peripheral nervous system. Both peripheral and central nervous system myelin sheaths contain P1 protein. P0 and P2 proteins are found exclusively in peripheral nervous system myelin sheaths. Antisera to P1 and P0 proteins stain all peripheral nervous system myelin sheaths uniformly. P2 protein is not a component of all peripheral nervous system myelin sheaths. In sheaths that do contain P2 protein, it is concentrated in the area of the Schmidt-Lanterman incisures.

Apolipoprotein E associated with astrocytic glia of the central nervous system and with nonmyelinating glia of the peripheral nervous system.

Boyles, J K; Pitas, R E; Wilson, E; Mahley, R W; Taylor, J M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1985 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
The plasma protein apolipoprotein (apo) E is an important determinant of lipid transport and metabolism in mammals. In the present study, immunocytochemistry has been used to identify apo E in specific cells of the central and peripheral nervous systems of the rat. Light microscopic examination revealed that all astrocytes, including specialized astrocytic cells (Bergmann glia of the cerebellum, tanycytes of the third ventricle, pituicytes of the neurohypophysis, and Müller cells of the retina), possessed significant concentrations of apo E. In all of the major subdivisions of the central nervous system, the perinuclear region of astrocytic cells, as well as their cell processes that end on basement membranes at either the pial surface or along blood vessels, were found to be rich in apo E. Extracellular apo E was present along many of these same surfaces. The impression that apo E is secreted by astrocytic cells was confirmed by electron microscopic immunocytochemical studies, which demonstrated the presence of apo E in the Golgi apparatus. Apo E was not present in neurons, oligodendroglia, microglia, ependymal cells, and choroidal cells. In the peripheral nervous system, apo E was present within the glia surrounding sensory and motor neurons; satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglia and superior cervical sympathetic ganglion as well as the enteric glia of the intestinal ganglia were reactive. Apo E was also present within the non-myelinating Schwann cells but not within the myelinating Schwann cells of peripheral nerves. These results suggest that apo E has an important...

Characterization of a novel peripheral nervous system myelin protein (PMP-22/SR13)

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/1992 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
We have recently described a novel cDNA, SR13 (Welcher, A. A., U. Suter, M. De Leon, G. J. Snipes, and E. M. Shooter. 1991. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88:7195-7199), that is repressed after sciatic nerve crush injury and shows homology to both the growth arrest-specific mRNA, gas3 (Manfioletti, G., M. E. Ruaro, G. Del Sal, L. Philipson, and C. Schneider, 1990. Mol. Cell Biol. 10:2924-2930), and to the myelin protein, PASII (Kitamura, K., M. Suzuki, and K. Uyemura. 1976. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 455:806-816). In this report, we show that the 22-kD SR13 protein is expressed in the compact portion of essentially all myelinated fibers in the peripheral nervous system. Although SR13 mRNA was found in the central nervous system, no corresponding SR13 protein could be detected by either immunoblot analysis or by immunohistochemistry. Northern and immunoblot analysis of SR13 mRNA and protein expression during development of the peripheral nervous system reveal a pattern similar to other myelin proteins. Furthermore, we demonstrate by in situ mRNA hybridization on tissue sections and on individual nerve fibers that SR13 mRNA is produced predominantly by Schwann cells. We conclude that the SR13 protein is apparently exclusively expressed in the peripheral nervous system where it is a major component of myelin. Thus...

Calretinin in the peripheral nervous system of the adult zebrafish

Levanti, M B; Montalbano, G; Laurà, R; Ciriaco, E; Cobo, T; García-Suarez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein found widely distributed in the central nervous system and chemosensory cells of the teleosts, but its presence in the peripheral nervous system of fishes is unknown. In this study we used Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry to investigate the occurrence and distribution of calretinin in the cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, sympathetic ganglia, and enteric nervous system of the adult zebrafish. By Western blotting a unique and specific protein band with an estimated molecular weight of around 30 kDa was detected, and it was identified as calretinin. Immunohistochemistry revealed that calretinin is selectively present in the cytoplasm of the neurons and never in the satellite glial cells. In both sensory and sympathetic ganglia the density of neurons that were immunolabelled, their size and morphology, as well as the intensity of immunostaining developed within the cytoplasm, were heterogeneous. In the enteric nervous system calretinin immunoreactivity was detected in a subset of enteric neurons as well as in a nerve fibre plexus localized inside the muscular layers. The present results demonstrate that in addition to the central nervous system, calretinin is also present in the peripheral nervous system of zebrafish...

Expression and distribution of ‘high affinity’ glutamate transporters GLT1, GLAST, EAAC1 and of GCPII in the rat peripheral nervous system

Carozzi, Valentina Alda; Canta, Annalisa; Oggioni, Norberto; Ceresa, Cecilia; Marmiroli, Paola; Konvalinka, Jan; Zoia, Chiara; Bossi, Mario; Ferrarese, Carlo; Tredici, Giovanni; Cavaletti, Guido
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
l-Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system, but recently it has been shown to have a role also in the transduction of sensory input at the periphery, and in particular in the nociceptive pathway. An excess of glutamate is implicated in cases of peripheral neuropathies as well. Conventional therapeutic approaches for treating these diseases have focused on blocking glutamate receptors with small molecules or on reducing its synthesis of the receptors through the inhibition of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), the enzyme that generates glutamate. In vivo studies have demonstrated that the pharmacological inhibition of GCPII can either prevent or treat the peripheral nerve changes in both BB/Wor and chemically induced diabetes in rats. In this study, we characterized the expression and distribution of glutamate transporters GLT1, GLAST, EAAC1 and of the enzyme GCPII in the peripheral nervous system of female Wistar rats. Immunoblotting results demonstrated that all glutamate transporters and GCPII are present in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the sciatic nerve. Immunofluorescence localization studies revealed that both DRG and sciatic nerves were immunopositive for all glutamate transporters and for GCPII. In DRG...

Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

COJOCARU, Inimioara Mihaela; COJOCARU, Manole; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina
Fonte: Media Med Publicis Publicador: Media Med Publicis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
The peripheral nervous system refers to parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Systemic autoimmune diseases can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems in a myriad of ways and through a heterogeneous number of mechanisms leading to many different clinical manifestations. As a result, neurological complications of these disorders can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common complication of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement is peripheral neuropathy, with symptoms of numbness, sensory paresthesias, weakness, or gait imbalance. The neuropathy may be multifocal and asymmetric or, less frequently, distal and symmetric.

Neurogenesis in the adult peripheral nervous system☆

Czaja, Krzysztof; Fornaro, Michele; Geuna, Stefano
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
Most researchers believe that neurogenesis in mature mammals is restricted only to the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the central nervous system. In the peripheral nervous system, neurogenesis is thought to be active only during prenatal development, with the exception of the olfactory neuroepithelium. However, sensory ganglia in the adult peripheral nervous system have been reported to contain precursor cells that can proliferate in vitro and be induced to differentiate into neurons. The occurrence of insult-induced neurogenesis, which has been reported by several investigators in the brain, is limited to a few recent reports for the peripheral nervous system. These reports suggest that damage to the adult nervous system induces mechanisms similar to those that control the generation of new neurons during prenatal development. Understanding conditions under which neurogenesis can be induced in physiologically non-neurogenic regions in adults is one of the major challenges for developing therapeutic strategies to repair neurological damage. However, the induced neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system is still largely unexplored. This review presents the history of research on adult neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system...

Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations in a Sandhoff Disease Mouse Model: Nerve Conduction, Myelin Structure, Lipid Analysis

McNally, Melanie A; Baek, Rena C; Avila, Robin L; Seyfried, Thomas N; Kirschner, Daniel A; Strichartz, Gary Richard
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
Background: Sandhoff disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the β-subunit (Hexb gene) of β-hexosaminidase A (αβ) and B (ββ). The β-subunit together with the GM2 activator protein catabolize ganglioside GM2. This enzyme deficiency results in GM2 accumulation primarily in the central nervous system. To investigate how abnormal GM2 catabolism affects the peripheral nervous system in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease (Hexb-/-), we examined the electrophysiology of dissected sciatic nerves, structure of central and peripheral myelin, and lipid composition of the peripheral nervous system. Results: We detected no significant difference in signal impulse conduction velocity or any consistent change in the frequency-dependent conduction slowing and failure between freshly dissected sciatic nerves from the Hexb+/- and Hexb-/- mice. The low-angle x-ray diffraction patterns from freshly dissected sciatic and optic nerves of Hexb+/- and Hexb-/- mice showed normal myelin periods; however, Hexb-/- mice displayed a ~10% decrease in the relative amount of compact optic nerve myelin, which is consistent with the previously established reduction in myelin-enriched lipids (cerebrosides and sulfatides) in brains of Hexb-/- mice. Finally...

Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in primary Sjögren's syndrome

Barendregt, P; van den Bent, M J; van Raaij-van, den... V J M; van den Meiracker, A H; Vecht, C.; van der Heijde, G L; Markusse, H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
BACKGROUND—Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) has been reported, but its prevalence in neurologically asymptomatic patients is not well known.
OBJECTIVE—To assess clinical and neurophysiological features of the peripheral nervous system in patients with primary SS.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—39 (38 female) consecutive patients with primary SS, aged 20-81 years (mean 50), with a disease duration of 1-30 years (mean 8) were studied. The peripheral nervous system was evaluated by a questionnaire, physical examination, quantified sensory neurological examination, and neurophysiological measurements (nerve conduction studies). To assess autonomic cardiovascular function an orthostatic challenge test, a Valsalva manoeuvre, a forced respiration test, and pupillography were done.
RESULTS—Abnormalities as indicated in the questionnaire were found in 8/39 (21%) patients, while an abnormal neurological examination was found in 7/39 (18%) patients. Abnormalities in quantified sensory neurological examination were found in 22/38 (58%) patients. In 9/39 (23%) patients, neurophysiological signs compatible with a sensory polyneuropathy were found. No differences were found in the autonomic test results...