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Avaliação de impacto à saúde: aplicação e contribuição para a integração de políticas setoriais no Estado de Mato Grosso; Health impact assessment: application and contribution to the integration of sectoral policies in the State of Mato Grosso

Néspoli, Glória Regina Calháo Barini
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/03/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
A formulação de políticas, planos e programas governamentais tem sido conduzida desarticuladamente, sem a necessária participação social e prévia avaliação de seus impactos sobre o ambiente e saúde da população. Como as ferramentas de avaliação de impacto de políticas públicas contribuiriam para a integração dessas políticas com vistas à sustentabilidade? Partindo desse questionamento, trabalhou-se com a hipótese de trabalho de que a gestão pública para a sustentabilidade pressupõe a integração das políticas setoriais, no nível estratégico, o que vai além da avaliação de impactos da política. A gestão pública para a sustentabilidade, nesta pesquisa, refere-se ao processo de formulação e implementação de políticas públicas, em que são avaliados os seus objetivos de sustentabilidade social, ambiental e econômico, considerando o contexto cultural e institucional em que se insere, como forma de operacionalizar os princípios da precaução e da eficiência na administração pública. Os objetivos foram analisar ferramentas de avaliação de políticas, planos e programas (PPPs), como a Avaliação de Impacto à Saúde (AIS), de caráter preventivo, e discutir como essas avaliações contribuem para a integração e eficiência de políticas públicas setoriais. Desenvolvida como um estudo de caso...

Políticas públicas de inclusão social na América Latina: ações afirmativas no Brasil e México; Public policies of social inclusion in Latin America: affirmative actions in Brazil and Mexico

Linhares, Milton
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/05/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
A presente tese de doutorado propõe-se a viabilizar um estudo comparativo entre as políticas públicas voltadas à inclusão social, particularmente, aquelas denominadas de ações afirmativas em dois países da América Latina: Brasil e México. Por meio de metodologia comparativa e adotando-se uma metodologia de cunho interdisciplinar, bem como de abordagem dos processos históricos desses países, e análise das bases de construção de suas sociedades, delimitando-se, especificamente, a presente pesquisa dessas políticas nos países Brasil e México. A investigação foca-se na situação de grupos discriminados por questões de raça e/ou etnia; e que, como consequência disso, situam-se à margem do direito social, fundamental para o pleno exercício da cidadania a educação. Analisa-se a questão conceitual, teórica e empírica da implantação das políticas públicas de inclusão social sob a modalidade de ações afirmativas, caracterizando sua finalidade, elementos e conteúdos. Apresenta-se um breve histórico da implantação dessas políticas no contexto norte-americano, onde, aliás, essas políticas têm seu nascedouro. Analisa-se comparativamente a validade e a pertinência da adoção dessas políticas e a necessidade de maior permuta internacional...

Regional growth in Europe: The role of European and national policies

Llussá, Fernanda; Lopes, José Mário
Fonte: Nova SBE Publicador: Nova SBE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
We conduct a systematic study of the impact of European Union (EU) regional policies on regional economic growth that controls for national policies and geographic characteristics. Special care is taken in distinguishing between the impact of EU policies and of national policies on economic growth. Our empirical study tries to answer two different questions. First, is there convergence across EU regions, and if so, do regions converge to a common European steady-state or to a national one? Second, how do European and national policies affect regional growth? We find evidence of regional convergence at the national level but not at the European level. In addition we find that trade openness at the national level is associated with regional convergence while European regional policies contribute, though weakly, to regional convergence. Our results suggest that policies that foster market integration – and convergence to a common steady-state - such as the promotion of labour and capital movements across countries and common regulatory policies are as important for European-wide regional convergence as regional structural funds.

A Primer on Policies for Jobs

Nallari, Raj; Griffith, Breda; Wang, Yidan; Andriamananjara, Soamiely; Chen, Derek H. C.; Bhattacharya, Rwitwika
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
A primer on policies for jobs is based on materials and input provided during the labor market courses conducted during the past 10 years. Its objective is to provide government policy makers, researchers, and labor market practitioners and other specialists with a practical guide on how to strengthen labor market institutions, especially in light of the global financial crisis. This primer emphasizes six pillars of labor market institutions: global trends, job creation, labor market policies, education, entrepreneurship, and globalization. Chapter one addresses current labor market trends and job creation, particularly in tough conditions. Chapter two examines channels of job creation and ways to strengthen labor market institutions to ensure sustainable job growth, considering factors such as investment climate, job policy, industrial policy, social protection, and other labor market issues. Chapter three focuses on labor market policies in developing countries. Chapter four highlights the impact of education and skills on labor market outcome. Chapter five discusses entrepreneurship along three key dimensions: development and growth...

Lessons from European Union Policies for Regional Development

Shankar, Raja; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Regional disparities present an ever present development challenge in most countries, especially those with large geographic areas under their jurisdiction. A neglect of these inequities may create the potential for disunity and, in extreme cases, for disintegration. In view of this, most countries actively pursue policies with a view to helping lagging regions catch up with faster growing regions. These policies have at best a mixed record of success. It is therefore useful to discern what type of policies work and why? In this context learning from the experience of the European Union (EU) may be particularly instructive as, over the years, it has provided significant support to assist poorer regions achieve convergence with the richer regions. This paper reviews the impact of EU policies for regional development to draw lessons of interest to other countries pursuing similar goals. The paper concludes that policies that serve to create an internal common market by creating a level playing field that enables poorer regions to integrate with the broader national and global economies have the best potential to advance regional income convergence. In this context...

The Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on Poverty and Income Distribution : Macro-Micro Evaluation Techniques and Tools

Bourguignon, François; Bussolo, Maurizio; Pereira da Silva, Luiz A.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
This book assembles methodologies and techniques to evaluate the poverty impact of macroeconomic policies. It takes as a departure point a companion volume, the impact of economic policies on poverty and income distribution: evaluation techniques and tools. This volume was primarily a review of microeconomic techniques aimed at assessing policies that are directly concerned with the welfare of poor households or individuals such as changing the level of cash transfers to the poorest households, increasing price subsidies for basic consumer goods, and the like. In addition, the second part of that earlier publication introduced basic techniques to deal with the poverty impact of macroeconomic policies that by definition are not targeted and affect the whole population. This volume presents a comprehensive array of macro-micro modeling frameworks. It begins by highlighting the limitation of macroeconomic models that use representative household groups to link macroeconomic policies and microeconomic data. It then moves to more complexes...

The Cost of Adjustment to Green Growth Policies : Lessons from Trade Adjustment Costs

Porto, Guido
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Green growth policies confront firms and workers with adjustments that may create welfare costs for different segments of the population and cause reductions in near-term actual versus potential gross domestic product. There is little evidence on the cost of adjustment to climate change measures, and only limited evidence for more general environmental policies, especially in developing countries. Therefore, this paper canvasses the research on adjustment costs to trade policies to draw analogies and highlight differences compared with the potential impacts of green growth policies. Trade policies affect prices and work directly on technology choice. In the presence of adjustment costs, firms may experience impacts on wages, employment, and incentives to adopt alternative technologies. Both types of trade policy impacts may be amplified by technology availability and credit constraints. Many green growth policies are likely to work via the same mechanisms, that is, taxes on emissions or changes in technology requirements. However...

Green Industrial Policies : When and How

Hallegatte, Stephane; Fay, Marianne; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Green industrial policies can be defined as industrial policies with an environmental goal -- or more precisely, as sector-targeted policies that affect the economic production structure with the aim of generating environmental benefits. This paper provides a framework to assess their desirability depending on the effectiveness and political acceptability of price instruments. The main messages are the following. (i) Greening growth processes to the extent and with the speed needed cannot be done without industrial policies, even if prices can be adjusted to reflect environmental objectives. (ii) "Sunrise" green industrial policies are needed because they support the development of critical new technologies and sectors, bring down costs, and allow for reduced emissions in the short term even in the absence of carbon pricing. (iii) "Sunset" green industrial policies and trade policies may be needed in conjunction with safety nets to make carbon pricing politically or socially acceptable. They can help mitigate the impact of a carbon price on competitiveness and unemployment and smooth the transition by helping industries adjust to the new conditions. (iv) Green or not...

What Matters Most for Teacher Policies : A Framework Paper

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
Over the past decade, both developed and developing countries have become growingly concerned with how to raise the effectiveness of teachers. The growing focus on the need to strengthen the teaching profession to ensure better education results has encountered the problem that evidence on the policies that raise teaching quality is scattered, incomplete and, in some cases, presents contradictory findings. This paper provides a framework for analyzing teacher policies in education systems around the world in order to support informed education policy decisions. It provides a lens through which governments, World Bank staff, and other interested parties can focus the attention on what the relevant dimensions regarding teacher policies are, what teacher policies seem to matter most to improve student learning, and how to think about prioritization among competing policy options for teacher policy reform. The systems approach for better education results (SABER) - teachers initiative aims to collect, analyze...

Family Policies in Russia

Elizarov, Valeriy; Levin, Victoria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
Policymakers in many countries, including the Russian Federation, are attempting to encourage fertility as part of their response to the challenge of population aging. Whether pro-natalist policies will be effective depends crucially on how well they address the underlying causes of low fertility and barriers to larger family size. While in some countries in Western Europe postponing childbearing and increased childlessness seem to be driving the fertility decline, these factors do not appear to be as influential in Russia. Instead, the problem seems to be the relatively low frequency of second and higher-order births, which persists despite major changes to pro-natalist policies introduced in 2007 and the prevalence of the two-child ideal of family size. This study analyzes current and prospective fertility trends in contemporary Russia, with special attention to second-child birth dynamics and its determinants. Stable employment and accessibility of formal childcare options are found to be factors that are correlated with mothers preferences for additional children and the probability that they will have a second child. In light of this observation and international experience...

Towards context-adaptable Web service policies

Yahyaoui, H.; Wang, L.; Mourad, A.; Almullah, M.; Sheng, Q.
Fonte: Elsevier Ltd.; Netherlands Publicador: Elsevier Ltd.; Netherlands
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
We propose in this paper a new approach to achieve highly adaptable Web services through context-adaptable Web service policies. A Web service policy is a set of rules that defines the capabilities and requirements of a Web service as well as governs the runtime behavior, quality and result of the Web service. Our Web service policies are superbly adaptable in the sense that we specify context for both policies and rules to make the policies context adaptable at both policy and rule levels. The main contributions of our approach include: i) an innovative WSPL (Web Service Policy Language) extension to allow context specification at both policy and rule levels; and ii) a tool that supports the development of aspect oriented policies, including an option to translate WSPL policies into aspect oriented policies. These policies can then be statically woven into compositeWeb services (e.g. a BPEL process). The synergy between context, policies and aspects allows to increase the level of adaptability of Web services at different levels of applications.; H. Yahyaoui, L. Wang, A. Mourad, M. Almullah and Q.Z. Sheng

Políticas culturais: um olhar transversal pela janela-ecrã de Serralves; Cultural policies: a transversal look through Serralves screen-window

Gama, Manuel Carlos Lobão de Araújo e
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 24/07/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Tese de doutoramento em Estudos Culturais (área de especialização em Sociologia da Cultura); POLÍTICAS CULTURAIS: Um olhar transversal pela janela-ecrã de Serralves pretende, através da produção de um ponto de vista realizado a partir da observação da Fundação de Serralves, contribuir para a discussão crítica e construtiva sobre as políticas culturais em Portugal. Um grande plano sobre alguns dos estudos que se têm debruçado sobre as relações, os objetos e os sujeitos envolvidos na definição e implementação, desde o 2º quartel do século XX, de políticas para o setor cultural em Portugal, permite perceber que é indiscutível que o desenvolvimento cultural conquistado em quase quarenta anos de democracia é francamente superior ao potenciado pelos mais de quarenta anos de ditadura e que todos, setor público e setor privado, têm uma cota parte de responsabilidade na transformação cultural positiva operada em Portugal desde 1974. Mas no filme das políticas culturais ninguém sai ilibado de um passado que tem que ser considerado de globalmente errante e ninguém se pode demitir da sua função no futuro, se se quer que ele seja promissor. A falta de rigor na designação de um conjunto muito significativo de centros de arte e museus que...

Trade Policies in South Asia : An Overview, Volume 1. Operational Summary

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
During the last decade, South Asia's five largest countries - India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal - have been implementing trade policy reforms, gradually moving their economies away from protectionism toward greater trade openness and global economic integration. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the four mainland countries began to follow the liberalizing course on which Sri Lanka had embarked in the late 1970s. Each country faces differing opportunities to exploit and resistances to overcome. Because many of their circumstances and choices are similar, however, this paper seeks to assess their situations collectively as well as separately. Many of its findings are broadly applicable. So, with allowances for historic, economic and social differences, are many of its policy recommendations. The bulk of the report describes key aspects of the current trade regimes in the Jive largest South Asian states and the policies and practices that have produced the systems now in place. It principally focuses on traditional trade policies which affect imports and exports i.e. tariffs...

Trade Policies in South Asia : An Overview, Volume 3. Some Key Sectors

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
During the last decade, South Asia's five largest countries - India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal - have been implementing trade policy reforms, gradually moving their economies away from protectionism toward greater trade openness and global economic integration. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the four mainland countries began to follow the liberalizing course on which Sri Lanka had embarked in the late 1970s. Each country faces differing opportunities to exploit and resistances to overcome. Because many of their circumstances and choices are similar, however, this paper seeks to assess their situations collectively as well as separately. Many of its findings are broadly applicable. So, with allowances for historic, economic and social differences, are many of its policy recommendations. The bulk of the report describes key aspects of the current trade regimes in the Jive largest South Asian states and the policies and practices that have produced the systems now in place. It principally focuses on traditional trade policies which affect imports and exports i.e. tariffs...

Brazil : Trade Policies to Improve Efficiency, Increase Growth, and Reduce Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
This comprehensive report-actually four compartmentalized reports in one-- focuses on policies to improve Brazil's trade performance. Specifically, three questions are addressed: What are the merits of alternative trade liberalization or integration options ? What domestic policies should be adopted to enhance Brazil's export response to trade openness? What policy options in the area of international services trade negotiations can improve access to foreign markets and enhance the value of overall trade reforms? In Part 1, Chapter 1examines regional, multilateral, and unilateral trade policies. Chapter 2 overviews export performance, surveys the overall policy environment facing potential and actual exporters, and identifies the main areas where policies could be improved to help enhance export performance. Lastly, Chapter 3 discusses how regional and multilateral negotiations can be used to support domestic reform and improve access to foreign markets. Part 2 provides quantitative estimates to answer questions about the efficacy of unilateral liberalization and multilateral trade agreements. After an introductory chapter...

Should Capital Flows Be Regulated? A Look at the Issues and Policies

Islam, Roumeen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
The author argues that externalities in financial markets, implicit and explicit guarantees on financial transactions, and information asymmetries in financial markets that may exacerbate contagion provide a rationale for a government role in managing the risk associated with cross-border capital flows. Governments can complement private sector risk management with measures that help deal with the volatility of capital flows. These measures include those that control the type and volume of capital flows and those that help investors make better investment decisions, and that may reduce herding behavior, such as better information provision. The main instruments that have been tried or recommended since the onset of the recent financial crises can be grouped in several categories. 1) Debt management: The composition, maturity structure, and level of external debt have played an important role in financial crises. High short-term debt relative to liquid assets has been found to be consistently correlated with financial crises in recent times. Governments can affect the level of debt (including private debt) and its composition...

Health in All Policies as a Strategic Policy Response to NCDs

Lin, Vivian; Jones, Catherine; Wang, Shiyong; Baris, Enis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
The aim of Health in All Policies (HiAP) is to bring diverse sectors together to find shared solutions; it focuses on identifying 'win-win' or 'cobenefits' such that policy measures contribute not only to improved health outcomes but also to outcomes desired by other sectors, such as education, environment, welfare, agriculture, and transportation. HiAP can be applied to NCD prevention and control from three different entry points: risk factors or conditions, population groups (including life course), and sectors. (HiAP) is a relatively new concept and policy practice that attempts to incorporate consideration into the policy decision-making process of how public policies and programs affect community health and well-being. It represents a way of working across sectors that aim to find solutions for complex, interrelated, and persistent problems. With the global epidemic in non-communicable diseases (NCDs), HiAP offers a potential approach and a pathway to secure coordinated action on social determinants of health that relate to NCDs and result in health inequalities. Promising examples can be seen globally for action on both specific NCD risk factors as well as in a more systemic approach to policy decision making.

The global momentum for smokefree public places: best practice in current and forthcoming smokefree policies

G Griffith,BA; C Welch,MPP; A Cardone,MBA; A Valdemoro,BSFS; C Jo,AB
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
The Global Smokefree Partnership has recently prepared a map of smokefree campaigns and policies around the world. It focuses primarily on countries that are parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but other countries were included. The smokefree status of 172 countries was mapped. Of these countries, 31 (18.0%) have established comprehensive smokefree policies, either nationally or at state or city level - best practice; 25 (14.6%) are planning to implement smokefree policies in 2008 or 2009; and 51(29.6%) are making significant progress with smokefree policies. Only 65 countries (37.8%) have limited or no smokefree polices. A selection of countries representing best practices in smokefree policies or planning to implement smokefree policies in 2008 or 2009 is highlighted. They illustrate the significant global momentum for smokefree policies, the success of established policies, the importance of civil society and the sharing of experience between countries.

An evaluation of the implementation of tuberculosis policies at a regional hospital in the Limpopo Province

Luhaiima,TR; Netshandama,VO; Davhana-Maselesele,M
Fonte: Curationis Publicador: Curationis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
The current rate of tuberculosis infections as a result of new infections, as well as reinfections of patients is of concern to the disease control and policy-making bodies of South Africa. Questions regarding the effectiveness of tuberculosis policies and programmes emerge all the time. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which tuberculosis policies are implemented in a regional hospital in the Vhembe district in the Limpopo Province. The study was conducted using a qualitative, descriptive, exploratory and contextual design. A purposive sample of professional nurses who work in medical wards was selected, and voluntary participation was ensured. Data was collected through individual interviews, which were audiotaped and then transcribed verbatim. The researcher used an observation checklist to find out which policies were available and accessible that dealt with the management of tuberculosis. Findings revealed that tuberculosis policies were not available in the medical wards and not accessible on shelves. Participants expressed lack of knowledge about the existing tuberculosis policies. Lack of information was attributed to insufficient policy information dissemination associated with lack of in-service training and reporting mechanisms after workshops. Shortage of treatment was also indicated as a deterrent to effective policy implementation. The conclusion was reached...

The global momentum for smokefree public places: best practice in current and forthcoming smokefree policies

Griffith,G; Welch,C; Cardone,A; Valdemoro,A; Jo,C
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
The Global Smokefree Partnership has recently prepared a map of smokefree campaigns and policies around the world. It focuses primarily on countries that are parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but other countries were included. The smokefree status of 172 countries was mapped. Of these countries, 31 (18.0%) have established comprehensive smokefree policies, either nationally or at state or city level - best practice; 25 (14.6%) are planning to implement smokefree policies in 2008 or 2009; and 51(29.6%) are making significant progress with smokefree policies. Only 65 countries (37.8%) have limited or no smokefree polices. A selection of countries representing best practices in smokefree policies or planning to implement smokefree policies in 2008 or 2009 is highlighted. They illustrate the significant global momentum for smokefree policies, the success of established policies, the importance of civil society and the sharing of experience between countries.