Página 1 dos resultados de 1928 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

A responsabilidade do poder político no estado constitucional sob o paradigma da democratic responsiveness; Political accountability in the constitutional state in light of democratic responsiveness.

Lorencini, Bruno Cesar
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/06/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.73%
O objetivo central desta tese é formular propostas normativas de delineamento do instituto da responsabilidade do poder político de forma a que este sirva como mecanismo de conformação de um paradigma de democracia qualificada (democratic responsiveness), cujo atributo fundamental é favorecer a correlação entre a atividade política e as expectativas e interesses da sociedade. Sob as premissas de que a qualificação democrática deve ser um objetivo fundamental no Estado Constitucional contemporâneo e de que a agregação de responsiveness ao processo político é, sem dúvida, um expediente necessário para tanto, defendemos em nossa tese a adoção de um modelo normativo em que as três facetas do instituto da responsabilidade responsibility, accountability e liability favoreçam a aproximação entre poder político e sociedade, o que é coerente com uma conformação mais substancial do princípio da soberania popular na experiência democrática, atenuando o déficit que as teorias procedimentais de democracia e a representação política independente causaram nesse campo. Valorizando o papel que a Constituição e o direito exercem em relação ao fenômeno político, apresentamos, como uma primeira proposta para um delineamento do instituto da responsabilidade do poder político que cumpra os objetivos acima colimados...

Civil Society, Public Action and Accountability in Africa

Devarajan, Shantayanan; Khemani, Stuti; Walton, Michael
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
This paper examines the potential role of civil society action in increasing state accountability for development in Sub-Saharan Africa. It further develops the analytical framework of the World Development Report 2004 on accountability relationships, to emphasize the underlying political economy drivers of accountability and implications for how civil society is constituted and functions. It argues on this basis that the most important domain for improving accountability is through the political relations between citizens, civil society, and state leadership. The evidence broadly suggests that when higher-level political leadership provides sufficient or appropriate powers for citizen participation in holding within-state agencies or frontline providers accountable, there is frequently positive impact on outcomes. However, the big question remaining for such types of interventions is how to improve the incentives of higher-level leadership to pursue appropriate policy design and implementation. The paper argues that there is substantial scope for greater efforts in this domain...

Decentralization (Localization) and Corruption : New Cross-Country Evidence

Ivanyna, Maksym; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
This paper attempts to improve the understanding and measurement of decentralization and its relationship with corruption in a worldwide context. This is done by presenting the conceptual underpinnings of such relationship as well as using superior and more defensible measures of both decentralization in its various dimensions as well as corruption for a sample of 182 countries. It is the first paper that treats various tiers of local governments (below the inter-mediate order of government) as the unit of comparative analysis. In contrast, previous analyses erroneously focused on subnational governments as the unit of analysis which yields invalid cross-country comparisons. By pursuing rigorous econometric analysis, the paper demonstrates that decentralization, when properly measured to mean moving government closer to people by empowering local governments, is shown to have significant negative effect on the incidence of corruption regardless of the choice of the estimation procedures or the measures of corruption used. In terms of various dimensions of decentralized local governance...

Dealing with Politics for Money and Power in Infrastructure

Benitez, Daniel; Estache, Antonio; Soreide, Tina
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
Policy recommendations for infrastructure provision usually build on a well-established understanding of best practice for sector governance. Too rarely are they adapted to the country-specific political environment even if this is an area where policy choices are likely to be subject to private agendas in politics. The fact that such private agendas are often ignored goes a long way toward explaining why infrastructure policies fail and why best practice can be counterproductive. While non-benevolence and rent-seeking are well described in the literature and anecdotes abound, there is only limited consideration of how the different incentive problems in politics impede policy improvements in infrastructure. This paper addresses why politics in infrastructure cannot be ignored, drawing on theoretical results and a systematic review of experiences. It reviews how different private agendas in politics will have different impacts for sector-governance decisions -- and hence service delivery. The concept of best practice in policy recommendations should be reconsidered in a wide perspective and allow for tailored solutions based on an understanding of the given incentive problems. Policy recommendations should take into account how coordination trade-offs may complicate efforts to reduce the possible impact of private agendas on infrastructure policy decisions. Although more transparency linked to service delivery indicators is a "safe" recommendation...

Political Accountability and Regulatory Performance in Infrastructure Industries : An Empirical Analysis

Gasmi, Farid; Um, Paul Noumba; Virto, Laura Recuero
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
The relationship between the quality of political institutions and the performance of regulation has recently assumed greater prominence in the policy debate on the effectiveness of infrastructure industry reforms. Taking the view that political accountability is a key factor linking political and regulatory structures and processes, this article empirically investigates its impact on the performance of regulation in telecommunications in time-series–cross-sectional data sets for 29 developing countries and 23 developed countries during 1985–99. In addition to confirming some well-documented results on the positive role of regulatory governance in infrastructure industries, the article provides empirical evidence on the impact of the quality of political institutions and their modes of functioning on regulatory performance. The analysis finds that the impact of political accountability on the performance of regulation is stronger in developing countries. An important policy implication is that future reforms in these countries should give due attention to the development of politically accountable systems.

Devolution, Accountability, and Service Delivery : Some Insights from Pakistan

Hasnain, Zahid
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
This paper studies the relationship between devolution, accountability, and service delivery in Pakistan. It examines the degree of accessibility of local policy-makers and the level of competition in local elections, the expenditure patterns of local governments to gauge their sector priorities, and the extent to which local governments are focused on patronage or the provision of targeted benefits to a few as opposed to providing public goods. The main findings of the paper are three-fold. First, the accessibility of policy-makers to citizens in Pakistan is unequivocally greater after devolution, and local government elections are, with some notable exceptions, as competitive as national and provincial elections. Second, local government sector priorities are heavily tilted toward the provision of physical infrastructure - specifically, roads, water and sanitation, and rural electrification - at the expense of education and health. Third, this sector prioritization is in part a dutiful response to the relatively greater citizen demands for physical infrastructure; in part a reflection of the local government electoral structure that gives primacy to village and neighborhood-specific issues...

Political Accountability and Regulatory Performance in Infrastructure Industries: An Empirical Analysis

Gasmi, Farid; Noumba Um, Paul; Virto, Laura Recuero
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.62%
The aim of this paper is to empirically explore the relationship between the quality of political institutions and the performance of regulation, an issue that has recently occupied much of the policy debate on the effectiveness of infrastructure industry reforms. Taking the view that political accountability is a key factor that links political structures and regulatory processes, the authors investigate, for the case of telecommunications, its impact on the performance of regulation in two time-series-cross-sectional data sets on 29 developing countries and 23 industrial countries covering the period 1985-99. In addition to confirming some well documented results on the positive role of regulatory governance in infrastructure industries, the authors provide empirical evidence on the impact of the quality of political institutions and their modes of functioning on regulatory performance. The analysis of the data sets shows that the (positive) effect of political accountability on the performance of regulation is stronger in developing countries. An important policy implication of this finding is that future reforms in these countries should give due attention to the development of politically accountable systems.

How-to Note : A Framework for the Assessment of Political Decentralization

Gurkan, Asli; Yilmaz, Serdar; Aslam, Ghazia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
Political decentralization is the primary mechanism through which citizen preferences are represented in the decision making, and is therefore essential to an effective system of decentralization. The purpose of this note is to elucidate components of a well-designed political decentralization system and is aimed to assist task teams and stakeholders to evaluate political decentralization effort in any given country. There are two main components of political decentralization system: a) discretion allowed to the local government to perform fundamental functions that allow them to represent the preferences of the citizens in decision making process; and b) mechanisms that hold the local government accountable for appropriate use of this discretion.

Local Government Discretion and Accountability : Application of a Local Governance Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
This report evaluates the framework of decentralization reforms instituted in decentralizing countries. Decentralization is a multi-faceted process which includes giving discretion to local governments and establishing accountability mechanisms at three different levels of governance: political, administrative and fiscal. Therefore, the analysis of the decentralization reforms should also be based on an inter-disciplinary approach. The report applies this framework to ten countries and two sectors and uses the case studies as the primary data collection tool. These case studies provide detailed contextual analysis of the political, administrative and fiscal aspects of decentralization. The countries identified for the case studies are Angola, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kerala/India, Philippines, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Rwanda and Punjab/Pakistan. The sectors identified are health and education. The review of these case studies suggests that most of the local governments do not fare well on many assessment criteria of well-designed decentralization. In addition to the insubstantial discretion available to the local governments...

Mauritania : Anti-Corruption Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
This report provides analytic support to the National Anti-corruption Strategy (NACS) formulation, offers lessons from international experience on governance and anti-corruption (GAC) policy, and generally supports the Government and its development partners to better understand the phenomenon of corruption in Mauritania. The report is structured as follows: Chapter 2 focuses on the definition and measurement of corruption and the Mauritanian political economy. Chapter 3 focuses on corruption in public procurement. Chapter 4 concentrates on corruption in the courts of law. Chapter 5 deals with the extractive industries. Chapter 6 focuses on corruption from the perspective of the private sector, based on the results of the recent Investment Climate Assessment (ICA). On the basis of the analysis conducted in this report, the single most important message concerns the need for maintaining momentum and pressing ahead with the finalization of ongoing anti-corruption strategic thinking and legislation, and the implementation of already approved GAC laws and measures. Looking forward...

Issues and mechanisms of accountability: examples from Solomon Islands paper

Larmour, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 174739 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.69%
Governments are being asked to become more ‘accountable’ to the legislature, to the media, to the private sector and to citizens. This paper looks at some issues in accountability, and at some mechanisms by which it can be achieved. It uses examples drawn from Solomon Islands. The word ‘accountability’ has several related meanings in English • actions be open to inspection and challenge • actions follow rules or expected standards • the financial books are in order. The South Pacific Forum Finance Ministers have adopted eight principles of ‘best practice’ for public accountability. They deal with two related kinds of accountability—financial and political. Financial accountability is a means of controlling expenditure. Where public expenditure is a large part of the economy, it becomes an important tool of economic policy. It is a way of managing large bureaucracies. Political accountability is a way of achieving democracy. Accountability may be direct, when voters ask candidates, Members of Parliament or Congress, or public servants to explain themselves. Or it may be indirect, when voters elect representatives who in turn demand accountability from public servants. Political and financial accountability have developed in different ways. Political accountability has developed with democracy. Financial accountability has developed as a neutral...

Political Accountability as a Radial Concept

STINGA, Laurentiu
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
In the current article, I attempt to conceptualize political accountability in a disciplined fashion by proposing a strategy of conceptualization based on the internal radial structure of this difficult social science concept. Furthermore, I argue that accountability is still an under-explored concept. Its meanings are used interchangeably in the literature, which is fraught with definitions based on specific empirical cases. A disciplined conceptualization of political accountability can bring resolution to longdrawn scholarly arguments of what accountability is and what it is not

Public accountability of executive agencies: the case of the Australian 'Centrelink'

Mulgan, Richard
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 85491 bytes; 350 bytes; text/html; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
Separating providers from purchasers through executive agencies is intended to increase not only efficiency and effectiveness but also accountability. However, in Westminster-style jurisdictions controversy has surrounded the political accountability of executive agencies, particularly the effect of the new structure on political accountability via ministerial responsibility. The new Australian service delivery agency, Centrelink is examined to see how, if at all, accountability relationships have changed under the new structure. Centrelink has generally followed a 'no-change' model, as demanded by public expectations, rather than the 'clear-break' model suggested by the logic of purchaser/provider separation. Improved accountability under the purchaser/provider split remains contested.; no

Local Government Discretion and Accountability : A Local Governance Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.68%
This economic and sector work (ESW) report presents an analytical framework of local governance through the lens of accountability. It intends to establish a methodological basis for analyzing linkages between decentralization and accountability and is based on desk reviews and interviews. The main objective of this report is to present a coherent and comprehensive approach for decentralizing countries to achieve a high degree of local government discretion accompanied by robust accountability mechanisms. This report, which is a direct response to this growing interest, presents various social accountability mechanisms that could complement public sector accountability approaches. It also highlights the operational challenges the Bank's projects on local governance reform must often confront. Accordingly, the findings of this ESW provide, in one comprehensive framework, guidance on both macro policy-making and implementation of decentralization reforms.

Decentralization and Accountability : Are Voters More Vigilant in Local than in National Elections?

Khemani, Stuti
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
Defining vigilance as retrospective voting - where voters evaluate incumbents on their performance during their entire term in office - the author compares voter behavior in local and national elections to make inferences about whether voters are more vigilant in monitoring government at the local level. Using data from 14 major states in India over the period 1960-92, she contrasts voters' behavior in state legislative assembly elections with their behavior in national legislative elections. In state assembly elections voter reward incumbents for local income growth, and punish them for a rise in inequality, over their entire term in office. But in national elections voters behave myopically, rewarding growth in national income and a fall in inflation and inequality only in the year preceding the election. The evidence is consistent with greater voter vigilance and government accountability in local than in national elections.

Mapping Context for Social Accountability : A Resource Paper

O'Meally, Simon C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
Demand-side governance and social accountability approaches (SAcc) have steadily gained prominence as a perceived means for achieving and improving a range of development outcomes. This resource paper focuses on the issue of SAcc and context, arising out of a growing recognition that context is critical in shaping, making, and breaking SAcc interventions. As such, the four main objectives of this paper are: to outline the main contextual factors that appear to be critical to SAcc; to examine how SAcc interventions interact with the context to bring about change in order to provide a preliminary, context-sensitive Theory of Change (ToC); to explore the operational implications that arise from first two objectives; and to offer a flexible analytical framework to guide practitioners wanting to undertake context analysis prior to engaging in demand-side activities. The paper attempted to achieve these objectives by: summarizing and building on a recently-conducted global review of the evidence-base, drawing on relevant conceptual literature to deepen understanding of SAcc and context...

Accountability and Corruption : Political Institutions Matter

Lederman, Daniel; Loayza, Norman; Reis Soares, Rodrigo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.68%
Using a cross-country panel, Lederman, Loayza, and Soares examine the determinants of corruption, paying particular attention to political institutions that increase political accountability. Previous empirical studies have not analyzed the role of political institutions, even though both the political science and the theoretical economics literature have indicated their importance in determining corruption. The main theoretical hypothesis guiding the authors' empirical investigation is that political institutions affect corruption through two channels: political accountability and the structure of the provision of public goods. The results suggest that political institutions are extremely important in determining the prevalence of corruption: democracy, parliamentary systems, political stability, and freedom of the press are all associated with lower corruption. In addition, the authors show that common findings of the earlier empirical literature on the determinants of corruption related to openness and legal tradition to not hold once political variables are taken into account.

A European banking union will only exacerbate the Eurozone crisis by further reducing democratic accountability

Everson, Michelle
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/07/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
The creation of a European banking union has been put forward as part of the solution to the Eurozone crisis. Michelle Everson argues that a banking union is not a viable solution because it represents a further weakening of democratic structures and a reduction in political accountability. The real crisis, she concludes, is the trend toward increasingly technocratic forms of governance in Europe.

Explaining differences in regional performance: administrative capacity and political factors. The case of Structural Funds implementation in Italian Objective 1 regions

Milio, Simona
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
This thesis starts from the following question: Why, after 16 years of receiving Structural Funds, do some regions still have difficulties in spending their allocated resources? Empirical evidence shows that Funds implementation rates have varied widely among European Union Objective 1 regions. The overall performance of Italian regions, in particular, has consistently lagged behind other countries. However, an investigation into individual Italian Objective 1 regions reveals that not all follow this general trend. Indeed, some regions have outperformed others remarkably. Why is this the case? I explore these differences and identify potential variables that may account for such regional variation. My central hypothesis is that differences in implementation are strongly dependent on the degree of administrative capacity that exists in the recipient regional government. Due to the deficiency in the existing literature of a clear definition of administrative capacity, I attempt to fill this gap by introducing a novel characterization that allows me to operationalize and measure the concept. The core of the methodology is an in-depth case study supported by field research based on personal interviews and documented questionnaires. I investigate two contrasting southern Italian regions...

Through the looking glass: controversy, scandal and political careers

Tarlov, Jessica
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
This work measures whether MPs are held individually accountable for their actions through a novel analysis of the 1997 and 2010 UK general elections. Previous research suggests that MPs’ behaviour has little effect on their careers; however, developments in the media’s aggressive reporting style, the rise of personality politics and decline in traditional voting patterns indicate that this is an opportune time to examine the effect of political controversies (including scandals) on MPs’ careers. This analysis focuses on three crucial stages that form a chain of accountability: (1) exposure: the media publicises the controversy and a perception is formed; (2) internal sanction: an MP retires before an election; (3) electoral sanction: voters punish MPs at the polls. Data on MP-specific controversies between the 1992 and 1997 and the 2005 and 2010 elections was sourced from The Times, The Guardian, The Daily Telegraph and their respective Sunday editions. This work also contains an original analysis of the 2009–2010 MP expenses scandal that utilises British Election Study panel survey data to examine how information on MP malfeasance affects voters’ perceptions of MPs. The findings indicate that political controversy is linked to whether an MP retires...