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Beyond Market Access : The New Normal of Preferential Trade Agreements

Chauffour, Jean-Pierre; Maur, Jean-Christophe
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.5%
This paper takes stock of the growing success of preferential trade agreements. It revisits what are the defining characteristics of modern preferential trade agreements, which are typically pursued for a diverse array of motives. In particular, the market access justification traditionally used to analyze the desirability and impact of preferential trade agreements misses increasingly important dimensions. The "Beyond Market Access" agenda of preferential trade agreements presents a new and broad set of deep regulatory and policy issues that differs in substance from the removal of tariff and quantitative barriers to trade. Issues related to preferences and discrimination, as well as the nature and implementation of commitments acquire a different meaning in deep preferential trade agreements. This change of paradigm presents significant opportunities and challenges for reform-minded developing countries to use preferential trade agreements to their own advantage.

Assessing the Impact of Political Economy Factors on Rules of Origin under NAFTA

Portugal-Perez, Alberto
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.58%
Rules of origin are legitimate policy instruments to prevent trade deflection in a preferential trade agreement short of a customs union. Trade deflection takes place when a product imported into the preferential trade agreement through the member with the lowest external tariff is transhipped to a higher-tariff member, while yielding a benefit for the re-exporter. Yet, when captured by special interest groups, rules of origin can restrict trade beyond what is needed to prevent trade deflection. By how much do political economy factors account for the stringency of rules of origin? This study quantifies the impact of both determinants - those considered "justifiable" because they prevent trade deflection and those deemed to arise from "political economy" forces - on the restrictiveness of rules of origin under the North American Free Trade Agreement, approximated by a restrictiveness index. The main finding is that political economy forces, especially from the United States, raised significantly the restrictiveness of the rules of origin. Indeed...

The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement : Impact on Trade Flows and External Trade Barriers

Calvo-Pardo, Hector; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.62%
Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, the authors examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with nonmembers and external tariffs facing nonmembers. First, the paper examines the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. The analysis finds no evidence that preferential liberalization has led to lower import growth from nonmembers. Second, it examines the relationship between preferential tariff reduction and MFN tariff reduction. The analysis finds that preferential liberalization tends to precede external tariff liberalization. To examine whether this tariff complementarity is a result of simultaneous decision making, the authors use the scheduled future preferential tariff reductions (agreed to in 1992) as instruments for actual preferential tariff changes after the Asia crisis. The results remain unchanged, suggesting that there is a causal relationship between preferential and MFN tariff reduction. The findings also indicate that external liberalization was relatively sharper in the products where preferences are likely to be most damaging...

Preferential Trade Agreements and Their Role in World Trade

Medvedev, Denis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
The author investigates the effects of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) on bilateral trade flows using a comprehensive database of PTAs in force and a detailed matrix of world trade. He shows that total trade between PTA partners is a poor proxy for preferential trade (trade in tariff lines where preferences are likely to matter): while the former amounted to one-third of global trade in 2000-02, the latter was between one-sixth and one-tenth of world trade. His gravity model estimates indicate that using total rather than preferential trade to assess the impact of PTAs leads to a significant downward bias in the PTA coefficient. The author finds that product exclusions and long phase-in periods significantly limit preferential trade, and their removal could more than double trade in tariff lines above 3 percent of most-favored-nation (MFN) duties. He also shows that the effects of PTAs on trade vary by type of agreement and are increasing in the incomes of PTA partners.

Beyond Trade : The Impact of Preferential Trade Agreements on Foreign Direct Investment Inflows

Medvedev, Denis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
The author investigates the effects of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) on the net foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows of member countries using a comprehensive database of PTAs in a panel setting. He finds that PTA membership is associated with a positive change in net FDI inflows, and the FDI gains are increasing in the market size of the PTA partners and their proximity to the host country. The author identifies several different channels through which preferential trade liberalization may affect FDI, and confirms that both threshold effects (signing the agreement) and market size effects (joining a larger and faster-growing common market) are important determinants of net FDI inflows, although the latter seem to dominate. The estimated relationship is largely driven by North-South PTAs, and is most pronounced in the late 1990s and early 2000s, the period when the majority of "deep integration" PTAs had been advanced.

What Does Regional Trade in South Asia Reveal about Future Trade Integration? Some Empirical Evidence

Pitigala, Nihal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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76.5%
In 1995 the seven South Asian countries-Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka-initiated a multilateral framework for regionwide integration under the South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement (SAPTA). In a recent initiative, members agreed that SAPTA would begin the transformation into a South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) by the beginning of 2006, with full implementation completed between 2009 and 2013. The impetus toward regional preferential trading arrangements and greater regional economic integration raises many important issues, both for the South Asian region as a whole and for the individual countries. The author uses the natural trading partners hypothesis as the empirical criterion to assess the potential success of a South Asian trading bloc. Using various definitions of the natural trading partner hypothesis-based on trade volume, geographic proximity, and the complementarity approaches-the author demonstrates that the South Asian countries can be characterized only moderately as natural trading partners. This characterization is, however, largely a consequence of previous impediments to trade among regional members. The author further demonstrates through additional statistical measures-including revealed comparative advantage indices...

Global Economic Prospects 2005 : Trade, Regionalism and Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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66.59%
The proliferation of regional trade agreements is fundamentally altering the world trade landscape. The number of agreements in force surpasses 200 and has risen eight-fold in two decades. Today as much as 40 percent of global trade takes place among countries that have some form of reciprocal regional trade agreement. Global Economic Prospects 2005: Trade, Regionalism, and Development addresses two questions: 1) What are the characteristics of agreements that most promote-or hinder-development for member countries? 2) Does the proliferation of agreements pose risks to the multilateral trading system, and if so, how can these risks be managed? The report argues that agreements leading to open regionalism-that is, deeper integration of trade as a result of low external tariffs, increased services competition, and efforts to reduce cross-border and customs delays costs-are effective as part of a larger trade strategy to promote growth. Such regional agreements can complement a strategy that, on the one hand...

Trade Preferences to Small Developing Countries and the Welfare Costs of Lost Multilateral Liberalization

Limão, Nuno; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
The proliferation of preferential trade liberalization over the last 20 years has raised the question of whether it slows multilateral trade liberalization. Recent theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that this is the case even for unilateral preferences that developed countries provide to small and poor countries, but there is no estimate of the resulting welfare costs. This stumbling block effect can be avoided by replacing the unilateral preferences with a fixed import subsidy, which generates a Pareto improvement. More importantly, this paper presents the first estimates of the welfare cost of preferential liberalization as a stumbling block to multilateral liberalization. Recent estimates of the stumbling block effect of preferences with data for 170 countries and more than 5,000 products are used to calculate the welfare effects of the European Union, Japan, and the United States switching from unilateral preferences for least developed countries to an import subsidy scheme. In a model with no dynamic gains to trade...

Regional, Multilateral, and Unilateral Trade Policies on MERCOSUR for Growth and Poverty Reduction in Brazil

Harrison, Glenn W.; Rutherford, Thomas F.; Tarr, David; Gurgel, Angelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
The authors estimate that the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA), the EU-MERCOSUR agreement, and multilateral trade policy changes will all be beneficial for Brazil. The Brazilian government strategy of simultaneously negotiating the FTAA and the EU-MERCOSUR agreement, while supporting multilateral liberalization through the Doha Agenda, will increase the benefits of each of these policies. The authors estimate that the poorest households typically gain roughly three to four times the average for Brazil from any of the policies considerethe United States protects its most highly protected markets. Both the FTAA and the EU-MERCOSUR agreements are net trade-creating for the countries involved, but excluded countries almost always lose from the agreements. The authors estimate that multilateral trade liberalization of 50 percent in tariffs and export subsidies results in gains to the world more than four times greater than either the FTAA or the EU-MERCOSUR agreement. This shows the continued importance to the world trading community of the multilateral negotiations.

Trade Issues in East Asia : Preferential Rules of Origin

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.61%
Rules of origin are a necessary feature of any regional trade agreement. They ensure that preferences are available only to the signatories of the agreement and that imports from non-members do not avoid customs duties by entering through the member with the lowest tariff. The rules of origin define the amount of local processing, or the extent of the transformation of the product, that must be undertaken in the country from which the product claiming preferences is exported. The definition of these requirements to prevent trade deflection is not straightforward. If the rules are too onerous and complex and are costly to comply with, they will limit the impact of tariff reductions on trade. Indeed, import competing industries have often been successful in obtaining restrictive rules of origin that dilute the impact of the loss of tariff protection. This is most apparent in agreements between developed countries and lower wage countries. As FTAs multiply in the region, putting in place rules of origin (ROO) that are simple...

Beyond market access? : the anatomy of ASEAN’s preferential trade agreements

KLEIMANN, David
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.31%
This study seeks to enhance the understanding of ASEAN’s external preferential trade agreements (PTA) in context of the recent growth of economic regionalism in East Asia. First, the paper compares the content of ASEAN’s five plurilateral PTAs with China, Korea, Japan, India, Australia, and New Zealand with the status quo of ASEAN’s internal economic integration. In a second step, the paper compares ASEAN’s plurilateral agreements and ASEAN’s internal integration with the content of six bilateral PTAs that individual ASEAN member states have concluded with Japan. The empirical findings demonstrate that the ambition of ASEAN’s five plurilateral agreements finds its upper limits in the substantive content of ASEAN’s internal economic integration. Within these limits, the coverage and depth of commitments varies considerably in correlation with the intensity of trade between ASEAN and the respective external partner. Moreover, the comparison shows that bilateral PTAs between six individual ASEAN member states and Japan go significantly beyond the status quo of ASEAN’s internal integration and exceed the coverage and depth of ASEAN’s external plurilateral PTAs. The author contends that the coverage and depth of ASEAN member states’ plurilateral PTAs is limited by the structural heterogeneity of the signatories and...

EU preferential trade agreements : commerce, foreign policy and development aspects

Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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76.43%
This e-book compiles the written contributions prepared by the speakers of an EUI conference titled ‘Global Europe: The New Generation of EU Preferential Trade Agreements’. The conference took place on May 14-15, 2012, on the EUI premises in San Domenico di Fiesole. It was organized by the EUI Working Group on EU External Relations Law, under the auspices of Professor Marise Cremona and Professor Petros Mavroidis, with generous support provided by the EUI’s Global Governance Programme and the Academy of European Law. The e-book is divided into four parts. In the introductory part, David Kleimann provides a perspective on the European Commission’s efforts to implement the ‘Global Europe’ strategy and outlines the domestic and external challenges that EU leaders face in this process. Part II is devoted to crosscutting issues that generally apply to contemporary PTAs. Against the background of the most recent wave of regional and inter-regional economic integration, Petros Mavroidis argues that the relevance of the WTO for international trade liberalization and rule making is fading. Patrick Messerlin, secondly, considers the various domestic motives for the negotiation of PTAs and identifies the actors that play important roles in the political economy processes associated with the negotiation and conclusion of PTAs. Jean-Pierre Chauffour and David Kleimann...

Regional Economic Integration in the Middle East and North Africa : Beyond Trade Reform

Rouis, Mustapha; Tabor, Steven R.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
Limited integration has stifled the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region's ability to tap into its significant potential for economic growth and job creation. The MENA region is among the least integrated in the world economy. Although home to 5.5 percent of the world's population (on average for 2008-10) and 3.9 percent of the world's gross domestic product (GDP), the region's share of nonoil world trade is only 1.8 percent. By contrast, countries that have opted for a liberal trade and investment regime most notably in East Asia have experienced a significant increase in trade, employment, and per capita income. If petroleum and gas are taken into consideration, the MENA region is far more integrated in the world economy, with total exports accounting for 6.2 percent of total world trade. Exports of oil and gas represent about three-quarters of MENA's total exports. This study shows that, in spite of commendable reform efforts in recent years, the MENA region continues to face constraints to economic competitiveness in general...

What Do We Know About Preferential Trade Agreements and Temporary Trade Barriers?

Bown, Chad P.; Karacaovali, Baybars; Tovar, Patricia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.54%
Two of the most important trade policy developments to take place since the 1980s are the expansion of preferential trade agreements and temporary trade barriers, such as antidumping, safeguards, and countervailing duties. Despite the empirical importance of preferential trade agreements and temporary trade barriers and the common feature that each can independently have quite discriminatory elements, relatively little is known about the nature of any relationships between them. This paper surveys the literature on some of the political-economic issues that can arise at the intersection of preferential trade agreements and temporary trade barriers and uses four case studies to illustrate variation in how countries apply the World Trade Organization's global safeguards policy instrument. The four examples include recent policies applied by a variety of types of countries and under different agreements: large and small countries, high-income and emerging economies, and free trade areas and customs unions. The analysis reveals important measurement and identification challenges for research that seeks to find evidence of systematic relationships between the formation of preferential trade agreements...

Rules of Origin and the Web of East Asian Free Trade Agreements

Manchin, Miriam; Pelkmans-Balaoing, Annette O.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
The authors provide an overview of the preferential rules of origin in East Asia, highlighting the aspects that might possibly generate some trade-chilling effects. They review characteristics of existing preferential trade agreements with special emphasis on lessons from the European experience, and analyze some important features of the existing rules of origin in East and South-East Asian regional integration agreements. The empirical analysis of the effectiveness of preferentialism on intra-regional trade flows focuses on the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), with the aim of providing a rough estimate of the costs of requesting preferences. The results suggest that preferential tariffs favorably affect intra-regional imports only at very high margins (around 25 percentage points). This points to the likelihood of high administrative costs attached to the exploitation of preferences, particularly with regard to the compliance with AFTA's rules of origin.

Trade Policy Flexibilities and Turkey : Tariffs, Antidumping, Safeguards, and WTO Dispute Settlement

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
Trade policy commitments to lower import tariffs and to maintain tariffs at low levels entail short and long-run political-economic costs and benefits. Empirical work examining the relationship between such commitments and the exercise of trade policy flexibilities is still relatively nascent, especially for emerging economies. This paper provides a rich, empirically-based assessment of ways that Turkey exercised trade policy flexibilities during the global economic crisis of 2008-11. First, and despite multilateral and customs union commitments that might limit changes to applied tariffs, Turkey made changes to both its applied Most Favored Nation and preferential tariffs that cumulatively affect nearly 9 percent of manufacturing imports and 10 percent of import product lines. Second, Turkey's cumulative application of temporary trade barrier (TTB) policies -- antidumping, safeguards and countervailing duties -- are estimated to impact by 2011 an additional 4 percent of imports and 6 percent of product lines. Other surprising results on Turkey's use of flexibilities include: extending the duration of previously imposed antidumping and safeguards beyond expected removal dates...

Pakistan : Reinvigorating the Trade Agenda

Reis, José Guilherme; Taglioni, Daria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
This paper reviews Pakistan's recent trade performance, its trade policy and trade costs. Different dimensions of trade performance growth and orientation, diversification and sophistication are assessed, complemented by an in-depth analysis of export dynamics in the period 2001-10 using firm-level data. An econometric exercise is also performed to identify the impact of tariffs, exchange rates, fixed costs to export, foreign demand, and preferential trade policy on the ability of firms to increase their exports. The analysis of Pakistan's trade policy includes tariffs, effective protection and trade restrictiveness estimates, as well as an assessment of the role of preferential trade agreements in the context of regional integration. Finally, the main characteristics of trade facilitation and logistics are analyzed, covering the capacity, performance, quality of services and degree of integration of the logistics system.

Chile's Regional Arrangements and the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas : The Importance of Market Access

Harrison, Glenn W.; Rutherford, Thomas F.; Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.61%
Using a multisector, computable general equilibrium model, the authors examine Chile's strategy of negotiating bilateral free trade agreements with all of its significant trading partners (referring to this policy as additive regionalism). They also evaluate the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA) and global free trade. Among Chile's bilateral regional agreements, only Chile's agreements with "Northern" partners provide enough market access to offset the costs to Chile of trade diversion. Because of preferential market access, however, additive regionalism is likely to provide Chile with many times as many gains as the static welfare gains from unilateral free trade. The authors find that at least one partner country loses from each of the regional trade agreements they consider, and excluded countries as a group they always lose. They estimate that the FTAA produces large welfare gains for the members, with the European Union being the big loser. Gains to the world from global free trade are estimated to be at least 36 times greater than gains from the FTAA. Even countries of the Americas in aggregate gain more from global free trade than from the FTAA.

The colombia-canada free trade area: a partial equilibrium simulation

Pereira Villa, Catherine; Gómez Abella, Daniel; Herrera, Luis Omar
Fonte: Universidad de Medellín Publicador: Universidad de Medellín
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Article Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.32%
This paper uses disaggregated trade data for 2010 and applies ex-ante partial equilibriummodeling to calculate the impact of the preferential trade agreement between Canadaand Colombia. The simulations carried out show aggregate trade creation could be oneand a half times larger than trade diversion; trade between the two countries in the firstyear of the agreement could grow by approximately ten percent and will be focussed ona small number of goods; trade diversion is stronger with the largest trading partner ofeach signatory, namely the United States; and trade diversion is not strong in the caseof Colombia’s neighbors with which there was significant trade prior to the agreement

Analysing the trade effects of the EU-SA & SADC trading agreements: a panel data approach

Jordaan,Andre; Kanda,Patrick
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.45%
This study investigates the trade effects of the EU-SA and SADC preferential trade agreements of which South Africa is a member. Using a panel data estimation of the gravity model of bilateral trade and based on data from 1994 to 2008, the study finds the EU-SA preferential trade agreement to have a significant trade expansion effect. The study further reveals that an informative conclusion on trade effects of the SADC preferential trade agreement can only be reached once the agreement has been fully operational. The study also recommends that trade policy in South Africa should increasingly be geared towards broad-based multilateral liberalisation. In addition, South Africa should promote regional economic stability and development through supporting regional trade agreement initiatives.