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Do public private partnerships create value for money to the public sector? A financial analysis using the Portuguese experience

Sarmento, Joaquim Miranda
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2009 Português
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66.13%
Dissertação de Mestrado em Finanças / JEL Classification System: G38 - Government Policy and Regulation; H54 - Infrastructures; Other Public Investment and Capital Stock; Over the last few decades, public-private partnerships have been increasable used by governments all around the world to finance and manage complex operations. However, doubts about if their efficiency have been raised. Criticism over public-private partnerships reflects the fact that governments tend to use it just as an “off-budget” operation, to avoid fiscal constraints. Literature is less than unanimous if they generate Value for Money to the public sector. How to assess Value for Money in this type of arrangements has became extremely important for public managers. We believe that the best way to evaluate that is by doing a public sector comparator prior to the bid. Therefore, it is necessary to account for the costs if the decision is to make it by a public procurement versus the public-private partnerships payments, and what discount rates to use in order to find the net present value of the two options, in order to compare and decide which the best decision for taxpayers is. One of the most important costs to include in a public sector comparator is the risk transfer to the private sector...

Public Sector Reform: What Works and Why? An IEG evaluation of World Bank Support

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
The World Bank support for public sector reform has grown notably in recent years. To address the questions of what is working and why in this area, the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) has examined Bank lending and other support for public sector reform in four areas: public financial management, administrative and civil service, revenue administration, and anticorruption and transparency. A majority of countries that borrowed to support public sector reform improved their performance in some dimensions, but there were shortcomings in important aspects. Middle-income borrowers saw improvements in their public sector quality more frequently than low-income borrowers, even though the low-income group usually had greater needs for public sector improvement. Performance usually improved for public financial management, tax administration, and transparency, but not for civil service. Direct measures to reduce corruption, such as anticorruption laws and commissions, rarely succeeded, as they often lacked the necessary support from political elites and the judicial system.

Pay Policy Reform : Building a Foundation for Public Sector Performance Through Improved Public Sector Pay Policy by Using a "Single Pay Spine"

Green, Malcolm
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Appropriate public sector remuneration policies are key for performance. They can motivate staff to a limited extent by rewarding performance but more generally by eliminating inequities and avoiding frequent and sudden changes in pay. They can also assist in retaining competent staff one of the most critical drivers of public sector performance. Developing pay policy in the public sector is complex, administratively and politically. This note analyzes one approach to creating a fiscally sustainable, equitable and performance enhancing pay policy, the single pay spine. It focuses on the single pay spine as a means to help countries achieve four pay policy objectives: 1) ensuring that public service pay is affordable; 2) achieving competitiveness with pay outside the public service; 3) promoting greater transparency in public pay; and 4) ensuring that there is equal pay for equal work (i.e. eliminating inequity).

Making Public Sector Reforms Work : Political and Economic Contexts, Incentives, and Strategies

Bunse, Simone; Fritz, Verena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
Supporting effective public sector reform is a major challenge that the World Bank and other agencies and stakeholders have been grappling with. It is increasingly recognized that political economy factors play a crucial role. However, beyond this broad proposition, specific questions arise: What country contexts are more/less propitious for public sector reforms and what reforms are likely to succeed where? And can more explicitly taking political economy challenges into account help to pursue public sector reforms even in less propitious contexts? This paper addresses these issues in two ways: first, it draws on the existing literature to identify key propositions about factors that can trigger or facilitate public sector reforms, and those that tend to work against (successful) reforms. Second, it investigates the experience of World Bank public sector operations over the decade 2000-2010. It finds that governments in many developing countries face incentives to initiate public sector reforms, but that at the implementation stage...

New Trends in Public Sector Management in Health : Applications in Developed and Developing Countries

Shaw, R. Paul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
This paper begins with a review of the broad motivations behind the New Public Sector Management (NPSM), including intrinsic differences between public and private organizations that appear to impact on incentives and performance. The experience in selected OECD countries is reviewed where the financing and delivery of health and other social services is heavily socialized with a strong public sector role, taxpayers have expressed dissatisfaction with traditional modes of public sector management, and NPSM reforms have been hotly debated. Part II of the paper then describes the NPSM paradigm in terms of three building blocks that influence the performance of public agencies and the behaviors of employees who work for them. It explains how leverage points within the NPSM paradigm are expected to create incentives for improved performance. It is when all three building blocks of the NPSM paradigm work together that synergies are expected to take place, and that continuous improvements in the performance of public agencies are expected to be generated over time. Part III illustrates five organizational strategies that can be used to introduce NPSM into public agencies in the national health system. Much of Part III refers to developing country applications.

Sierra Leone : Strategic Options for Public Sector Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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66.15%
The purpose of this paper is to outline strategic options for the reform of the public sector. The strategic options will be based upon an analysis of the public sector emerging from the civil war, and a longer period of deterioration and decline. The strategy will be expressed in very broad-brush form; detailed planning will only be possible once the basic strategic decisions have been taken. Years of corrupt, and ineffective government, causing - as well as compounded by - civil war, have left Sierra Leone with poor access to basic services, especially outside Freetown, with substantial dependence on NGOs. Expenditure management is weak; there is no effective accountability; human capacity is weak throughout the public service; and, the management of policy, and programs is highly centralized in Freetown, and in the Office of the President, and the Ministry of Finance. Nonetheless, there is now a strong consensus in favor of reforming the policy process, expenditure management, and accountability. And, there is an ever stronger determination to decentralize the delivery of basic services. The "options" concern the rate of decentralization. But...

Romania Public Sector Pay Practices : Overall Public Sector Trends and Detailed Analysis of Local Government Contract Employees

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
The purpose of this study was to assist the Ministry of Labor (MoL), Social Solidarity and Family to analyze the current public sector pay practices and to provide recommendations that could be used to strengthen public sector compensation strategy in the future. This study was originally intended to focus on all categories of public sector employees that were not part of the civil service statute. However, because of problems the MoL faced in obtaining the central government data on several groups, the decision was made to limit the study to local government contract employees. Within that group it includes execution and management jobs, high and low-skilled positions, and jobs found in local governments of all sizes. The group is covered by its own employment statute and so the findings on pay from this group are not necessarily generalizable to others covered by different statutes. On the other hand, the study confirms that some of the problems and weaknesses found among the civil service can also be found among contract employees. The study also confirmed that the highly disaggregated information management and reporting processes are a hindrance to policy analysis and planning. Although the individual employment statutes do detail what allowances each category of jobs is entitled to receive...

Republic of Tajikistan Public Sector Pay Reform : Policy Note on Medium-Term Pay Reform in Public Sector, Volume 2. Synthesis Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This part of the public sector pay reform policy note represents a summary of main messages and findings of the report. The report also provides the summary of simulations for various policy scenarios; it is not imperative that quantitative parameters of policy actions (for example, base pay levels, etc.) should be exactly the same as in the policy note, actual numbers may change depending on available fiscal space by the time when final decision is taken vis-a-vis pay increase. Summary of recommendations is provided in annex two; by the time when the report was ready for publication, the Government already took actions to address immediate objectives of the pay reform agenda in public sector; it issued a decree to increase pay levels for civil servants, education and health sector workers as well as other social sector workers. In general, the decree was consistent with overall immediate objectives of pay reform in public service. Public sector wage reform is a key aspect of the reform agenda in Tajikistan. The strong erosion of real wages...

World Bank Policy Lending and the Quality of Public Sector Governance

Smets, Lodewijk; Knack, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
This study investigates the impact of World Bank development policy lending for public sector governance on the quality of public sector management and institutions. The World Bank’s Country Policy and Institutional Assessments (CPIA) are used to measure the latter, the study considers only policy conditions targeted at improvements in those areas. The analysis uses a comprehensive country-year panel data set of aid receiving-countries and finds a significant and inverse U-shaped effect of public sector conditions on the quality of public sector governance. For most observed values in the data, the impact is positive, but it turns negative beyond a value of 80 conditions. At that point, the predicted CPIA score is about 0.25 point (0.3 standard deviation) higher than with zero conditions. For most observations, the number of cumulative conditions is below 80, so the estimated effect of more conditions is generally positive. The analysis corrects for potential endogeneity and shows that the results are robust to sample restrictions...

Improving public sector performance: the experiences of line agencies in Papua New Guinea

Demas, Joseph
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Conference paper Formato: 52868 bytes; 353 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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66.13%
[Introduction]:Improving public sector performance has been a concern both within Papua New Guinea and externally, from foreign investors, financial institutions such as the World Bank, Asian Development Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and also Papua New Guinea’s traditional bilateral development partners. Because of the poor performance of the public sector in promoting economic growth, good governance and the delivery of basic services,organisations such as the World Bank have included this as part of the package under the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP), calling it ‘improving public sector performance’ within the framework of the Public Sector Reform (PSR). This paper discusses three key issues—leadership, the capacity of the bureaucracy to deliver the quality of policy analysis and, most important of all, the degree of political commitment to reform. Papua New Guinea’s experience with public sector reform under the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) are examined in terms of • what have been some of the impacts of Public Sector Reforms under the SAPs? • how has public sector reform supported the decentralisation process and the delivery of services at the provincial, district and local levels under the new Organic Law of Provincial and Local-Level Governments? • what public sector reform has occurred under the Public Sector Reform Management Unit (PSRMU)? What is the level of commitment to public sector reform? • what have been some of the impacts of public sector reform in the line agencies under the previous structural adjustment programs in Papua New Guinea?; Kumul Scholars International papers from the Conference in Canberra...

Did new public management matter? An empirical analysis of the outsourcing and decentralization effects on public sector size.

Alonso Alonso, José Manuel; Clifton, Judith Catherine; Díaz Fuentes, Daniel
Fonte: COCOPS Coordinating for Cohesion in the Public Sector of the Future Publicador: COCOPS Coordinating for Cohesion in the Public Sector of the Future
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; publishedVersion
Português
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86.07%
This paper evaluates whether reforms associated with the New Public Management (NPM) doctrine led to a reduction in public sector expenditure and employees. Savings and downsizing the public sector were a major justification when the international movement of public sector reforms began in the 1980s. Since then, NPM has been the subject of extensive academic debate as to its successes and failures. However, empirical assessments of whether NPM reached its stated objectives are relatively scarce, mainly due to the difficulty of quantifying the impact of such reforms. This paper is an attempt to do this, especially looking at outsourcing and decentralization. We test a number of hypotheses related to the outsourcing and decentralization effects on public sector expenditure and employees through an econometric analysis using a panel data model for eighteen European Countries over the period 1980 to 2010. The results suggest a positive correlation between the degree of outsourcing in the provision of public services and government spending in the short term. On the other hand we find that decentralization tends to decrease the size of general government, particularly in the long-run.

Public sector restructuring and community consultation in the Australian Capital Territory: can old and new public policy trends work together?

Enfield, Samantha
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 68003 bytes; 351 bytes; text/html; application/octet-stream
Português
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76.06%
The aim and the reality of community consultation in the public policy process are often at odds. Simple mechanical remedies of consultative models and practices will not in themselves include the citizen beyond the ballot box. This Discussion Paper discusses the findings of a study conducted as part of PhD work in progress that examines two current public institutional trends in the ACT, purchaser-provider public sector arrangements and community consultation. The Australian Capital Territory offers the academic and practicing public policy community a unique opportunity to observe the interaction of old and new trends in OECD public policy best practice. Internationally, ideas about purchaser-provider models have been in place for some time. Current OECD activity is now emphasising community consultation to "strengthen government-citizen connections" in OECD countries and notes that there is now a strong trend towards renewal and expansion of public consultation in regulatory development which is underway in OECD countries (PUMA 1999). The ACT has both purchaser provider arrangements and significant investment in community consultation and provides a practical insight into the interaction of past ideas and current preoccupations in public policy. The Discussion Paper's study has found indications in the ACT that public institutional and reported service delivery arrangements have conditionally resulted in greater government control over the policy process; elected representatives have greater determination of public services...

A critical evaluation of the current accounting standard-setting approach for public sector not-for-profit entities to identify opportunities for the Australian Accounting Standards Board to enhance the approach

Qin, Lisa
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
Accounting standards underpin the preparation of general-purpose financial reports and facilitate the provision of financial information. In Australia, the accounting standard-setting arrangement consists of two government bodies, the Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB), and Financial Reporting Council (FRC). The AASB is responsible for developing and maintaining accounting standards, while the FRC provides broad oversight of the AASB's standard-setting function and gives strategic directions to the AASB. The fundamental basis on which standard-setting is built is detailed in a conceptual framework of accounting. The conceptual framework defines the nature, objectives and broad contents of general-purpose financial accounting. By defining these central issues, logically consistent accounting standards can be developed by the AASB. The AASB issues a single set of standards applicable to all reporting entities in the public, private or not-for-profit sector. These reporting entities must prepare financial reports in accordance with these standards. This approach is widely known as a 'sector neutral' approach to standard-setting. In 2002, the FRC gave a strategic directive to the AASB to adopt International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). The directive meant that from 2005 onwards...

Ghana's New Approach to Public Sector Reform : Focusing on Delivery

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Ghana has developed a "New Approach to Public Sector Reform", which seeks to focus reforms on results, particularly the delivery of the Government's main priorities for (i) job creation and (ii) food production, distribution and processing. The impetus for the reform is being led from the center of Government, by the Presidency and through the strengthening of collective cabinet level coordination, while recognizing that implementation will continue to be the responsibility of the line Ministries that typically already have well articulated sector strategies. These sector strategies are largely consistent with two main priorities and are supported by Ghana's main international partners. The New Approach emphasizes the need for greater coordination of the Government's activities, combined with mechanisms to encourage greater performance and accountability amongst senior managers, combined with innovative partnerships with the private sector that could help to ease the binding financial constraints. This report summarizes the results of a four-day fact finding mission conducted 4-8 October 2010. The Report is divided into four parts as follows: Part A - Short term opportunities: The report welcomes the focus on delivering specific change in job creation and food production...

Ethiopia Public Sector Reform Approach : Building the Developmental State - A Review and Assessment of the Ethiopian Approach to Public Sector Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
The objective of this report is to review and recommend improvements to Ethiopia's approach to public sector reform in order to advise the Government and executive institutions on the future of its public sector reform. The report also serves as a think piece for the World Bank, other partners, and policy makers. The report provides important basic information about the features of Ethiopia's public sector reform approach and reviews what worked well and what did not. It draws lessons from other countries' experience to help develop ideas and instruments of future public sector reforms in Ethiopia. Ethiopia's system of decentralization process has been credible in devolving power, improving governance and service delivery well as narrowing the per capital differences among Regional Governments and districts. The second phase of decentralization was 'big bang' and brought some gaps on addressing administrative and fiscal decentralization issues associated with: a) detailed clarity of expenditure and revenue assignments...

Public Sector Size and Performance Management : A Case Study of Post-Revolution Tunisia

Brockmeyer, Anne; Khatrouch, Maha; Raballand, Gael
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
This paper examines public sector size and performance management in post-revolution Tunisia, drawing on macro-empirical, legal, and qualitative analyses. The paper first shows that public sector employment figures and the wage bill have increased significantly since the 2011 revolution, but that this represents merely an acceleration of the previous trend. The paper then examines de jure and de facto performance management in Tunisia's public sector, covering incentives through recruitment, evaluation, compensation, and promotion. The examination shows that Tunisia's legal framework is well-designed for recruiting the most skilled candidates into the public sector and promoting the most high-performing employees. De facto, the link between an employee's performance and evaluation, compensation, and promotion is weak. Performance evaluation is virtually nonexistent and promotions are automatic or awarded through a process that emphasizes seniority over performance. This is particularly true during the post-revolution period...

Are Public Sector Workers Underpaid? Appropriate Comparators in a Developing Country

Bales, Sarah; Rama, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
How is public sector compensation best aligned with the market? In industrial countries a common reference is the salary paid by private employers for similar jobs (the "jobs approach"). But comparable jobs are formal, and in developing countries the relevant alternative for many public sector workers is informal sector employment. Another approach uses as a reference, the earnings of similar workers in the private sector, regardless of whether their jobs are formal, or informal (the "workers approach"). A potential shortcoming of this approach is that workers may differ in characteristics that are unobservable. The authors assess the importance of this shortcoming, by relying on five econometric methods, four of which correct the bias from unobservable characteristics. The authors focus on state-owned enterprises in Vietnam, which recruited workers on the basis of political loyalty, and other unobservable characteristics. A massive downsizing program, which led to the departure of the most entrepreneurial workers...

What Factors Predict How Public Sector Projects Perform? A Review of the World Bank's Public Sector Management Portfolio

Blum, Jürgen René
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
This paper uses regression analysis to identify which country context, reform content, process, and project management variables predict the performance of public sector management projects, as measured by the Independent Evaluation Group's project outcome ratings. The paper draws on data from a large sample of World Bank public sector management projects that were approved between 1990 and 2013. It contributes to an emerging literature that uses cross-country regressions to analyze public sector management reform patterns. The findings suggest that political context factors have a greater impact on the performance of public sector management projects than on other projects. Specifically, public sector management projects perform better in countries with democratic regimes than autocratic ones. They fare better in the presence of programmatic political parties and in more aid-dependent countries. Project managers' subjective risk assessments predict performance in public sector management operations better than objective risk indicators. These findings suggest that the performance of public sector management projects would benefit from a better alignment of project design with political context and from a more open dialogue about risk between task team leaders and management.

The World Bank Approach to Public Sector Management 2011-2020; Better Results from Public Sector Institutions

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Public sector management (PSM) reform is concerned with improving public sector results by changing the way governments work. It is a challenging reform area in which to offer assistance. Sustainable institutional change often requires that thousands of public agents alter their behavior, and political incentives may be at odds with improving public sector performance. “What works” in PSM reform is highly context-dependent and explicit evidence remains limited. The Bank’s Approach to PSM for 2011-2020 emphasizes that public sector reform is a pragmatic problem-solving activity, which seeks to improve results by identifying sustainable improvements to the public sector results chain. The Approach reflects continuing evolution in the Bank's PSM work. It responds to changing demands from client countries, as well as changes in the Bank's own operating environment, including opportunities presented by results-based lending and risk management strategies. It puts into practice the lessons learned from significant progress research has made in recent years in unpacking the nature of institutional reform. Overall, it seeks to achieve better results by better adapting the way in which the Bank supports client countries to the distinctive nature of PSM reform.

Public Sector Management Reform : Toward a Problem-Solving Approach

Blum, Jurgen; Manning, Nick; Srivastava, Vivek
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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66.16%
This note sets out key ideas from recent discussions inside and outside the Bank on how donors can support governments more effectively in delivering results in Public Sector Management (PSM) reforms. This note also reflects the discussions that have led to the Bank's new PSM approach for 2011 to 2020; identifies challenges to reforming public sector institutions; and summarizes how current thinking on PSM reform strategies has shifted toward pragmatic problem solving, seeking to improve results by identifying sustainable improvements for the public sector results chain.