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The Effect of Fragmentation and Second-Order Devolution on Efficacy of Local Public Welfare Policy

Craw, Michael
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Following implementation of welfare reform in 1997, twenty states devolved public welfare functions to local governments. Yet, little consensus exists about how effective local public welfare expenditures are at reducing local poverty: local governments can offer policies more responsive to local needs, but may also face a welfare migration effect. I argue that the effectiveness of local public welfare policy at poverty reduction is a function of interjurisdictional and intergovernmental arrangements. Analyzing data from the 1997 to 2007 Census of Governments, I find that the magnitude of the marginal effect of local public welfare expenditures on poverty is smaller in jurisdictionally fragmented regions than in consolidated regions. In addition, the magnitude of the marginal effect of local public welfare spending is greater following implementation of welfare reform in states that devolved authority to the local level than in states that did not.

Patent Law, Antitrust Enforcement, and Public Access to Pharmaceuticals and Medical Technologies

Sigman, Laura J.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
Patent and antitrust laws impact public access to pharmaceuticals and medical technologies. Two instances—one involving Roche’s new class of HIV/AIDS drugs, the other an antitrust action brought against Boston Scientific Corporation for violations of an anticompetitive agreement pertaining to cardiac treatment technology—illustrate the salient effects that medical products can have on public welfare. This paper provides a summary of patent laws, including provisions designed to advance the public interest, and explains the economic motivations underlying the patent regime. It also discusses the rationale behind antitrust laws and describes how courts account for public welfare when imposing damages for anticompetitive behavior. While it is difficult to assess the value of benefits and harm to the public, particularly where public health is concerned, legal regimes should aim to balance interests of producers and incentives for innovation with public needs for access to pharmaceuticals and medical devices.

The Aftermath of the 2008 Global Financial Crisis in the Eastern Caribbean : The Impact on the St Lucia Labor Market

Gimenez, Lea; St. Catherine, Edwin; Karver, Jonathan; Odawara, Rei
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
This brief expands the scarce literature on the impact of the global financial crisis on labor market outcomes and welfare in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). The brief focuses on the economy of St. Lucia, one of the OECS member states. The statistical information assembled here should help decision makers and the public in the OECS to develop policy options that can sustain job creation and thereby enhance public welfare. It also can help gauge the effectiveness of policies over time. The evidence presented in this brief shows how the recent financial crisis had significant and long-lasting negative impacts on the welfare of St. Lucians. The government of St. Lucia attempted to use fiscal policy to boost growth and enhance labor market opportunities in the island. Still, unemployed and underemployed St. Lucians together accounted for over 40 percent of the working-age employable population. They suffered a significant decline in welfare in the aftermath of the crisis. They lost not only their income but also the collateral benefits that are often associated with being fully employed in good quality jobs in the “formal” sector of the economy.

Reshaping Australian Social Policy: alternatives to the breadwinner welfare state

Mitchell, Deborah
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 177030 bytes; 361 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
Over the past two decades, one of the leading areas of welfare state change has been in respect of women’s access and entitlement to a range of social policy programs and benefits. The debates which led to these changes have called into question many of the assumptions which underpin welfare state provision in Australia and have gradually shifted our institutional model of welfare state provision from being one which confers social citizenship on women via a male breadwinner towards a model which addresses social rights on an individual basis. Because the welfare state remains an important element in gender equality strategies, the incomplete nature of changes to the institutional structure of the Australian welfare state has created uncertainty about the basis of social policy and raises a several issues for future social policy development: * the need to consider the implications of adopting an individual rights model; * changing employment conditions which overturn the basis on which the Australian welfare state was premised; and * the possibility of finding alternative pathways - institutional designs - outside the breadwinner/individual dichotomy.; no

Different worlds of welfare capitalism: Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany, Italy, Hong Kong and Singapore

Aspalter, Christian
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 185748 bytes; 357 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Since the ideologically coloured meaning of the 'welfare state', implying a massive level of redistribution and high government spending in the field of social policy, does not match the reality of a number of today's welfare state systems, especially outside Europe, this article examines the existence of at least eight different forms of welfare capitalism, i.e. welfare state systems, all represented by model countries. There are very distinct approaches to ensure high levels of social security, either by governmental welfare provision or welfare regulation, with or without redistribution of personal income.; no

Public Services Delivery; Prestacion de servicios publicos

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
The globalization of information-satellite TV, internet, phone and fax-serves to enhance citizens' awareness of their rights, obligations, options and alternatives and strengthens demands for greater accountability from the public sector. However, the power of accountability is significantly reduced if citizens are unable to measure their government's performance in a meaningful way, which is precisely the topic of this timely book. The abstract concept of "government performance" can only be an effective tool in public debate when there are concrete statistics measuring performance and benchmarks against which current indicators can be compared. This publication offers a comprehensive view of government performance measurement. The first part examines systems or frameworks for measuring the performance of government at the national level and at local levels of government. The second part of the book focuses on particular sectors that form the core of essential government services: health, education, welfare...

Os estados de bem-estar social da Europa Ocidental : tipologias, fundamentos e evidências; The Western Europe's welfare states : typologies, fundamentals and evidences

Paulo José Whitaker Wolf
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Esta dissertação tem o objetivo de analisar a natureza dos Estados de Bem-Estar Social, as diferenças existentes entre esses arranjos no caso da Europa Ocidental, bem como as causas e consequências mais gerais dessas diferenças. Os Estados de Bem-Estar Social devem ser entendidos como uma dentre as formas possíveis de sistemas de proteção social e que se caracteriza pelo fato de que o Estado assume um papel mais contundente no atendimento das necessidades individuais fundamentais relativamente às demais formas de provisão, como o mercado e a família. Esses arranjos se diferenciam em função do perfil das políticas públicas, em geral, e das políticas econômica e social, em particular, sendo determinados pelo processo de interação entre atores com distintos interesses e com diferentes capacidades de impor esses interesses sobre os demais em determinadas circunstâncias históricas e institucionais. Tendo-se em vista as características comuns às diferentes experiências nacionais, é possível identificar quatro modelos de Estado de Bem-Estar Social na Europa Ocidental, quais sejam, os modelos anglo-saxão, continental, escandinavo e mediterrâneo. Esses modelos apresentam diferentes graus de sofisticação, em função do comprometimento do Estado em assegurar a todos a possibilidade de contribuir e partilhar da riqueza social. Essas diferenças...

Financing welfare regimes: mapping heterogeneous revenue structures

Gough, Ian; Abu-Sharkh, Miriam
Fonte: Blackwell Publicador: Blackwell
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
This article studies how the composition of public revenues in terms of sources (such as taxation, social insurance contributions, mineral rents, foreign aid) is associated with different welfare regimes and social policy outcomes. It is divided into two halves: a review of literature and research, and a cross-national data analysis. The first half reviews literature on the emergence of tax and revenue systems in the West, and on the relevance of these frameworks and findings to developing countries. The second half uses cluster analysis to identify groups of developing countries with contrasting revenue systems in 2000, and then compares these with our previous analysis of welfare regimes in the global South. We conclude that higher tax or revenue levels are not associated with more advanced or effective welfare systems. It is only the scope of social security contributions that correlates with proto-welfare states in the developing world.

Social insecurities and fear of crime: a cross-national study on the impact of welfare state policies on crime-related anxieties

Hummelsheim, Dina; Hirtenlehner, Helmut; Jackson, Jonathan; Oberwittler, Dietrich
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
This article assesses the association between national welfare state regimes and public insecurities about crime across Europe. A multi-level analysis of respondents in 23 countries sampled in the 2004-05 European Social Survey finds a strong relationship between insecurities about crime and national levels of social expenditure and decommodification of social welfare policy. Some social protection measures are more strongly associated with national levels of fear of crime than others, especially public non-monetary support for children and families that strengthens the individual’s capacity to cope with problems on their own. We conclude with the idea that state-level social protections may buffer the development of widespread fear of crime by increasing self-efficacy and thereby mitigating various social and economic fears.

The shifting balance of private and public welfare activity in the United Kingdom, 1979 to 2007

Edmiston, Daniel
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
The balance between private and public sectors in welfare activity in the UK has been documented by Burchardt (1997) and Smithies (2005) for three time periods; 1979/1980, 1995/1996 and 1999/2000. The existing evidence suggested that a welfare mix has previously been in existence but that the balance had been shifting. This paper explores this phenomenon by updating the existing evidence with a snapshot of the welfare mix in 2007/2008 across five different welfare sectors: Education, Health, Housing, Income Maintenance and Social Security and Personal Social Services. The paper systematically explores who finances, controls and delivers services in each of these five welfare sectors. Over the 29 year period, there has been a gradual increase in the proportion of welfare activity that is privately financed, controlled and delivered, and a gradual decrease in the proportion of welfare activity that is publicly financed, controlled and delivered. The most significant change is the proportion of services that are contracted-out, and the majority of this change generally occurred prior to 1995/96; since then changes have been much more slight and nuanced. Interestingly, the most significant growth in total welfare activity as a proportion of GDP occurred between 1979 and 1996...

Collapsing worlds and varieties of welfare capitalism: in search of a new political economy of welfare

Schelkle, Waltraud
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The study of welfare capitalism is concerned with a founding question of political economy, namely how capitalism and democracy can be combined. Ever since the publication of Esping-Andersen’s Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism in 1990, the answer was sought in identifying ideal types of welfare states that support a class compromise. The Varieties of (Welfare) Capitalism literature is increasingly used as a complementary theory of production systems although its rationale for social policies is largely incompatible with the Worlds typology. This article argues, first, that popular regime typologies have degenerated as a research programme, notwithstanding their many achievements. The main reason for this lies in a simplistic notion of the relationship between politics and economics in modern society. Secondly, the article outlines an alternative for analysing welfare provisions and their evolution, drawing on insights of the new politics and the new economics of welfare. This framework can give a systematic account of welfare program restructuring that undermines regime typologies. It suggests a different question for the political economy of welfare, namely how capitalism and democracy can be kept distinct.

Multidimensional welfare aggregation

List, Christian
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Most accounts of welfare aggregation in the tradition of Arrow's (1951/1963) and Sen's (1970/1979) social-choice-theoretic frameworks represent the welfare of an individual in terms of a single welfare ordering or a single scalar-valued welfare function. I develop a multidimensional generalization of Arrow's and Sen's frameworks, representing individual welfare in terms of multiple personal welfare functions, corresponding to multiple 'dimensions' of welfare. I show that, as in the one-dimensional case, the existence of attractive aggregation procedures depends on certain informational assumptions, specifically about the measurability of welfare and its comparability not only across individuals but also across dimensions. I state several impossibility and possibility results. Under Arrow-type conditions, insufficient comparability across individuals leads to dictatorship of a single individual, while insufficient comparability across dimensions leads to dominance of a single dimension. Given sufficient comparability both across individuals and across dimensions, a range of possibilities emerges. I discuss the substantive implications of the results.

The internationalisation of public welfare policy

Banks, James; Disney, Richard; Duncan, Alan; Van Reenen, John
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
With increasing globalisation of knowledge, there are increased opportunities to 'learn' from the experience of policy interventions elsewhere. This paper presents evidence on the extent of international convergence in public policy, with particular focus on labour, welfare, savings and retirement policy. Questions addressed in this framework include: to what extent is policy diffusion or convergence a real and relevant phenomenon? What role have economists played in the transfer of policy across national domains? Has policy transfer led to 'better' public policy? Are there any practical limitations to policy convergence?

Thatcherism, new Labour and the welfare state

Hills, John
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
This paper examines the extent to which the policies towards the welfare state pursued by the Labour Government in its first fifteen months represent a break with those of its Conservative predecessor and with earlier policies put forward by Labour in opposition. Four key parts of its inheritance from the Conservatives are identified: attempts to control public spending; privatisation (more in terms of welfare provision than of its financing); the growth of means-testing; and the growth of inequality. The paper summarises the main policy developments towards the welfare state since May 1997, and identifies four linking themes: the importance to Labour of shedding its “tax and spend” image leading to tight budget constraints, but with significant reallocation towards health and education; a strong focus on the promotion of paid work; a series of measures intended to reduce inequality and relative poverty, but with controversy over benefit levels; and the new dominance of the Treasury in making welfare and social policy. Some of these policies mark clear reversals from those of the Conservatives, but in others they continue an evolution which was already underway, despite the earlier Labour rhetoric about “thinking the unthinkable” on welfare reform.

Public and private welfare activity in the United Kingdom, 1979 to 1999

Smithies, Rachel
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
This paper analyses the shifting balance between public sector and private sector welfare provision in the United Kingdom over the past two decades. Five sectors – education, health, personal social services, housing, and income maintenance and social security – are examined over three time points, 1979/80, 1995/96, and 1999/2000. Burchardt’s (1997) typology is used to classify welfare activities according to who funds them, who provides them, and who decides on the provider and/or amount of service. It is found that shifts in the composition of welfare activity have been relatively small and gradual: around half of all welfare activity, dropping from 52 percent to 49 percent, is entirely public; around a quarter, rising from 24 percent to 29 percent, is entirely private; and the remainder involves a mixture of both sectors. Within the latter group, there was a notable increase over time in the contracting-out of public services, which rose from 6 percent to 10 percent of all welfare activity.

Welfare reform and lone mothers' employment in the US

Waldfogel, Jane; Danziger, Sandra K.; Danziger, Sheldon; Seefeldt, Kristin
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 represents a dramatic change in the US welfare state. One of its key goals was to move lone mothers, even those with young children, from welfare to work. Early evidence suggests that, in concert with a strong economy, progress has been made - welfare caseloads have fallen dramatically and the employment rates of lone mothers have increased substantially. In addition to the federal reforms, state level welfare reforms played an important role prior to 1996 and are playing an even more important role subsequent to 1996 as PRWORA gives states unprecedented flexibility in designing and implementing their welfare systems. In this paper, we examine some key state-level reforms, using evidence from selected states, to illustrate the three major types of policies used in the US to move lone mothers from welfare to work: mandating work (Michigan); making work pay (Michigan and Minnesota); and helping families with child care (Illinois). We conclude that each of these policies has a role to play in moving lone mothers from welfare to work, but that further policies are needed if the US is to also to do a better job of reducing child poverty.

Social welfare systems in East Asia: a comparative analysis including private welfare

Jacobs, Didier
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
This paper is an overview of the social welfare systems of five East Asian countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore. It analyses the overall costs of welfare as well as income distribution aspects, based on both aggregate data and a programme-by-programme review of their welfare states (presented in annex). Private welfare is introduced in the analysis in two ways. First, it is argued that sometimes welfare programmes are characterised by a mix of public and private interventions, along the three dimensions of provision, finance and decision. Second, this study explores the welfare roles played by private actors alone, namely enterprises and families. The main conclusions are that (I) that Hong Kong and Singapore's public welfare expenditures will remain very low as long as they continue to rely mainly upon privately financed welfare programmes; (ii) Korea and Taiwan's public welfare expenditures will grow significantly in the coming years as their populations age, their old age pension programmes mature and their various insurance schemes are extended to marginal occupational groups; (iii) Japan's ageing problem is compounded by the weakening of the family as a provider of welfare, which will put an extra burden on her welfare state; (iv) Japan and Korea's enterprises are challenged in their chief welfare role...

Boundaries between public and private welfare: a typology and map of services

Burchardt, Tania
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/1997 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
This paper develops a typology of welfare services and attempts to illustrate its use in clarifying discussions about the privatisation of welfare and in analysing changes in expenditure. A third dimension, which concerns the extent of the consumer's decision-making power and turns on the question of agency and exit, is added to the now familiar dimensions of provision and finance. This third dimension is found to have been increasingly important in policy terms, as attempts have been made to reduce the role of the 'pure public' sector. The assisted-places scheme, NHS glasses vouchers, and tax relief on pension contributions are all examples of policies which sought to promote consumer decision-making. However despite the policy interest in moving from public to private decision, the second half of the paper shows that the impact in terms of changes in patterns of welfare expenditure since 1979/80 has been small. The overall picture is one of continuing importance of the publicly provided, financed and decided sector, accounting for just over half of all welfare expenditure in 1979/80 and just under half in 1995/96

Theories of the welfare state: a critique

Gough, Ian
Fonte: Baywood Publishing Co., Inc. Publicador: Baywood Publishing Co., Inc.
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1978 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
The article considers three major non-Marxist explanations of the modern welfare state: functionalist sociological theories, economic theories of government policy, and pluralist theories of democracy. Each is subjected to a critique and all are found wanting, in that none can satisfactorily explain the observable similarities and differences in state welfare intervention within advanced capitalist countries. Functionalist theories can explain the dominant trends at work within all countries, but not the immense diversity in state policies which still persists. Economic and pluralist theories can explain the diversity but not the determinant trends. This failing is related to the separation of objective and subjective aspects in historical explanation: the first school objectifies history, the second subjectifies it. The article concludes by asserting, but not arguing, that a Marxist approach offers a more fruitful way of understanding the welfare state, insofar as it rejects this separation.

Welfare arrangements, safety nets and familial support for the elderly in Portugal

Ramos da Silva Lopes, Alexandra Cristina
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
This thesis analyses the welfare arrangements of the Portuguese elderly from an historical and a sociological perspective. Two goals form the focus of the thesis. First, it attempts to enrich the discussion on familialism as a model of welfare provision in old age in Portugal. Starting with the historical analysis of the process of consolidation of a model of welfare provision that is based on a set of assumptions about the existence of intergenerational ties and kin solidarity throughout the life course, the thesis moves on to the sociological analysis of family dynamics and normative propositions related to welfare arrangements in old age. The broad question underlying the analysis is to know how resilient and operative is familialism as a logics of welfare provision for the Portuguese elderly. The thesis shows that the resilience of familialism in the lives of the elderly is related to a complex set of social, economic and normative intricacies that still provide for a support network in old age but that show signs of being under accelerated erosion. Second, the thesis aims to make a contribution to the analysis of welfare states and social policies in familialist countries by demonstrating the explanatory power of family arrangements for understanding welfare arrangements in old age. This involves introducing in the analysis of welfare arrangements a focus on intergenerational and kin relationships...