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Catastrophe Management and Inter-Reserve Distance for Marine Reserve Networks

Wagner, Liam; Ross, Joshua; Possingham, Hugh
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
We consider the optimal spacing between marine reserves for maximising the viability of a species occupying a reserve network. The closer the networks are placed together, the higher the probability of colonisation of an empty reserve by an occupied reserve, thus increasing population viability. However, the closer the networks are placed together, the higher the probability that a catastrophe will cause extinction of the species in both reserves, thus decreasing population viability. Using a simple discrete-time Markov chain model for the presence or absence of the species in each reserve we determine the distance between the two reserves which provides the optimal trade-off between these processes, resulting in maximum viability of the species.; Comment: 12 pages and 9 figures

Degree distributions in mesoscopic and macroscopic functional brain networks

Hayasaka, Satoru; Laurienti, Paul J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/03/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
We investigated the degree distribution of brain networks extracted from functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain. In particular, the distributions are compared between macroscopic brain networks using region-based nodes and mesoscopic brain networks using voxel-based nodes. We found that the distribution from these networks follow the same family of distributions and represent a continuum of exponentially truncated power law distributions.

Backpropagation training in adaptive quantum networks

Altman, Christopher; Zapatrin, Romàn R.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/03/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
We introduce a robust, error-tolerant adaptive training algorithm for generalized learning paradigms in high-dimensional superposed quantum networks, or \emph{adaptive quantum networks}. The formalized procedure applies standard backpropagation training across a coherent ensemble of discrete topological configurations of individual neural networks, each of which is formally merged into appropriate linear superposition within a predefined, decoherence-free subspace. Quantum parallelism facilitates simultaneous training and revision of the system within this coherent state space, resulting in accelerated convergence to a stable network attractor under consequent iteration of the implemented backpropagation algorithm. Parallel evolution of linear superposed networks incorporating backpropagation training provides quantitative, numerical indications for optimization of both single-neuron activation functions and optimal reconfiguration of whole-network quantum structure.; Comment: Talk presented at "Quantum Structures - 2008", Gdansk, Poland

An exponential random graph modeling approach to creating group-based representative whole-brain connectivity networks

Simpson, Sean L.; Moussa, Malaak N.; Laurienti, Paul J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
Group-based brain connectivity networks have great appeal for researchers interested in gaining further insight into complex brain function and how it changes across different mental states and disease conditions. Accurately constructing these networks presents a daunting challenge given the difficulties associated with accounting for inter-subject topological variability. Viable approaches to this task must engender networks that capture the constitutive topological properties of the group of subjects' networks that it is aiming to represent. The conventional approach has been to use a mean or median correlation network (Achard et al., 2006; Song et al., 2009) to embody a group of networks. However, the degree to which their topological properties conform with those of the groups that they are purported to represent has yet to be explored. Here we investigate the performance of these mean and median correlation networks. We also propose an alternative approach based on an exponential random graph modeling framework and compare its performance to that of the aforementioned conventional approach. Simpson et al. (2010) illustrated the utility of exponential random graph models (ERGMs) for creating brain networks that capture the topological characteristics of a single subject's brain network. However...

Mutual information in random Boolean models of regulatory networks

Ribeiro, Andre S.; Kauffman, Stuart A.; Lloyd-Price, Jason; Samuelsson, Björn; Socolar, Joshua E. S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
The amount of mutual information contained in time series of two elements gives a measure of how well their activities are coordinated. In a large, complex network of interacting elements, such as a genetic regulatory network within a cell, the average of the mutual information over all pairs is a global measure of how well the system can coordinate its internal dynamics. We study this average pairwise mutual information in random Boolean networks (RBNs) as a function of the distribution of Boolean rules implemented at each element, assuming that the links in the network are randomly placed. Efficient numerical methods for calculating show that as the number of network nodes N approaches infinity, the quantity N exhibits a discontinuity at parameter values corresponding to critical RBNs. For finite systems it peaks near the critical value, but slightly in the disordered regime for typical parameter variations. The source of high values of N is the indirect correlations between pairs of elements from different long chains with a common starting point. The contribution from pairs that are directly linked approaches zero for critical networks and peaks deep in the disordered regime.; Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures; Minor revisions for clarity and figure format...

Observability and Controllability of Nonlinear Networks: The Role of Symmetry

Whalen, Andrew J.; Brennan, Sean N.; Sauer, Timothy D.; Schiff, Steven J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
Observability and controllability are essential concepts to the design of predictive observer models and feedback controllers of networked systems. For example, noncontrollable mathematical models of real systems have subspaces that influence model behavior, but cannot be controlled by an input. Such subspaces can be difficult to determine in complex nonlinear networks. Since almost all of the present theory was developed for linear networks without symmetries, here we present a numerical and group representational framework, to quantify the observability and controllability of nonlinear networks with explicit symmetries that shows the connection between symmetries and nonlinear measures of observability and controllability. We numerically observe and theoretically predict that not all symmetries have the same effect on network observation and control. Our analysis shows that the presence of symmetry in a network may decrease observability and controllability, although networks containing only rotational symmetries remain controllable and observable. These results alter our view of the nature of observability and controllability in complex networks, change our understanding of structural controllability, and affect the design of mathematical models to observe and control such networks.; Comment: 19 pages...

Density-dependence of functional development in spiking cortical networks grown in vitro

Ham, Michael I.; Gintautas, Vadas; Rodriguez, Marko A.; Bennett, Ryan A.; Maria, Cara L. Santa; Bettencourt, Luis M. A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/11/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
During development, the mammalian brain differentiates into specialized regions with distinct functional abilities. While many factors contribute to functional specialization, we explore the effect of neuronal density on the development of neuronal interactions in vitro. Two types of cortical networks, dense and sparse, with 50,000 and 12,000 total cells respectively, are studied. Activation graphs that represent pairwise neuronal interactions are constructed using a competitive first response model. These graphs reveal that, during development in vitro, dense networks form activation connections earlier than sparse networks. Link entropy analysis of dense net- work activation graphs suggests that the majority of connections between electrodes are reciprocal in nature. Information theoretic measures reveal that early functional information interactions (among 3 cells) are synergetic in both dense and sparse networks. However, during later stages of development, previously synergetic relationships become primarily redundant in dense, but not in sparse networks. Large link entropy values in the activation graph are related to the domination of redundant ensembles in late stages of development in dense networks. Results demonstrate differences between dense and sparse networks in terms of informational groups...

Quantitative Measure of Stability in Gene Regulatory Networks

Ao, P.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/07/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.66%
A quantitative measure of stability in stochastic dynamics starts to emerge in recent experiments on bioswitches. This quantity, similar to the potential function in mathematics, is deeply rooted in biology, dated back at the beginning of quantitative description of biological processes: the adaptive landscape of Wright (1932) and the development landscape of Waddington (1940). Nevertheless, its quantitative implication has been frequently challenged by biologists. Recent progresses in quantitative biology begin to meet those outstanding challenges.

Laplacian Spectrum and Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

Banerjee, Anirban; Jost, Jürgen
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/05/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
From the spectral plot of the (normalized) graph Laplacian, the essential qualitative properties of a network can be simultaneously deduced. Given a class of empirical networks, reconstruction schemes for elucidating the evolutionary dynamics leading to those particular data can then be developed. This method is exemplified for protein-protein interaction networks. Traces of their evolutionary history of duplication and divergence processes are identified. In particular, we can identify typical specific features that robustly distinguish protein-protein interaction networks from other classes of networks, in spite of possible statistical fluctuations of the underlying data.; Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures

Ecological Multilayer Networks: A New Frontier for Network Ecology

Pilosof, Shai; Porter, Mason A.; Kéfi, Sonia
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/11/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
Networks provide a powerful approach to address myriad phenomena across ecology. Ecological systems are inherently 'multilayered'. For instance, species interact with one another in different ways and those interactions vary spatiotemporally. However, ecological networks are typically studied as ordinary (i.e., monolayer) networks. 'Multilayer networks' are currently at the forefront of network science, but ecological multilayer network studies have been sporadic and have not taken advantage of rapidly developing theory. Here we present the latest concepts and tools of multilayer network theory and discuss their application to ecology. This novel framework for the study of ecological multilayer networks encourages ecologists to move beyond monolayer network studies and facilitates ways for doing so. It thereby paves the way for novel, exciting research directions in network ecology.

Path lengths in tree-child time consistent hybridization networks

Cardona, Gabriel; Llabres, Merce; Rossello, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
Hybridization networks are representations of evolutionary histories that allow for the inclusion of reticulate events like recombinations, hybridizations, or lateral gene transfers. The recent growth in the number of hybridization network reconstruction algorithms has led to an increasing interest in the definition of metrics for their comparison that can be used to assess the accuracy or robustness of these methods. In this paper we establish some basic results that make it possible the generalization to tree-child time consistent (TCTC) hybridization networks of some of the oldest known metrics for phylogenetic trees: those based on the comparison of the vectors of path lengths between leaves. More specifically, we associate to each hybridization network a suitably defined vector of `splitted' path lengths between its leaves, and we prove that if two TCTC hybridization networks have the same such vectors, then they must be isomorphic. Thus, comparing these vectors by means of a metric for real-valued vectors defines a metric for TCTC hybridization networks. We also consider the case of fully resolved hybridization networks, where we prove that simpler, `non-splitted' vectors can be used.; Comment: 31 pages

Exponential Random Graph Modeling for Complex Brain Networks

Simpson, Sean L.; Hayasaka, Satoru; Laurienti, Paul J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
Exponential random graph models (ERGMs), also known as p* models, have been utilized extensively in the social science literature to study complex networks and how their global structure depends on underlying structural components. However, the literature on their use in biological networks (especially brain networks) has remained sparse. Descriptive models based on a specific feature of the graph (clustering coefficient, degree distribution, etc.) have dominated connectivity research in neuroscience. Corresponding generative models have been developed to reproduce one of these features. However, the complexity inherent in whole-brain network data necessitates the development and use of tools that allow the systematic exploration of several features simultaneously and how they interact to form the global network architecture. ERGMs provide a statistically principled approach to the assessment of how a set of interacting local brain network features gives rise to the global structure. We illustrate the utility of ERGMs for modeling, analyzing, and simulating complex whole-brain networks with network data from normal subjects. We also provide a foundation for the selection of important local features through the implementation and assessment of three selection approaches: a traditional p-value based backward selection approach...

Community detection for networks with unipartite and bipartite structure

Chang, Chang; Tang, Chao
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.72%
Finding community structures in networks is important in network science, technology, and applications. To date, most algorithms that aim to find community structures only focus either on unipartite or bipartite networks. A unipartite network consists of one set of nodes and a bipartite network consists of two nonoverlapping sets of nodes with only links joining the nodes in different sets. However, a third type of network exists, defined here as the mixture network. Just like a bipartite network, a mixture network also consists of two sets of nodes, but some nodes may simultaneously belong to two sets, which breaks the nonoverlapping restriction of a bipartite network. The mixture network can be considered as a general case, with unipartite and bipartite networks viewed as its limiting cases. A mixture network can represent not only all the unipartite and bipartite networks, but also a wide range of real-world networks that cannot be properly represented as either unipartite or bipartite networks in fields such as biology and social science. Based on this observation, we first propose a probabilistic model that can find modules in unipartite, bipartite, and mixture networks in a unified framework based on the link community model for a unipartite undirected network [B Ball et al (2011 Phys. Rev. E 84 036103)]. We test our algorithm on synthetic networks (both overlapping and nonoverlapping communities) and apply it to two real-world networks: a southern women bipartite network and a human transcriptional regulatory mixture network. The results suggest that our model performs well for all three types of networks...

Spectrum of genetic diversity and networks of clonal organisms

Rozenfeld, Alejandro F.; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Matias, Manuel A.; Serrao, Ester; Duarte, Carlos M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
Clonal organisms present a particular challenge in population genetics because, in addition to the possible existence of replicates of the same genotype in a given sample, some of the hypotheses and concepts underlying classical population genetics models are irreconcilable with clonality. The genetic structure and diversity of clonal populations was examined using a combination of new tools to analyze microsatellite data in the marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica. These tools were based on examination of the frequency distribution of the genetic distance among ramets, termed the spectrum of genetic diversity (GDS), and of networks built on the basis of pairwise genetic distances among genets. The properties and topology of networks based on genetic distances showed a "small-world" topology, characterized by a high degree of connectivity among nodes, and a substantial amount of substructure, revealing organization in sub-families of closely related individuals. Keywords: genetic networks; small-world networks; genetic diversity; clonal organisms; Comment: Replaced with revised version

Mean Field Model of Genetic Regulatory Networks

Andrecut, M.; Kauffman, S. A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
In this paper, we propose a mean-field model which attempts to bridge the gap between random Boolean networks and more realistic stochastic modeling of genetic regulatory networks. The main idea of the model is to replace all regulatory interactions to any one gene with an average or effective interaction, which takes into account the repression and activation mechanisms. We find that depending on the set of regulatory parameters, the model exhibits rich nonlinear dynamics. The model also provides quantitative support to the earlier qualitative results obtained for random Boolean networks.; Comment: Changed content and notation

Designing Complex Networks

Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin; Timme, Marc
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
We suggest a new perspective of research towards understanding the relations between structure and dynamics of a complex network: Can we design a network, e.g. by modifying the features of units or interactions, such that it exhibits a desired dynamics? Here we present a case study where we positively answer this question analytically for networks of spiking neural oscillators. First, we present a method of finding the set of all networks (defined by all mutual coupling strengths) that exhibit an arbitrary given periodic pattern of spikes as an invariant solution. In such a pattern all the spike times of all the neurons are exactly predefined. The method is very general as it covers networks of different types of neurons, excitatory and inhibitory couplings, interaction delays that may be heterogeneously distributed, and arbitrary network connectivities. Second, we show how to design networks if further restrictions are imposed, for instance by predefining the detailed network connectivity. We illustrate the applicability of the method by examples of Erd\"{o}s-R\'{e}nyi and power-law random networks. Third, the method can be used to design networks that optimize network properties. To illustrate this idea, we design networks that exhibit a predefined pattern dynamics while at the same time minimizing the networks' wiring costs.; Comment: 42 pages...

Clone size distributions in networks of genetic similarity

Hernandez-Garcia, E.; Rozenfeld, A. F.; Eguiluz, V. M.; Arnaud-Haond, S.; Duarte, C. M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
We build networks of genetic similarity in which the nodes are organisms sampled from biological populations. The procedure is illustrated by constructing networks from genetic data of a marine clonal plant. An important feature in the networks is the presence of clone subgraphs, i.e. sets of organisms with identical genotype forming clones. As a first step to understand the dynamics that has shaped these networks, we point up a relationship between a particular degree distribution and the clone size distribution in the populations. We construct a dynamical model for the population dynamics, focussing on the dynamics of the clones, and solve it for the required distributions. Scale free and exponentially decaying forms are obtained depending on parameter values, the first type being obtained when clonal growth is the dominant process. Average distributions are dominated by the power law behavior presented by the fastest replicating populations.; Comment: 17 pages, 4 figures. One figure improved and other minor changes. To appear in Physica D

Discovering Functional Communities in Dynamical Networks

Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Camperi, Marcelo F.; Klinkner, Kristina Lisa
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
Many networks are important because they are substrates for dynamical systems, and their pattern of functional connectivity can itself be dynamic -- they can functionally reorganize, even if their underlying anatomical structure remains fixed. However, the recent rapid progress in discovering the community structure of networks has overwhelmingly focused on that constant anatomical connectivity. In this paper, we lay out the problem of discovering_functional communities_, and describe an approach to doing so. This method combines recent work on measuring information sharing across stochastic networks with an existing and successful community-discovery algorithm for weighted networks. We illustrate it with an application to a large biophysical model of the transition from beta to gamma rhythms in the hippocampus.; Comment: 18 pages, 4 figures, Springer "Lecture Notes in Computer Science" style. Forthcoming in the proceedings of the workshop "Statistical Network Analysis: Models, Issues and New Directions", at ICML 2006. Version 2: small clarifications, typo corrections, added reference

Detecting modules in quantitative bipartite networks: the QuaBiMo algorithm

Dormann, Carsten F.; Strauss, Rouven
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.75%
Ecological networks are often composed of different sub-communities (often referred to as modules). Identifying such modules has the potential to develop a better understanding of the assembly of ecological communities and to investigate functional overlap or specialisation. The most informative form of networks are quantitative or weighted networks. Here we introduce an algorithm to identify modules in quantitative bipartite (or two-mode) networks. It is based on the hierarchical random graphs concept of Clauset et al. (2008 Nature 453: 98-101) and is extended to include quantitative information and adapted to work with bipartite graphs. We define the algorithm, which we call QuaBiMo, sketch its performance on simulated data and illustrate its potential usefulness with a case study.; Comment: 19 pages, 10 figures, 4 tables

A microstructurally informed model for the mechanical response of three-dimensional actin networks

Kwon, Ronald Y.; Lew, Adrian J.; Jacobs, Christopher R.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/02/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.74%
We propose a class of microstructurally informed models for the linear elastic mechanical behavior of cross-linked polymer networks such as the actin cytoskeleton. Salient features of the models include the possibility to represent anisotropic mechanical behavior resulting from anisotropic filament distributions, and a power-law scaling of the mechanical properties with the filament density. Mechanical models within the class are parameterized by seven different constants. We demonstrate a procedure for determining these constants using finite element models of three-dimensional actin networks. Actin filaments and cross-links were modeled as elastic rods, and the networks were constructed at physiological volume fractions and at the scale of an image voxel. We show the performance of the model in estimating the mechanical behavior of the networks over a wide range of filament densities and degrees of anisotropy.; Comment: 26 pages, 9 figures
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