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Testosterona induz migração de células da musculatura lisa vascular de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos por mecanismos dependentes de EROs e ativação da NADPH oxidase via c-Src.; Testosterone induces migration of vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats via c-Src-dependent NADPH oxidase-driven ROS generation.

Chignalia, Andréia Zago
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/10/2009 Português
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46.37%
O dimorfismo sexual relacionado à hipertensão arterial surge na adolescência e persiste por toda vida adulta. Homens apresentam maior incidência de doenças cardiovasculares quando comparados a mulheres de mesma faixa etária. O mesmo perfil é observado em modelos animais de hipertensão, nos quais machos apresentam maiores níveis pressóricos quando comparados a fêmeas. Dessa forma, a testosterona é frequentemente relacionada à hipertensão arterial. Entretanto, os mecanismos pelos quais a testosterona exerce efeitos vasculares ainda não estão esclarecidos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar os efeitos da testosterona sobre a geração de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs), importantes mediadores do processo hipertensivo, em células da musculatura lisa vascular (CMLV) de ratos normotensos e espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). Os receptores para andrógenos, as fontes de EROs (papel da NADPH oxidase), bem como os efeitos funcionais celulares (migração celular) relacionados aos efeitos da testosterona também foram analisados. Para tanto, CMLV do leito mesentérico de ratos Wistar (W), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) e SHR foram isoladas, cultivadas e estimuladas com testosterona 10-7mol/L em diferentes tempos, de acordo com cada protocolo. Sempre que necessário...

Peptídeo C16 regula migração, invasão, invadopódios e suas moléculas-chave, bem como geração de espécies reativas de oxigênio em células tumorais prostáticas.; Laminin-derived peptide C16 regulates migration, invasion, invadopodia key-molecules, and ROS generation in human prostate cancer cells.

Santos, Lívia Caires dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/11/2014 Português
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56.29%
O câncer de próstata é o segundo câncer mais freqüentemente diagnosticado em homens. Durante o crescimento tumoral, as células neoplásicas interagem com a matriz extracelular (MEC). Analisamos o efeito de C16, peptídeo derivado da clivagem da MEC, sobre a migração, invasão e regulação dos invadopódios em células de câncer de próstata (DU145). Ensaios de migração e invasão demonstraram que C16 promoveu um aumento da atividade migratória e invasiva de células DU145 de maneira dose dependente. Demonstramos que o peptídeo estimula a fosforilação de Src. Ensaios de degradação em substrato fluorescente mostraram que C16 promoveu a formação de invadopódios de células DU145. O immunoblot nos revelou que este peptídeo também estimula a expressão de Tks4, Tks5, cortactina e MT1-MMP. C16 estimulou a produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio, importantes para o fenótipo invasivo das células tumorais. Nossos resultados sugerem que o peptídeo C16 regula migração, invasão, invadopódios e suas moléculas-chave e a geração de espécies reativas de oxigênio em células DU145.; Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in males. During tumor growth, neoplastic cells interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) Our Laboratory has demonstrated that peptides derived from ECM cleavage are involved in migration...

Geração de espécies reativas por fluconazol em Candida glabrata : ativação de enzimas antioxidantes e dano oxidativo no DNA

Mahl, Camila Donato
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
A participação das espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO) no mecanismo de ação dos antifúngicos azólicos, bem como a relação entre resistência aos antifúngicos e resposta ao estresse oxidativo, têm sido sugeridos. Entretanto, os dados ainda são inconclusivos e diferem entre os micro-organismos. Neste estudo estão apresentados os resultados da geração de ERO pelo fluconazol em isolados de C. glabrata sensíveis e resistentes a esse antifúngico e a resposta antioxidante da levedura. Nesses isolados, tratados e não tratados com fluconazol em concentração subinibitória, de acordo com sua concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), até fase de crescimento estacionário, foi avaliado se o fluconazol geraria ERO. Subsequentemente, foram analisadas as defesas antioxidantes glutationa peroxidase (GPx), superóxido dismutase (SOD), glutationa-S-transferase (GST), consumo de peróxido de hidrogênio e glutationa total, bem como possível dano oxidativo causado pelo fluconazol em lipídeos, proteínas e ácidos nucleicos e os níveis de nitritos e nitratos. Os resultados mostram que nos isolados de C. glabrata sensíveis e resistentes ao fluconazol, na presença do antifúngico, houve um aumento da geração ERO e maior atividade enzimática da GPx e SOD comparada a dos isolados não tratados com fluconazol...

Cyclosporine A regulate oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: mechanisms via ROS generation, iNOS and Hsp70

Chen, Huei-Wen; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Yu, Sung-Liang; Lee, Yuan-Teh; Chen, Wen-Jone
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Previous study suggested that cyclosporine A (CsA) could partially reduce ischaemia/reperfusion-induced injury in isolated heart, but the mechanism was still unclear. In this study, the possible mechanisms of cyclosporine A in regulating oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis were examined.Morphological (cell shrinkage, apoptotic body formation, and DNA fragmentation) and biochemical (annexin-V staining for exposed phosphatidylserine residues) evidences showed that both hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypoxia/reoxygenation could induce apoptotic change in the embryonal rat heart myoblast-derived cells (H9c2). These effects were inhibited by pre-treatment with CsA at concentration of 0.01–1.0 μM for 24 h, but were increased with 10.0 μM CsA.While examining the mechanisms of CsA in protecting cardiomyocyte apoptosis, we found that the collapse of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by oxidative stress was partially reversed by CsA (0.01–1.0 μM).Compared to the control, CSA at the concentration of 0.1 and 10.0 μM significantly increased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) to 117.2±12.4% and 234.4±9.3%, respectively. Co-incubating with the antioxidant, ascorbic acid (10.0 μM), could partially reduce the protective effect of CsA (0.01–1.0 μM) and the toxic effect of 10.0 μM CsA.Pre-treatment with CsA at concentration of 0.01–1.0 μM for 24 h produced up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70)...

NOX4 activity is determined by mRNA levels and reveals a unique pattern of ROS generation

Serrander, Lena; Cartier, Laetitia; Bedard, Karen; Banfi, Botond; Lardy, Bernard; Plastre, Olivier; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Fórró, Lászlo; Schlegel, Werner; Krause, Karl-Heinz
Fonte: Portland Press Ltd. Publicador: Portland Press Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
NOX4 is an enigmatic member of the NOX (NADPH oxidase) family of ROS (reactive oxygen species)-generating NADPH oxidases. NOX4 has a wide tissue distribution, but the physiological function and activation mechanisms are largely unknown, and its pharmacology is poorly understood. We have generated cell lines expressing NOX4 upon tetracycline induction. Tetracycline induced a rapid increase in NOX4 mRNA (1 h) followed closely (2 h) by a release of ROS. Upon tetracycline withdrawal, NOX4 mRNA levels and ROS release decreased rapidly (<24 h). In membrane preparations, NOX4 activity was selective for NADPH over NADH and did not require the addition of cytosol. The pharmacological profile of NOX4 was distinct from other NOX isoforms: DPI (diphenyleneiodonium chloride) and thioridazine inhibited the enzyme efficiently, whereas apocynin and gliotoxin did not (IC50>100 μM). The pattern of NOX4-dependent ROS generation was unique: (i) ROS release upon NOX4 induction was spontaneous without need for a stimulus, and (ii) the type of ROS released from NOX4-expressing cells was H2O2, whereas superoxide (O2−) was almost undetectable. Probes that allow detection of intracellular O2− generation yielded differential results: DHE (dihydroethidium) fluorescence and ACP (1-acetoxy-3-carboxy-2...

Plumbagin Inhibits Proliferative and Inflammatory Responses of T Cells Independent of ROS Generation But by Modulating Intracellular Thiols

Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh K.; Subrahmanyam, G.; Krishnan, Sunil; Poduval, T.B.; Sainis, K.B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Plumbagin inhibited activation, proliferation, cytokine production, and graft-versus-host disease in lymphocytes and inhibited growth of tumor cells by suppressing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Plumbagin was also shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tumor cells via an unknown mechanism. Present report describes a novel role of cellular redox in modulation of immune responses in normal lymphocytes by plumbagin. Plumbagin depleted glutathione (GSH) levels that led to increase in ROS generation. The decrease in GSH levels was due to direct reaction of plumbagin with GSH as evinced by mass spectrometric and HPLC analysis. Further, addition of plumbagin to cells resulted in decrease in free thiol groups on proteins and increase in glutathionylation of proteins. The suppression of mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation and cytokine (IL-2/IL-4/IL-6/IFN-γ) production by plumbagin was abrogated by thiol antioxidants but not by non-thiol antioxidants confirming that thiols but not ROS play an important role in biological activity of plumbagin. Plumbagin also abrogated mitogen-induced phosphorylation of ERK, IKK, and degradation of IκB-α. However, it did not affect phosphorylation of P38, JNK, and AKT. Our results for the first time show that antiproliferative effects of plumbagin are mediated by modulation of cellular redox. These results provide a rationale for application of thiol-depleting agents as anti-inflammatory drugs.

Organometallic Iron(III)-Salophene Exerts Cytotoxic Properties in Neuroblastoma Cells via MAPK Activation and ROS Generation

Kim, Kyu Kwang; Singh, Rakesh K.; Strongin, Robert M.; Moore, Richard G.; Brard, Laurent; Lange, Thilo S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
The objective of the present study was to investigate the specific effects of Iron(III)-salophene (Fe-SP) on viability, morphology, proliferation, cell cycle progression, ROS generation and pro-apoptotic MAPK activation in neuroblastoma (NB) cells. A NCI-DTP cancer screen revealed that Fe-SP displayed high toxicity against cell lines of different tumor origin but not tumor type-specificity. In a viability screen Fe-SP exhibited high cytotoxicity against all three NB cell lines tested. The compound caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, suppression of cells progressing through S phase, morphological changes, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane depolarization potential, induction of apoptotic markers as well as p38 and JNK MAPK activation, DNA degradation, and elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SMS-KCNR NB cells. In contrast to Fe-SP, non-complexed salophene or Cu(II)-SP did not raise ROS levels in NB or SKOV-3 ovarian cancer control cells. Cytotoxicity of Fe-SP and activation of caspase-3, -7, PARP, pro-apoptotic p38 and JNK MAPK could be prevented by co-treatment with antioxidants suggesting ROS generation is the primary mechanism of cytotoxic action. We report here that Fe-SP is a potent growth-suppressing and cytotoxic agent for in vitro NB cell lines and...

Particulate Matter Exposure Exacerbates High Glucose-Induced Cardiomyocyte Dysfunction through ROS Generation

Zuo, Li; Youtz, Dane J.; Wold, Loren E.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/08/2011 Português
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46.46%
Diabetes mellitus and fine particulate matter from diesel exhaust (DEP) are both important contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease with a high mortality rate in patients suffering from CVD, resulting in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Elevated DEP levels in the air are attributed to the development of various CVDs, presumably since fine DEP (<2.5 µm in diameter) can be inhaled and gain access to the circulatory system. However, mechanisms defining how DEP affects diabetic or control cardiomyocyte function remain poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate cardiomyocyte function and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in isolated rat ventricular myocytes exposed overnight to fine DEP (0.1 µg/ml), and/or high glucose (HG, 25.5 mM). Our hypothesis was that DEP exposure exacerbates contractile dysfunction via ROS generation in cardiomyocytes exposed to HG. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from male adult Sprague-Dawley rats cultured overnight and sarcomeric contractile properties were evaluated, including: peak shortening normalized to baseline (PS), time-to-90% shortening (TPS90), time-to-90% relengthening (TR90) and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening (±dL/dt)...

The Natural Anticancer Agent Plumbagin Induces Potent Cytotoxicity in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells by Inhibiting a PI-5 Kinase for ROS Generation

Lee, Ju-Hee; Yeon, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hanna; Roh, Whijae; Chae, Jeiwook; Park, Han-Oh; Kim, Dong-Myung
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/09/2012 Português
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46.48%
Drug-induced haploinsufficiency (DIH) in yeast has been considered a valuable tool for drug target identification. A plant metabolite, plumbagin, has potent anticancer activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, the detailed molecular targets of plumbagin for ROS generation are not understood. Here, using DIH and heterozygous deletion mutants of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we identified 1, 4-phopshatidylinositol 5-kinase (PI5K) its3 as a new molecular target of plumbagin for ROS generation. Plumbagin showed potent anti-proliferative activity (GI50; 10 µM) and induced cell elongation and septum formation in wild-type S. pombe. Furthermore, plumbagin dramatically increased the intracellular ROS level, and pretreatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), protected against growth inhibition by plumbagin, suggesting that ROS play a crucial role in the anti-proliferative activity in S. pombe. Interestingly, significant DIH was observed in an its3-deleted heterozygous mutant, in which ROS generation by plumbagin was higher than that in wild-type cells, implying that its3 contributes to ROS generation by plumbagin in this yeast. In MCF7 human breast cancer cells, plumbagin significantly decreased the level of a human ortholog...

Autophagic Vacuolation Induced by Excess ROS Generation in HABP1/p32/gC1qR Overexpressing Fibroblasts and Its Reversal by Polymeric Hyaluronan

Saha, Paramita; Chowdhury, Anindya Roy; Dutta, Shubhra; Chatterjee, Soumya; Ghosh, Ilora; Datta, Kasturi
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
The ubiquitous hyaladherin, hyaluronan-binding protein 1 (HABP1/p32/gC1qR) upon stable overexpression in normal fibroblasts (F-HABP07) has been reported to induce mitochondrial dysfunction, growth retardation and apoptosis after 72 h of growth. HABP1 has been observed to accumulate in the mitochondria resulting in generation of excess Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), mitochondrial Ca++ efflux and drop in mitochondrial membrane potential. In the present study, autophagic vacuolation was detected with monodansylcadaverin (MDC) staining from 36 h to 60 h of culture period along with elevated level of ROS in F-HABP07 cells. Increased expression of autophagic markers like MAP-LC3-II, Beclin 1 and autophagic modulator, DRAM confirmed the occurrence of the phenomenon. Reduced vacuole formation was observed upon treatment with 3-MA, a known PI3 kinase inhibitor, only at 32 h and was ineffective if treated later, as high ROS level was already attained. Treatment of F111 and F-HABP07 cells with bafilomycin A1 further indicated an increase in autophagosome formation along with autophagic degradation in HABP1 overexpressed fibroblasts. Comparison between normal fibroblast (F111) and F-HABP07 cells indicate reduced level of polymeric HA, its depolymerization and perturbed HA-HABP1 interaction in F-HABP07. Interestingly...

Activation of Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in retinal pigment epithelium and reduces choroidal neovascularization

Wang, Haibo; Jiang, Yanchao; Shi, Dallas; Quilliam, Lawrence A.; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena; Wittchen, Erika S.; Li, Dean Y.; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth
Fonte: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Publicador: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Activation of Rap1 GTPase can improve the integrity of the barrier of the retina pigment epithelium (RPE) and reduce choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation also reduces CNV. We hypothesize that Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-generated ROS and thereby reduces CNV formation. Using a murine model of laser-induced CNV, we determined that reduced Rap1 activity in RPE/choroid occurred with CNV formation and that activation of Rap1 by 2′-O-Me-cAMP (8CPT)-reduced laser-induced CNV via inhibiting NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. In RPE, inhibition of Rap1 by Rap1 GTPase-activating protein (Rap1GAP) increased ROS generation, whereas activation of Rap1 by 8CPT reduced ROS by interfering with the assembly of NADPH oxidase membrane subunit p22phox with NOX4 or cytoplasmic subunit p47phox. Activation of NADPH oxidase with Rap1GAP reduced RPE barrier integrity via cadherin phosphorylation and facilitated choroidal EC migration across the RPE monolayer. Rap1GAP-induced ROS generation was inhibited by active Rap1a, but not Rap1b, and activation of Rap1a by 8CPT in Rap1b−/− mice reduced laser-induced CNV, in correlation with decreased ROS generation in RPE/choroid. These findings provide evidence that active Rap1 reduces CNV by interfering with the assembly of NADPH oxidase subunits and increasing the integrity of the RPE barrier.—Wang...

Ampelopsin Induces Cell Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through ROS Generation and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway

Zhou, Yong; Shu, Furong; Liang, Xinyu; Chang, Hui; Shi, Linying; Peng, Xiaoli; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Ampelopsin (AMP), a major bioactive constituent of Ampelopsis grossedentata, exerts a number of biological effects. In this study, we investigated its anti-cancer activity in human breast cancer cell lines, and explored the underlying mechanism of this action. Our results showed that treatment with AMP dose-dependently inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells without cytotoxicity in human normal breast epithelial cells MCF-10A. Meanwhile, AMP dose- dependently triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in both breast cancer cells. The ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) strongly attenuated AMP-induced ROS production, along with cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Furthermore, AMP was observed to activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as evidenced by the up-regulation of ER stress-related proteins, including GRP78, p-PERK, p-elF2α, cleaved ATF6α and CHOP, while knockdown of ATF6α or PERK markedly down-regulated AMP-induced CHOP expression. Blocking ER stress using 4-phenylbutyric acid not only down-regulated AMP-induced GRP78 and CHOP expression, but also significantly decreased AMP-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, whereas ER stress inducer thapsigargin played opposing effects. Additionally...

A deficiency of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) in Harlequin mouse heart mitochondria paradoxically reduces ROS generation during ischemia-reperfusion

Chen, Qun; Szczepanek, Karol; Hu, Ying; Thompson, Jeremy; Lesnefsky, Edward J.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/07/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Background and Aims: AIF (apoptosis inducing factor) is a flavin and NADH containing protein located within mitochondria required for optimal function of the respiratory chain. AIF may function as an antioxidant within mitochondria, yet when released from mitochondria it activates caspase-independent cell death. The Harlequin (Hq) mouse has a markedly reduced content of AIF, providing an experimental model to query if the main role of AIF in the exacerbation of cell death is enhanced mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or the activation of cell death programs. We asked if the ROS generation is altered in Hq heart mitochondria at baseline or following ischemia-reperfusion (IR).

Psoralidin induces autophagy through ROS generation which inhibits the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells

Hao, Wenhui; Zhang, Xuenong; Zhao, Wenwen; Chen, Xiuping
Fonte: PeerJ Inc. Publicador: PeerJ Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/09/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Psoralidin (PSO), a natural furanocoumarin, is isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L. possessing anti-cancer properties. However, the mechanisms of its effects remain unclear. Herein, we investigated its anti-proliferative effect and potential approaches of action on human lung cancer A549 cells. Cell proliferation and death were measured by MTT and LDH assay respectively. Apoptosis was detected with Hoechst 33342 staining by fluorescence microscopy, Annexin V-FITC by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis for apoptosis-related proteins. The autophagy was evaluated using MDC staining, immunofluorescence assay and Western blot analyses for LC3-I and LC3-II. In addition, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by DCFH2-DA with flow cytometry. PSO dramatically decreased the cell viabilities in dose- and time-dependent manner. However, no significant change was observed between the control group and the PSO-treated groups in Hoechst 33342 and Annexin V-FITC staining. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was not altered significantly either. While the MDC-fluorescence intensity and the expression ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I was remarkably increased after PSO treatment. Autophagy inhibitor 3-MA blocked the production of LC3-II and reduced the cytotoxicity in response to PSO. Furthermore...

Induction of Apoptosis and Antiproliferative Activity of Naringenin in Human Epidermoid Carcinoma Cell through ROS Generation and Cell Cycle Arrest

Ahamad, Md Sultan; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Jafri, Asif; Ahmad, Sheeba; Afzal, Mohammad; Arshad, Md
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
A natural predominant flavanone naringenin, especially abundant in citrus fruits, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. The search for antiproliferative agents that reduce skin carcinoma is a task of great importance. The objective of this study was to analyze the anti-proliferative and apoptotic mechanism of naringenin using MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, change in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle kinetics and caspase-3 as biomarkers and to investigate the ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating apoptotic cascade in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Results showed that naringenin exposure significantly reduced the cell viability of A431 cells (p<0.01) with a concomitant increase in nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation in a dose dependent manner. The intracellular ROS generation assay showed statistically significant (p<0.001) dose-related increment in ROS production for naringenin. It also caused naringenin-mediated epidermoid carcinoma apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Cell cycle study showed that naringenin induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and caspase-3 analysis revealed a dose dependent increment in caspase-3 activity which led to cell apoptosis. This study confirms the efficacy of naringenin that lead to cell death in epidermoid carcinoma cells via inducing ROS generation...

Photosensitizing nanoparticles and the modulation of ROS generation

Tada, Dayane B.; Baptista, Mauricio S.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/05/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
The association of PhotoSensitizer (PS) molecules with nanoparticles (NPs) forming photosensitizing NPs, has emerged as a therapeutic strategy to improve PS tumor targeting, to protect PS from deactivation reactions and to enhance both PS solubility and circulation time. Since association with NPs usually alters PS photophysical and photochemical properties, photosensitizing NPs are an important tool to modulate ROS generation. Depending on the design of the photosensitizing NP, i.e., type of PS, the NP material and the method applied for the construction of the photosensitizing NP, the deactivation routes of the excited state can be controlled, allowing the generation of either singlet oxygen or other reactive oxygen species (ROS). Controlling the type of generated ROS is desirable not only in biomedical applications, as in Photodynamic Therapy where the type of ROS affects therapeutic efficiency, but also in other technological relevant fields like energy conversion, where the electron and energy transfer processes are necessary to increase the efficiency of photoconversion cells. The current review highlights some of the recent developments in the design of Photosensitizing NPs aimed at modulating the primary photochemical events after light absorption.

Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activation induces autophagy in thymocytes through ROS-regulated AMPK and Atg4C pathways.

Farfariello, Valerio
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Autophagy is a highly conserved process involved in lymphocyte development and differentiation. Herein, we demonstrated for the first time that triggering of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by the specific agonist capsaicin (CPS) induces autophagy in mouse thymocytes. TRPV1-dependent autophagy required calcium influx and ROS generation resulting in AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activation. CPS specifically increased autophagy related 4C (Atg4C) mRNA expression and induced oxidation of Atg4C protein by ROS generation. TRPV1-triggered autophagy was Atg6/Beclin-1-dependent, as demonstrated by the use of Beclin-1+/- transgenic mice, and involved ROS- and AMPK-mediated up-regulation of Beclin-1 expression. Autophagy is activated as pro-survival process since its inhibition triggered apoptosis of thymocytes: this effect was accompanied by down-regulation of Atg4C, Bcl-XL and immunity-related GTPase family M (Irgm1) mRNA expression, decreased Bcl-XL and Beclin-1 protein levels and caspase-3 activation, suggesting the existence of a molecular interplay between autophagic and apoptotic programs. TRPV1 activation by CPS altered the expression of CD4 and CD8α antigens, inducing the development of a double positive subpopulation expressing lower levels of both receptors (DPdull)...

Mitochondrial metabolism and ROS generation are essential for Kras-mediated tumorigenicity

Weinberg, Frank; Hamanaka, Robert; Wheaton, William W.; Weinberg, Samuel; Joseph, Joy; Lopez, Marcos; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Mutlu, Gökhan M.; Budinger, G. R. Scott; Chandel, Navdeep S.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Otto Warburg's theory on the origins of cancer postulates that tumor cells have defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and therefore rely on high levels of aerobic glycolysis as the major source of ATP to fuel cellular proliferation (the Warburg effect). This is in contrast to normal cells, which primarily utilize oxidative phosphorylation for growth and survival. Here we report that the major function of glucose metabolism for Kras-induced anchorage-independent growth, a hallmark of transformed cells, is to support the pentose phosphate pathway. The major function of glycolytic ATP is to support growth under hypoxic conditions. Glutamine conversion into the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate alpha-ketoglutarate through glutaminase and alanine aminotransferase is essential for Kras-induced anchorage-independent growth. Mitochondrial metabolism allows for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are required for Kras-induced anchorage-independent growth through regulation of the ERK MAPK signaling pathway. We show that the major source of ROS generation required for anchorage-independent growth is the Qo site of mitochondrial complex III. Furthermore, disruption of mitochondrial function by loss of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) gene reduced tumorigenesis in an oncogenic Kras-driven mouse model of lung cancer. These results demonstrate that mitochondrial metabolism and mitochondrial ROS generation are essential for Kras-induced cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.

Activation of MAPK Is Required for ROS Generation and Exocytosis in HMC-1 Cells Induced by Trichomonas vaginalis-Derived Secretory Products

Narantsogt, Giimaa; Min, Arim; Nam, Young Hee; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; El-Benna, Jamel; Shin, Myeong Heon
Fonte: The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine Publicador: The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis in women and asymptomatic urethritis and prostatitis in men. Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in vaginal smears and vaginal walls of patients infected with T. vaginalis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activated by various stimuli, have been shown to regulate the transcriptional activity of various cytokine genes in mast cells. In this study, we investigated whether MAPK is involved in ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 cells induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). We found that TvSP induces the activation of MAPK and NADPH oxidase in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP induced phosphorylation of MAPK and p47phox in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP also induced up-regulation of CD63, a marker for exocytosis, along the surfaces of human mast cells. Pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors strongly inhibited TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation. Finally, our results suggest that TvSP induces intracellular ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 via MAPK signaling.

Co-treatment with hepatocyte growth factor and TGF-β1 enhances migration of HaCaT cells through NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation

Nam, Hyun-Ja; Park, Yun-Yeon; Yoon, Gyesoon; Cho, Hyeseong; Lee, Jae-Ho
Fonte: Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Wound healing requires re-epithelialization from the wound margin through keratinocyte proliferation and migration, and some growth factors are known to influence this process. In the present study, we found that the co-treatment with hapatocyte growth factor (HGF) and TGF-β1 resulted in enhanced migration of HaCaT cells compared with either growth factor alone, and that N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant agent, was the most effective among several inhibitors tested, suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) dye showed an early (30 min) as well as a late (24 h) increase of ROS after scratch, and the increase was more prominent with the growth factor treatment. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), a potent inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, abolished the increase of ROS at 30 min, followed by the inhibition of migration, but not the late time event. More precisely, gene knockdown by shRNA for either Nox-1 or Nox-4 isozyme of gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase abolished both the early time ROS production and migration. However, HaCaT cell migration was not enhanced by treatment with H2O2. Collectively, co-treatment with HGF and TGF-β1 enhances keratinocyte migration...