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Acoustic hypersensitivity in adult rats after neonatal ventral hippocampus lesions

MACEDO, Carlos Eduardo; ANGST, Marie-Josee; GUIBERTEAU, Thierry; BRASSE, David; O`BRIEN, Terence John; SANDNER, Guy
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.33%
Rats with a bilateral neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion (NVHL) are used as models of neurobiological aspects of schizophrenia. In view of their decreased number of GABAergic interneurons, we hypothesized that they would show increased reactivity to acoustic stimuli. We systematically characterized the acoustic reactivity of NVHL rats and sham operated controls. They were behaviourally observed during a loud white noise. A first cohort of 7 months` old rats was studied. Then the observations were reproduced in a second cohort of the same age after characterizing the reactivity of the same rats to dopaminergic drugs. A third cohort of rats was studied at 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months. In subsets of lesioned and control rats, inferior colliculus auditory evoked potentials were recorded. A significant proportion of rats (50-62%) showed aberrant audiogenic responses with explosive wild running resembling the initial phase of audiogenic seizures. This was not correlated with their well-known enhanced reactivity to dopaminergic drugs. The proportion of rats showing this strong reaction increased with rats` age. After the cessation of the noise, NVHL rats showed a long freezing period that did neither depend on the size of the lesion nor on the rats` age. The initial negative deflection of the auditory evoked potential was enhanced in the inferior colliculus of only NVHL rats that displayed wild running. Complementary anatomical investigations using X-ray scans in the living animal...

Intra-bone marrow injection of mesenchymal stem cells improves the femur bone mass of osteoporotic female rats

OCARINO, Natalia de Melo; BOELONI, Jankerle Neves; JORGETTI, Vanda; GOMES, Dawidson Assis; GOES, Alfredo Miranda; SERAKIDES, Rogeria
Fonte: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD Publicador: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.31%
The effect of intra-bone injection of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) into the femur of osteoporotic female rats was studied. Osteoporosis was induced in Wistar female rats by bilateral ovariectomy. Then, 0.75 million BMMSCs isolated from healthy rats were injected into the femurs of osteoporotic rats. Histomorphometric analysis and histology clearly revealed improvements in the treated group as compared to untreated group. In 2 months, the femurs of treated rats, unlike untreated rats, showed trabecular bone percentage almost similar to the femurs from control healthy rats. To confirm the origin of newly formed bone, the experiment was repeated with BMMSCs isolated from green fluorescent protein transgenic rats. Confocal microscopy demonstrated green fluorescent protein-positive cells at the surface of trabecular bone of the treated rats. We investigated in vitro osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs isolated from osteoporotic rats by studying alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, and the ability to form mineralized nodules. Osteoporotic BMMSCs showed less differentiation capabilities as compared to those isolated from healthy rats. The results clearly demonstrated the importance of BMMSCs in osteoporosis and that the disease can be treated by injection of BMMSCs.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa de Minas Gerais (Fapemig); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)

Nitric oxide synthesis blockade reduced the baroreflex sensitivity in trained rats

SOUZA, Hugo C. D.; ARAUJO, Joao E. De; MARTINS-PINGE, Marli C.; COZZA, Izabela C.; MARTINS-DIAS, Daniel P.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Objective: The present study has investigated the effect of blockade of nitric oxide synthesis on cardiovascular autonomic adaptations induced by aerobic physical training using different approaches: 1) double blockade with methylatropine and propranolol; 2) systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and heart rate variability (HRV) by means of spectral analysis; and 3) baroreflex sensitivity. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary rats (SR); sedentary rats treated with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) for one week (SRL); rats trained for eight weeks (TR); and rats trained for eight weeks and treated with L-NAME in the last week (TRL). Results: Hypertension and tachycardia were observed in SRL group. Previous physical training attenuated the hypertension in L-NAME-treated rats. Bradycardia was seen in TR and TRL groups, although such a condition was more prominent in the latter. All trained rats had lower intrinsic heart rates. Pharmacological evaluation of cardiac autonomic tonus showed sympathetic predominance in SRL group, differently than other groups. Spectral analysis of HRV showed smaller low frequency oscillations (LF: 0.2-0.75 Hz) in SRL group compared to other groups. Rats treated with L-NAME presented greater LF oscillations in the SAP compared to non-treated rats...

Comparison of the effects of aerobic and resistance training on cardiac autonomic adaptations in ovariectomized rats

SILVEIRA, Larissa C. R.; TEZINI, Geisa C. S. V.; SCHUJMANN, Debora S.; PORTO, Jaqueline M.; ROSSI, Bruno R. O.; SOUZA, Hugo C. D.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
We have compared the effects of two types of physical training on the cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized and sham-operated rats according to different approaches: double autonomic blockade (DAB) with methylatropine and propranolol; baroreflex sensibility (BRS) and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Wistar female rats (+/- 250 g) were divided into two groups: sham-operated and ovariectomized. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups: sedentary rats, rats submitted to aerobic trained and rats submitted to resistance training. Ovariectomy did not change arterial pressure, basal heart rate (HR), DAB and BRS responses, but interfered with HRV by reducing the low-frequency oscillations (LF = 0.20-0.75 Hz) in relation to sedentary sham-operated rats. The DAB showed that both types of training promoted an increase in the predominance of vagal tonus in sham-operated rats, but HR variations due to methylatropine were decreased in the resistance trained rats compared to sedentary rats. Evaluation of BRS showed that resistance training for sham-operated and ovariectomized rats reduced the tachycardic responses in relation to aerobic training. Evaluation of HRV in trained rats showed that aerobic training reduced LF oscillations in sham-operated rats...

Efeitos tóxicos da senna occidentalis sobre o sistema linfo-hematopoiético: avaliação da exposição de ratos durante a fase de crescimento e pré-natal; Toxic effects of Senna occidentalis on lymphohematopoetic system: evaluation of its exposure in rats during the growth and pre-natal period

Souza, Domenica Palomaris Mariano de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/07/2009 Português
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O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos tóxicos da Senna occidentalis (So) sobre o sistema linfo-hematopoiético em ratos recém-desmamados ou expostos pré-natalmente. Avaliou-se nestes animais: o consumo de água e ração, o ganho de peso; parâmetros hematológicos, padrões histopatológicos, além da resposta imunológica específica e não específica. Inicialmente, o estudo foi realizado em ratos recém-desmamados, os quais foram expostos a diferentes concentrações de sementes de So na ração a saber: 1% (So1), 2% (So2) e 4% (So4) durante 14 dias ou que receberam So4 durante 28 dias. Os animais do grupo peer-feeding (PF) receberam a mesma quantidade de ração consumida pelos animais expostos a So4, porém isentas da planta. Após 14 dias de exposição, os resultados obtidos mostraram uma diminuição significante nos parâmetros de consumo de ração, de ganho de peso e da celularidade da medula óssea e do peso relativo no timo nos grupos So2 e So4 e um aumento no peso relativo do baço nos grupos So2 e So4. Entretanto, os animais dos grupos So4 e PF também apresentaram diminuição da celularidade da medula óssea. Na avaliação da resposta imune não especifica todos grupos expostos às sementes da planta...

Ação de fração do hormônio paratireóideo no metabolismo ósseo: estudo experimental em ratos; Effect of human parathyroid hormone fragment on bone metabolism: experimental study in rats

Bassit, Ana Cristina Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/01/2011 Português
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36.35%
O hormônio da paratireóide (PTH) tem sido utilizado como um agente anabólico ósseo para o tratamento de condições de osteopenia / osteoporose, prevenção e consolidação de fraturas. O papel do fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina I (IGF-I), como um potencial mediador dos efeitos anabólicos do PTH, é controverso. O rato dwarf pode ser adequado para o estudo dessas interações in vivo, uma vez que a os níveis séricos de hormônio do crescimento (GH) encontram-se reduzidos a cerca de 6% dos valores normais em fêmeas e os níveis séricos de IGF-I, a cerca de 10% dos valores normais, mas estes animais são saudáveis e sem malformações esqueléticas. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: 1 - Avaliar o rato dwarf (dw-/dw-) como um modelo animal para o estudo dos efeitos da deficiência do GH e do IGF-I sobre o esqueleto e o metabolismo ósseo; 2 - Comparar os efeitos do tratamento com PTH sobre o esqueleto e formação óssea em ratos dwarf e em ratos Lewis, sua linhagem de origem. A partir de 9 semanas de idade, ratas Lewis e dwarf receberam injeções por via subcutânea, diariamente, por duas semanas, com medicamento placebo ou fragmento de hormônio paratireóideo humano, hPTH 1-34, na dose de 50 g / kg de peso corpóreo (N = 7-13/grupo). Foram realizadas avaliações do peso corpóreo semanalmente e...

Influência da idade, sexo e dos hormônios gonadais na percepção dolorosa em modelo de dor neuropática em ratos; Influence of age, sex and gonadal hormones on pain perception in neuropathic pain model in rats

Palmeira, Claudia Carneiro de Araujo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Os fatores idade e sexo modificam a experiência dolorosa em animais e seres humanos. Os efeitos dos hormônios gonadais têm sido estudados em diversos modelos experimentais de dor, no entanto, o efeito do envelhecimento na percepção à dor carece de mais investigação. O efeito do envelhecimento na dor neuropática ainda não está bem estabelecido. Neste estudo se procurou avaliar possíveis variações na percepção da dor da hiperalgesia mecânica, em função da idade, presença e ausência de hormônios gonadais e sexo em ratos Wistar machos e fêmeas, jovens e idosos no modelo de dor neuropática, ligadura da quinta raiz lombar. Os animais foram divididos nos seguintes grupos: ratos jovens orquiectomizados e não-orquiectomizados, ratos idosos orquiectomizados e não-orquiectomizados, ratas jovens ooforectomizadas com ou sem reposição de 17beta-estradiol e ratas idosas. Foi testado o limiar de retirada da pata após estímulo mecânico antes da ligadura e no 7º, 14º, 21º e 28o dias após a ligadura. Os resultados mostraram que todos os animais apresentaram comportamento hiperalgésico após ligadura da quinta raiz lombar durante os 28 dias de observação. A hiperalgesia ocorreu independentemente do sexo do animal...

Seminiferous epithelium of rats with food restriction and carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis

Mesquita, Marilise Oliveira; Ramos, Ana Regina Lima; Winkelmann, Leonardo Voglino; Matte, Ursula da Silveira; Goldani, Helena Ayako Sueno; Silveira, Themis Reverbel da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Objective: Analyze the changes in the seminiferous epithelium in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis (CCl4). Materials and Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats aged 45-50 days, weighing 150-180 grams were used. Twenty-two rats underwent CCl4-induced cirrhosis with CCl4 0.25 mL/Kg weekly intragastrically once a week, during 10 weeks. Additionally, they had a 44% food restriction diet (Group 1). The control group was divided in two subgroups: 13 rats had a 44% food restriction diet and no CCl4 (Group 2) and 10 rats were not submitted to CCl4 or food restriction (Group 3). After 10 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and liver sections were collected for histological analysis. The testicular analysis was carried out to evaluate the frequency of tubules in stages VIII and XIV. Results: The mean rates of stage VIII in animals with food restriction plus CCl4-induced cirrhosis and food restriction without CCl4 were significantly different from animals without either food restriction or CCl4 (18.1 ± 5.5%, 20.5 ± 2.5% and 13.4 ± 3.5%, respectively, p = 0.002). The mean rate of stage VIII in rats with cirrhosis was not significantly different from rats without cirrhosis (18.1 ± 5.5% and 17.4 ± 4.6% respectively). The mean frequency of stage XIV in rats with cirrhosis was significantly greater than rats without cirrhosis (4.7 ± 2.3% and 6.8 ± 1.9% respectively...

The gastroprotective effect of the essential oil of Croton cajucara is different in normal rats than in malnourished rats

Paula, A. C. B.; Toma, W.; Gracioso, J. S.; Hiruma-Lima, C. A.; Carneiro, E. M.; Brito, A. R. M. Souza
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 310-315
Português
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It has been shown previously that malnourished rats are resistant to acute gastric lesions but not to subchronic gastric ulceration. It also has been demonstrated that the essential oil obtained from the bark of Croton cajucara (Sacaca) has antiulcer properties. In the present study, the ability of this essential oil to prevent the formation of gastric ulcers in rats fed a diet with 17 % protein (normoproteic rats) or 6 % protein (malnourished rats) was investigated. At a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, orally, the essential oil significantly reduced the gastric injury caused by indomethacin (25 % after 2 h and 70 % after 4 h) only in normoproteic rats. In the pylorus ligature model, the essential oil increased the pH and gastric volume, but decreased the total acid concentration in both groups when compared to the respective control group. The essential oil significantly increased prostaglandin E2 production in glandular cells by 50 % compared to the controls in both groups of rats. In addition, the amount of gastric mucus was two-fold higher in malnourished rats than in normoproteic rats. The present results show that the enhanced protective effect of essential oil in malnourished rats involved an increase in prostaglandin E2 production and mucus secretion...

Pharmacological evidence for β2-adrenoceptor in right atria from stressed female rats

Spadari-Bratfisch, R. C.; Santos, I. N.; Vanderlei, L. C M; Marcondes, F. K.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 432-440
Português
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The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate a physiological response to TA2005, a potent β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) selective agonist, in right atria isolated from stressed female rats under the influence of the estrous cycle. We obtained concentration-response curves to the agonist in the presence and in the absence of selective antagonists in right atria isolated from female rats submitted to three daily foot-shock sessions (30 min duration, 120 pulses of 1.0 mA, 1.0 s, applied at random intervals of 5- 25 s) and sacrificed at estrus or diestrus. Our results showed that the pD2 values of TA2005 were not influenced by estrous cycle phase or foot-shock stress. However, in right atria from stressed rats sacrificed during diestins, the concentration-response curve to TA2005 was biphasic, with a response being obtained at concentrations of 0.1 nM, whereas during estrus no response was observed at doses lower than 3 nM. ICI118,551, a β2-AR antagonist, abolished the response to nanomolar concentrations of TA2005 in right atria from stressed rats at diestrus, with no changes in agonist pD2 values in right atria from control rats (7.47 ± 0.09, p > 0.05) but a 3-fold decrease in pD2 values of TA2005 in right atria from foot shock stressed rats (7.90 ± 0.07...

Insulin secretion in monosodium glutamate (MSG) obese rats submitted to aerobic exercise training

De Souza, Claudio Teodoro; Nunes, Wilton Marlindo Santana; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; De Mello, Maria Alice Rostom
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 43-53
Português
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The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training on glucose tolerance and insulin secretion of obese male Wistar rats (monosodium glutamate [MSG] administration, 4mg/g-body weight, each other day, from birth to the 14th day). Fourteen weeks after the drug administration, the rats were separated into two groups: MSG-S (sedentary) and MSG-T (T = swimming, 1 h/day, 5 days/week, with an overload of 5% body weight for 10 weeks). Rats of the same age and strain injected with saline were used as control (C) and subdivided into two groups: C-S and C-T. Insulin and glucose responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) were evaluated by the estimation of the total areas under serum insulin (AI) and glucose (AG) curves. Glucose-induced insulin secretion by isolated pancreatic islets was also evaluated. MSG-S rats showed higher AI than C-rats while MSG-T rats presented lower AI than MSG-S rats. No differences in AG were observed among the 4 groups. Pancreatic islets from MSG-rats showed higher insulin secretion in response to low (2.8) and moderate (8.3 mM) concentrations of glucose than those from their control counterparts and no differences were observed between MSG-S and MSG-T rats. These results provide evidences that the hyperinsulinemia at low or moderate glucose concentrations observed in MSG-obese rats is...

Low caloric value of ethanol itself increases alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis in male rats

de Souza, Daniela Martins; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 460-466
Português
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This study aimed at morphometrically evaluating the influence of variable caloric values of ethanol consumption on alveolar bone loss in periodontitis in male rats. Thirty-six male rats were randomized into four groups of nine rats each, as follows: Test group A (low) - rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet (ethanol representing 22% of total caloric value); Control group A - rats were fed a pair-fed control diet (ethanol replaced by isocaloric amounts of carbohydrate); Test group B (high) - rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet (ethanol representing 36% of total caloric value); Control group B - rats were fed a pair-fed control diet for Test B. Following anesthesia, cotton ligatures were placed around the cervix of the right upper second molar. At eight weeks, the maxillary bones were removed and alveolar bone loss was analyzed by measuring the distance between the cementoenamel junction and the alveolar bone crest at buccal and palatal sites of the upper second molar. The unligated groups showed no significant differences between the bone loss values observed for the low and high caloric values of ethanol (p > 0.05). In the ligated groups, the rats receiving low caloric values of ethanol showed significantly greater bone loss compared to the isocaloric rats (p < 0.05); however...

Combined effects of age and diet-induced obesity on biochemical parameters and cardiac energy metabolism in rats

de Almeida Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo; Seiva, Fábio Rodrigues Ferreira
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 40-47
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Obesity is often associated with decreased fat oxidation and aging is a well-recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study investigated calorimetric and morphometric parameters, as well as the glucose levels, lipid profile and cardiac energy metabolism in young and old, controls and obese rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Group I (GI): young rats fed normal diet for 75 days; Group II (GII): young rats fed hypercaloric diet (HD) for 75 days; Group III (GIII): old rats fed normal diet for 510 days; and Group IV (G IV): old rats fed HD for 510 days. The following analyses were performed: calorimetric, glucose and lipid concentrations, atherogenic index (AI), total antioxidant substances (TAS), fat depots, cardiac lipid hydroperoxide (LH) and cardiac lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), citrate synthase (CS), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activities. Older animals were heavier than young and the hypercaloric animals were heavier than controls. Animals from GIV had lower fat oxidation than GIII, which in turn, had higher fat oxidation than GI. Total cholesterol...

Padronização de um modelo de indução de overreaching em ratos : desenvolvimento e perspectivas de investigação em natação e esteira; Standardization of overreaching model for rats detected by performance decrement : development and perspectives in swimming and treadmill research

Rodrigo Hohl
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/06/2007 Português
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36.32%
O empirismo do treinamento pode levar a um desequilíbrio entre estímulo da atividade motora e tempo de recuperação do esforço. Como conseqüência o atleta pode experimentar um estado agudo de fadiga e queda de desempenho denominado de overreaching, revertido em poucos dias. A persistência desta situação de desequilíbrio pode levar a um quadro crônico de sensação de fadiga acompanhado de queda de desempenho denominado de síndrome do overtraining (OTS), que pode durar semanas ou meses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi padronizar um protocolo controlado e reprodutível de treinamento em ratos que contivesse um período de desequilíbrio entre o estímulo do exercício e o tempo de recuperação que gerasse queda de desempenho. Há duas formas de exercício em ratos amplamente utilizadas na literatura: a natação e a corrida em esteira. Os primeiros dois capítulos deste trabalho descrevem a padronização de um teste de desempenho em natação, reprodutível ao longo do crescimento animal, para ser utilizado em estudos longitudinais. Para isso, precisávamos considerar o empuxo sofrido pelo animal no meio líquido e validamos (Capítulo I) um aparato de medição de volume para animais vivos e conscientes (AMV). No capítulo II apresentamos os dados da comparação da reprodutibilidade de dois testes de desempenho até a exaustão na natação durante os cinco primeiros meses de vida dos ratos. Um teste com adição de cargas ajustadas de acordo com o porcentual da massa corporal (MC) e outro com cargas constantes (CC). Utilizando o AMV constatamos que a densidade dos animais não variava e...

Increase in skeletal muscle protein content by the ß-2 selective adrenergic agonist clenbuterol exacerbates hypoalbuminemia in rats fed a low-protein diet

Sawaya,A.L.; Lunn,P.G.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/1998 Português
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This investigation examined how the nutritional status of rats fed a low-protein diet was affected when the animals were treated with the ß-2 selective agonist clenbuterol (CL). Males (4 weeks old) from an inbred, specific-pathogen-free strain of hooded rats maintained at the Dunn Nutritional Laboratory were used in the experiments (N = 6 rats per group). CL treatment (Ventipulmin, Boehringer-Ingelheim Ltd., 3.2 mg/kg diet for 2 weeks) caused an exacerbation of the symptoms associated with protein deficiency in rats. Plasma albumin concentrations, already low in rats fed a low-protein diet (group A), were further reduced in CL rats (A = 25.05 ± 0.31 vs CL = 23.64 ± 0.30 g/l, P<0.05). Total liver protein decreased below the level seen in either pair-fed animals (group P) or animals with free access to the low-protein diet (A = 736.56 ± 26 vs CL = 535.41 ± 54 mg, P<0.05), whereas gastrocnemius muscle protein was higher than the values normally described for control (C) animals (C = 210.88 ± 3.2 vs CL = 227.14 ± 1.7 mg/g, P<0.05). Clenbuterol-treated rats also showed a reduction in growth when compared to P rats (P = 3.2 ± 1.1 vs CL = -10.2 ± 1.9 g, P<0.05). This was associated with a marked decrease in fat stores (P = 5.35 ± 0.81 vs CL = 2.02 ± 0.16 g...

Effects of small doses of ouabain on the arterial blood pressure of anesthetized hypertensive and normotensive rats

Rossoni,L.V.; Pinto,V.D.; Vassallo,D.V.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2001 Português
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Ouabain increases vascular resistance and may induce hypertension by inhibiting the Na+ pump. The effects of 0.18 and 18 µg/kg, and 1.8 mg/kg ouabain pretreatment on the phenylephrine (PHE; 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 µg, in bolus)-evoked pressor responses were investigated using anesthetized normotensive (control and uninephrectomized) and hypertensive (1K1C and DOCA-salt treated) rats. Treatment with 18 µg/kg ouabain increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure in all groups studied. However, the magnitude of this increase was larger for the hypertensive 1K1C and DOCA-salt rats than for normotensive animals, while the pressor effect of 0.18 µg/kg ouabain was greater only in DOCA-salt rats. A very large dose (1.8 mg/kg) produced toxic effects on the normotensive control but not on uninephrectomized or 1K1C rats. Rat tail vascular beds were perfused to analyze the effects of 10 nM ouabain on the pressor response to PHE. In all animals, 10 nM ouabain increased the PHE pressor response, but this increase was larger in hypertensive DOCA-salt rats than in normotensive and 1K1C rats. Results suggested that a) increases in diastolic blood pressure induced by 18 µg/kg ouabain were larger in hypertensive than normotensive rats; b) in DOCA-salt rats...

Protective effect of simvastatin in the cyclophosphamide-induced hemohrragic cystitis in rats

Dantas,Anna Carolina Batista; Batista-Júnior,Francisco Fábio de Araújo; Macedo,Larissa Freitas; Mendes,Mariana Noronha Castro; Azevedo,Ítalo Medeiros; Medeiros,Aldo Cunha
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2010 Português
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36.31%
PURPOSE: Cyclophosphamide (CYP) is an antineoplastic agent used for the treatment of many neoplastic and inflammatory diseases. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a frequent side effect of CYP. Several studies show that simvastatin has important pleiotropic (anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory) effects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of simvastatin on bladder, ureter and kidney injury caused by CYP. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. The CYP/SIM group received simvastatin microemulsion by gavage during 7 days (10 mg/kg body wt) before the administration of CYP and the CYP/SAL group rats received saline 0.9%. The control rats were not treated. After that, all rats were treated with a single dose of CYP 200 mg/kg body wt intraperitoneally. The rats were killed 24 h after CYP administration. Plasma cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) were measured by ELISA. Macro and light microscopic study was performed in the bladder, kidney and ureter. RESULTS: In the bladders of CYP/SIMV treated rats edema of lamina propria with epithelial and sub-epithelial hemorrhage were lower than in CYP/SAL treated rats. The scores for macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of bladder and ureter were significantly lower in CYP/SIMV rats than in CYP/SAL rats. The kidney was not affected. The expression of TNF-α...

The effect of chronic nitric oxide inhibition on vascular reactivity and blood pressure in pregnant rats

Takiuti,Nilton Hideto; Carvalho,Maria Helena Cetelli; Kahhale,Soubhi; Nigro,Dorothy; Barbeiro,Hermes Vieira; Zugaib,Marcelo
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/1999 Português
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36.35%
CONTEXT: The exact mechanism involved in changes in blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance during pregnancy is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the importance of endothelium-derivated relaxing factor (EDRF) and its main component, nitric oxide, in blood pressure and vascular reactivity in pregnant rats. DESIGN: Clinical trial in experimentation animals. SETTING: University laboratory of Pharmacology. SAMPLE: Female Wistar rats with normal blood pressure, weight (152 to 227 grams) and age (90 to 116 days). INTERVENTION: The rats were divided in to four groups: pregnant rats treated with L-NAME (13 rats); pregnant control rats (8 rats); virgin rats treated with L-NAME (10 rats); virgin control rats (12 rats). The vascular preparations and caudal blood pressure were obtained at the end of pregnancy, or after the administration of L-NAME in virgin rats. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The caudal blood pressure and the vascular response to acetylcholine in pre-contracted aortic rings, both with and without endothelium, and the effect of nitric oxide inhibition, Nw-L-nitro-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME), in pregnant and virgin rats. The L-NAME was administered in the drinking water over a 10-day period. RESULTS: The blood pressure decreased in pregnancy. Aortic rings of pregnant rats were more sensitive to acetylcholine than those of virgin rats. After L-NAME treatment...

Glycogen levels and energy status of the liver of fasting rats with diabetes types 1 and 2

Oliveira,Denise Silva de; Amado,Ciomar Aparecida Bersani; Martini,Mirian Carvalho; Suzuki-Kemmelmeier,Fumie; Bracht,Adelar
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2007 Português
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36.32%
Glycogen levels and the energy status of livers from fasting rats with diabetes types 1 and 2 were measured. After a 24 h fast, the hepatic glycogen levels of rats with diabetes1 and diabetes2 were, 18.7 and 2.6 times higher, respectively, than those of livers from the normal rats. In diabetes1 rats, the glycogen levels decreased when the fasting period was extended to 48 and 72 h. The opposite occurred with the control and diabetes2 rats. Consistently, glucose release by the perfused livers from diabetes1 rats was considerably higher during at least 60 minutes after initiating perfusion. The hepatic ATP content of diabetes1 rats was similar to that of the control rats; in diabetes2 rats, the hepatic ATP content was increased. It could be concluded that regulation of glycogen deposition and degradation in rats with diabetes1 differed markedly from that of rats with diabetes2 which, in turn, behaved similarly to normal healthy rats.

Alcohol-preferring rats show goal oriented behaviour to food incentives but are neither sign-trackers nor impulsive

Pe?a-Oliver, Yolanda; Giuliano, Chiara; Economidou, Daina; Goodlett, Charles R.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Dalley, Jeffrey W.; Everitt, Barry J.
Fonte: Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge Publicador: Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Article; published version
Português
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36.32%
This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from PLoS via http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131016; Drug addiction is often associated with impulsivity and altered behavioural responses to both primary and conditioned rewards. Here we investigated whether selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats show differential levels of impulsivity and conditioned behavioural responses to food incentives. P and NP rats were assessed for impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), a widely used translational task in humans and other animals, as well as Pavlovian conditioned approach to measure sign- and goal-tracking behaviour. Drug-na?ve P and NP rats showed similar levels of impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT, assessed by the number of premature, anticipatory responses, even when the waiting interval to respond was increased. However, unlike NP rats, P rats were faster to enter the food magazine and spent more time in this area. In addition, P rats showed higher levels of goal-tracking responses than NP rats, as measured by the number of magazine nose-pokes during the presentation of a food conditioned stimulus. By contrast, NP showed higher levels of sign-tracking behaviour than P rats. Following a 4-week exposure to intermittent alcohol we confirmed that P rats had a marked preference for...