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Lucro real ou lucro presumido: por qual optar?; Real profit or assumed profit: for which one would you opt?

Rullo, Carmine
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/09/2008 Português
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36.45%
A União, na qualidade de usuária da informação contábil, utiliza o lucro contábil como base para definir a renda a ser tributada das pessoas jurídicas: trata-se do lucro real, nos termos da legislação do Imposto de Renda da Pessoa Jurídica (IRPJ). Tendo em vista a complexidade inerente à atividade contábil, o legislador determinou que para certas situações seria necessária uma opção mais simples para se apurar a renda de algumas pessoas jurídicas e o lucro presumido foi a forma escolhida a ser aplicada. Consiste em presumir que a renda é um percentual aplicado sobre a receita operacional, acrescido de outros ganhos. Tal opção, desde a sua criação ocorrida há mais de 65 anos, gerou uma oportunidade para os contribuintes escolherem o regime de tributação mais vantajoso, ou seja, aquele em que o encargo tributário fosse menor; para isso, bastaria escolherem a opção em que a renda fosse menor e, conseqüentemente, estariam optando pelo regime mais vantajoso. A Contribuição Social sobre o Lucro Líquido (CSLL), criada em 1988, foi uma forma de ser aumentada a arrecadação tributária da União mantendo-se relativamente constante a arrecadação do montante de tributos incidentes sobre a renda, visto que o produto da arrecadação da CSLL não é compartilhado com Estados e Municípios como ocorre com o IRPJ. Juntamente com a legislação dessa contribuição...

Tributação implícita: redução da taxa de retorno pré-imposto em ativos favoravelmente tributados; Implict taxes: the reduction in pre-tax returns on tax-favored assets

Wasserman, Claudio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2009 Português
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36.33%
Tributos implícitos refletem a extensão pela qual ativos favorecidos tributariamente têm seu retorno pré-imposto reduzido em comparação com o retorno pré-imposto de ativos sem benefício fiscal e de risco similar. Em condição de equilíbrio de mercado, se dois ativos de riscos semelhantes possuírem o mesmo fluxo de caixa pré-imposto, mas um deles for favoravelmente tributado em relação ao outro, haverá maior demanda pelo ativo menos tributado, que terá, portanto, seu preço relativo aumentado. Conseqüentemente, dado que o retorno pós-imposto é o mesmo para ambos, o retorno pré-imposto do ativo favorecido será menor que o retorno pré-imposto do ativo não-beneficiado. A perda de retorno pré-imposto sofrida pelo ativo beneficiado decorre da tributação implícita. O aumento de preço do ativo beneficiado pressupõe que haja um detentor disposto a vendê-lo um tipo de investidor para o qual a alteração nos preços relativos acontece sem que o seu retorno pós-imposto se altere: o investidor marginal. Investidores que possuam alíquota marginal de imposto explícita diferente da suportada pelo investidor marginal formam a denominada clientela tributária, que se constitui por um investidor para o qual a mudança nos preços relativos alteraria também o seu retorno pós-imposto. Os objetivos da tese são apresentar a teoria econômica e os conceitos subjacentes à tributação implícita...

O princípio da capacidade contributiva e a aplicação da progressividade nos impostos reais

Adami, Morgan
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
Português
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46.49%
O estudo do princípio da capacidade contributiva é privilegiado na doutrina jurídica. Não são poucos os autores que se dedicaram ao tema, de forma organizada, já há mais de dois séculos. No Brasil, o debate acerca do princípio, sua natureza e alcance ganhou forças com a sua constitucionalização – passou a se prever, sempre que possível, a pessoalização dos impostos e sua graduação conforme a capacidade econômica do contribuinte. Ligado a outros princípios constitucionais como o da igualdade e da solidariedade, e atrelado à própria noção de justiça, está consagrado hoje no art. 145, §1º, da Constituição Federal, muito tendo herdado do histórico art. 202, da Carta de 1946. Sua interpretação, no entanto, divide a doutrina. Por muitos anos, o que norteou a exegese do dispositivo foi uma classificação doutrinária dos impostos, que os dividia em duas categorias – os que possuiriam natureza real, e os pessoais. Apenas com estes últimos, segundo entendimento por muito dominante no Supremo Tribunal Federal, seria compatível a graduação por meio da progressividade de alíquotas. Essa interpretação restritiva da norma, calcada no pressuposto de que o imposto real não mediria capacidade contributiva...

Modelos de tributação estática do património imobiliário : reflexão sobre a sua problemática

Barreira, Élio Macieira
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /12/2014 Português
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26.36%
Mestrado em Fiscalidade; Este trabalho baseia-se exclusivamente na tributação estática do património imobiliário, presentemente Imposto Municipal sobre Imóveis (IMI). Não fazendo alusão no tocante aos restantes impostos que vigoram atualmente no nosso ordenamento jurídico em questões relacionadas com a riqueza adquirida – Imposto Municipal Sobre as Transmissões Onerosas de Imóveis (IMT) e o Imposto do Selo (IS) – deve todavia ter-se em consideração que o universo dos impostos sobre património é bastante mais amplo que os impostos abrangidos pela recente reforma da tributação do património, constante do Decreto-lei n.º 287/2003 de 12 de Novembro. Faz-se uma retrospetiva atinente à tributação estática do património imobiliário, focando os modelos que mais se destacaram, e que desencadearam maior controvérsia no âmbito desta matéria. São indicados os aspetos mais relevantes que levaram os governos a aplicar estes modelos de tributação estática do património imobiliário e à aceitação ou não por parte do cidadão contribuinte, visando sempre uma reflexão sobre os respetivos modelos, por forma a encontrar alternativas que direcionem para um modelo mais equitativo, eficiente e eficaz.; This work is based only on static taxation of real estate assets...

Undeclared Economic Activity in Central and Eastern Europe : How Taxes Contribute and How Countries Respond to the Problem

Leibfritz, Willi
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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36.31%
The paper examines the incentives and distortions created by tax policy and administration structures that motivate individuals to undeclare or under-declare work in the new EU member countries. It analyses the tax level and the tax structure "mix" of tax instruments, the special taxation regimes set up to attract workers and entrepreneurs back into the formal economy and how tax policies such as the introduction of a "flat tax" on income from labor and capital impacted workers and entrepreneurs in terms of formalizing work. It also attempts to gain some insight into the effectiveness of tax administration by comparing some input and output measures As non-tax factors can amplify the adverse effects of taxes on the labor market and reduce the effectiveness of tax reform, some of these other economic framework conditions are also discussed. This paper concludes by refining the main results and possible best practices for tackling undeclared work. The paper argues that the new EU member countries have had mixed success tackling undeclared work. While taxation matters...

Costs of Taxation and Benefits of Public Goods with Multiple Taxes and Goods

Anderson, James E.; Martin, Will
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
The recent public economics literature involves an apparent consensus that income effects reduce the costs of raising revenues and hence increase the desirable level of public good provision. Higher taxes can indeed reduce the demand for leisure -- and hence increase the supply of taxed labor -- through income effects. However, the consensus is wrong because the income effects of taxes must be considered symmetrically with those from provision of public goods. This paper uses a model with multiple public goods and taxes to derive consistent measures of the marginal benefits of publicly-provided goods and their marginal social costs. With this model, the authors show that either compensated approaches excluding these income effects or uncompensated approaches including them may be used. If an uncompensated measure of the marginal cost of funds is used, however, the benefits of providing public goods should be adjusted with a simple, benefit multiplier not previously seen in the literature. Once this is done...

Subnational Taxation in Developing Countries : A Review of the Literature

Bird, Richard M.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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26.55%
This paper reviews the literature on tax assignment in decentralized countries. Ideally, own-source revenues should be sufficient to enable at least the richest subnational governments to finance from their own resources all locally-provided services that primarily benefit local residents. Subnational taxes should also not unduly distort the allocation of resources. Most importantly, to the extent possible subnational governments should be accountable at the margin for financing the expenditures for which they are responsible. Although reality in most countries inevitably falls far short of these ideals, nonetheless there are several taxes that subnational governments in developing countries could use to help ensure that decentralization yields more of the benefits it appears to promise in theory. At the local level, such taxes include property taxes and, especially for larger cities, perhaps also a limited and well-designed local business tax. At the regional level, in addition to taxes on vehicles, governments in some countries may be able to utilize any or all of the following -- a payroll tax; a simple surcharge on the central personal income tax; and a sales tax...

Financing Indian Cities : Opportunities and Constraints in an Nth Best World

Annez, Patricia Clarke
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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26.38%
This paper examines international experience with mobilizing funding for both capital and recurrent costs for municipal infrastructure with a view to identifying areas where India could improve its system of financing infrastructure in cities. Based on international data, the analysis shows that there is indeed a wide range of models for funding municipal infrastructure across a group even as relatively homogeneous as the European Union. Although a number of different models operate in countries with very good services, important features of India s municipal finance system stand out. The spending per capita is exceptionally low, even when compared with local governments with few functions. The real estate sector generates meager tax revenues, but transfers from higher levels of government are also meager. Turning to cost recovery models for services, the paper examines international evidence on cost recovery. In practice, a surprisingly large number of countries, including high-income countries, subsidize basic municipal services...

Uruguay : Poverty and Social Impact Assessment of the Tax Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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26.44%
The Poverty and Social Impact Assessment (PSIA) analyzes the impact of the tax reform, which came into effect in July 2007, on tax incidence and poverty in Uruguay. The essence of the reform is the introduction of a dual personal income tax, which taxes labor income at progressive rates and capital income at lower, proportional rates. A further modification is the reduction in the revenue share of indirect taxes. The study aims to provide information to inform policy discussion on distributional implications of tax reform. In addition, it gives impetus for further more sophisticated analysis of current and proposed tax reforms. In designing a tax system, a trade-off exists between efficiency, equity and administrative simplicity. The paper focuses on one aspect of this trade-off by evaluating the equity impact of the tax reform in Uruguay. Neither the efficiency of the post-reform tax system nor the effect on tax administration is examined. Assessing the distributional impact of a tax reform is important...

Property Taxes in the Punjab, Pakistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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36.22%
This note provides an overview of the current property taxation system in the Punjab Province based on the premise that the property tax: 1) is essentially a fiscal tool; 2) is not an instrument of social redistribution; 3) system should be kept simple; and 4) is a technical instrument with strong financial, institutional, and political connotations. This note summarizes the key attributes of the present property taxation system of the Punjab Province and proposes some solutions for improving the property tax system. Our analysis is based on the following premises: first, the property tax is essentially a fiscal tool. Second, it is not an instrument of social redistribution. Third, the property tax system should be kept simple. Fourth, the property tax is not merely a technical instrument, but it is a substantial revenue factor with strong financial, institutional, and political connotations. Property taxes are levied on a banded annual rental value (ARV) basis, calculated from valuation tables issued by the excise and tax department.

Releasing Constraints to Growth or Pushing on a String? The Impact of Credit, Training, Business Associations and Taxes on the Performance of Mexican Micro-Firms

Fajnzylber, Pablo; Maloney, William F.; Rojas, Gabriel V. Montes
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.11%
The authors employ propensity score matching and a traditional control function approach to examine the impact of participation in various societal institutions on microfirm performance in Mexico. They find that firms that participate in credit markets, receive training, pay taxes, and belong to business associations exhibit significantly higher profits, even after controlling for the various factors that drive participation in those institutions. They also find that firms that borrow from formal or informal sources and those that pay taxes are significantly more likely to stay in business, but firms that received credit exhibit lower rates of income growth. Overall, the results suggest that even if the best performing micro-firms are more likely to be selected into participating in societal institutions, causality also runs in the opposite direction. In particular, increases in strictly or broadly defined formality have the potential for increasing profits and survival rates, and appear to bring micro-firms closer to their optimal sizes.

The Development of Property Taxation in Economies in Transition : Case Studies from Central and Eastern Europe

Malme, Jane H.; Youngman, Joan M.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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26.41%
The transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe, through the reform process of decentralization, are now seeking the devolution of fiscal powers, and responsibilities from central, to local governments, within financially sustainable environments. To this end, a system of local budgets, and taxes needs to be devised, over which local governments may have control. Thus, this report focuses on the tax on immovable real property, one of the most important local tax options, and, undertakes comparative analysis of tax policy formulation, within a context of rapid institutional changes. Case studies provide insights into the policy debates, and choices that guide the process of property tax reform, and, shed light on the entire cycle, from initial impetus, to resulting legislation, and the subsequent administrative challenges of assessment, collection, appeal, and review. Because of the multiple roles of property taxation (as an instrument of decentralization, an element of property rights, an adjunct to privatization and restitution...

Raising Revenue with Transaction Taxes in Latin America - Or Is It Better to Tax with the Devil You Know?

Suescún, Rodrigo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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36.27%
In recent years, various Latin American governments have resorted to taxes on bank debits and financial transactions as alternative ways of raising revenue. Considerable interest has developed in understanding the consequences of such reforms. The author constructs a dynamic general equilibrium model to assess the size of distortions and other quantitative implications associated with a transaction tax. The distinctive feature of the model is the non-neutrality property of the tax in the sense that it distorts the structure of relative prices of intermediate transactions, giving rise to tax "pyramidation." The effective tax rate ultimately borne by the economy is shown to depend on the complexity of the transaction structure. Calibrated for Latin America, the model finds that, contrary to existing evidence and conventional wisdom, a transaction tax is not a particularly burdensome levy in terms of economic growth and efficiency costs. The model also shows that if a government can credibly commit itself to an announced two-step reform in which it first uses a transaction tax temporarily and then replaces it with any other conventional tax...

Restructuring Corporate Income Tax and Value Added Tax in Vietnam : An Analysis of Current Changes and Agenda for the Future

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.38%
The study is in two parts, part one covering the various policy aspects of Corporate Income Tax (CIT) and includes issues such as expenses and deductions to determine the tax base, transfer pricing, thin capitalization, taxation of special entities, and tax incentives. All this is done in the backdrop of international experience of corporate income taxes applied globally. Finally, alternatives for rate rationalization and their impact on CIT revenues using a forecasting model are examined. The existing provisions of the law are referenced in this part of the study as well, and further scope for reform discussed as necessary. Part two of the study presents a similar analysis of value added tax as well as forecasting of VAT revenues. This chapter examines the present rate structure including zero-rating, exemptions and exclusions from VAT, and VAT refunds. Taxation of some special sectors such as agriculture, real estate and exports is also analyzed. All this is again done in the milieu of international experience of value added taxes in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries...

South Africa Economic Update : Fiscal Policy and Redistribution in an Unequal Society

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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26.51%
The global economic recovery remains uneven, as growth in the United States is gaining momentum but appears to be at risk of stalling in the Euro Area and Japan. U.S. growth is expected to gain pace over the rest of the year and into 2015 as employment prospects boost real income growth and confidence. Following the Euro Area s exit from recession in 2013, GDP was flat in 2014, and preliminary data for the third quarter suggest slowing growth momentum amid weak domestic demand, ongoing balance sheet adjustments, a fragmented banking sector, and rising geopolitical risks. In Japan, a sales tax hike in April caused a more significant contraction in activity than expected, while exports failed to pick up.

Paying Taxes 2015

World Bank Group; PwC
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
This is the tenth year that the paying taxes indicator has been part of the World Bank Doing Business project. The journey over the period of the study has been an eventful and interesting one and the economic backdrop continues to present a challenging environment for governments as they consider their future fiscal policies. Globalization, the march of technological change, changing demographic patterns and the persistent challenges that continue around climate change and the environment all come together to generate a turbulent mix of issues which have a significant impact on fiscal policy and the associated tax systems. Against this backdrop, this year the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has put forward proposals for changing the international tax rules to modernize them for today s globalized business and to address concerns over base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS). It is apparent that these proposals are already changing the way some tax authorities apply existing rules, leading to new and increased uncertainty for business...

Essays on City Size Distribution and Real Estate Bubbles

Lucas, John Paul
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
This is a dissertation about urban systems; within this broad subject I tackle three issues, one that focuses on an observed inter-city relationship and two that focus on an intra-city phenomenon. In Chapter II I adapt a model of random emergence of economic opportunities from the firm growth literature to the urban dynamics situation and present several predictions for urban system dynamics. One of these predictions is that the older the city the larger and more diversified it is going to be on average, which I proceed to verify empirically using two distinct datasets. In Chapter III I analyze the Residential Real Estate Bubble that took place in Miami-Dade County from 1999 to 2006. I adopt a Spatial-Economic model developed for the Paris Bubble episode of 1984-1993 and formulate an innovative test of the results in terms of speculative intensity on the basis of proxies of investor activity available in my dataset. My results support the idea that the best or more expensive areas are also where the greatest speculative activity takes place and where the rapid increase in prices begins. The most significant departure from previous studies that emerges in my results is the absence of a wider gap between high priced areas and low priced areas in the peak year. I develop a measure of dispersion in value among areas and contrast the Miami-Dade and Paris episodes. In Chapter IV I analyze the impact on tax equity of a Florida tax-limiting legislation known as Save Our Homes. I first compare homesteaded and non-homesteaded properties...

Entre dos servicios: la crisis de la Hacienda Real a fines del siglo XVI. Las alternativas fiscales de una opción política (1590-1601); Between two subsidies: the crisis of the Royal Treasury at the end of the 16th century. The fiscal alternatives of a political option (1590-1601)

Fortea Pérez, José Ignacio
Fonte: Universidad de Salamanca Publicador: Universidad de Salamanca
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Resumen: A fines del reinado de Felipe II se acumularon diversos memoriales que pretendían solucionar los problemas financieros, económicos y políticos con los que se enfrentaba por entonces la Monarquía. Eran tres los puntos fundamentales que aquéllos se planteaban: cómo sanear la hacienda regia, qué papel había de jugar el Reino a este respecto y cómo podía lograrse una más equitativa distribución de los costes de su defensa. El artículo analiza diversas propuestas de sentido contradictorio nacidas en el seno del Consejo de Hacienda y trata de exponer las razones por la que acabó imponiéndose la vía de los servicios sobre la de los arbitrios o la de los impuestos como la más idónea para solucionar los problemas planteados, valorando las implicaciones políticas de la opción escogida.; Abstract: At the end of the reign of king Philip II many memorials were written in an attempt to solve the financial, economic and political difficulties faced by the Monarchy. The problem consisted of three main points: increasing the revenue of the Royal Treasury; defining the role to be played by the Kingdom in this respect; determining how its defence costs could be more equitably shared. This article studies different contradictory proposals drawn up by members of the Council of Finance and puts forward the reasons why subsidies were finally prefered over arbitrios or taxes. The political implications of this decision are also discussed.

Stamp Duties in Indian States: A Case for Reform

Alm, James; Annez, Patricia; Modi, Arbind
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
The authors review the options for reform of stamp duties on immovable property transfers collected by Indian state governments. After briefly reviewing some of the many administrative difficulties experienced with the tax, they turn to an examination of its economic impacts. A review of stamp duties internationally indicates that Indian rates are exceptionally high, at rates often above 10 percent. Most countries' rates are less than 5 percent, including a number of low and middle-income developing countries. With these high rates, the authors find that while the tax has become the third largest revenue source for many Indian states, it imposes high compliance costs on taxpayers, has been subject to a good deal of evasion and fraud, and the distortionary impacts appear to be large, reducing the responsiveness of real estate markets in Indian cities by discouraging transactions essential to the efficient growth of cities. The authors then study the revenue implications of lowering stamp duty rates, which need to be understood if reform is to be viable. Evidence indicates that the current high duty rates...

Real price and affordability as challenges for effective tobacco control policies: an analysis for Argentina

Rodríguez-Iglesias,Germán; González-Rozada,Martín; Champagne,Beatriz Marcet; Schoj,Verónica
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
Objective. To describe the evolution of cigarettes' real price and affordability during the last decade in Argentina. Methods. To analyze the real price of cigarettes, the weighted average monthly price of a pack of 20 cigarettes was divided by the consumer price index (CPI) from 2004 to 2014. The relative income price (RIP) was evaluated for the same period, defining RIP as the percentage of the income required to buy 100 packs of 20-per-pack cigarettes. The RIP was calculated for first-quartile, median, and third-quartile income groups. The lower the RIP, the higher the affordability. Results. The nominal price of a pack of 20 cigarettes sold in Argentina increased from AR$ 2.24 in March 2004 to AR$ 14.36 in June 2014 (nominal price increase of about 19.7% per year). The real price fell from AR$ 2.24 in March 2004 to AR$ 2.11 in June 2014 (real price drop of about 0.6% per year). Between June 2004 and June 2014, the RIP decreased about 39% for the 3rd quartile income group (from 31.3% to 19.2%), about 42% for the median (from 55.7% to 32.0%), and about 50% for the 1st quartile (from 104.4% to 51.8%). Conclusions. In Argentina, inflation and rising income were greater than growth in cigarette prices. Cigarette affordability increased for each income group...