Página 1 dos resultados de 202 itens digitais encontrados em 0.002 segundos

Críton: tradução, análise e comentários; Crito: translation, analysis and commentary

Giorgi, Mauro Armond di
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/11/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
Esta dissertação tem dois objetivos principais: (1) efetuar um estudo introdutório, concentrando-se sobretudo no argumento do diálogo que se encontra em 49a-c e (2) apresentar uma tradução do Críton de Platão em português a partir do original em grego. Quanto à tradução, esta está entremeada de notas e comentários que visam: (a) explicar o meu entendimento acerca das funções exercidas pelas partículas, que são abundantes no texto em grego; (b) esclarecer a sintaxe dos trechos que considerei mais complexos; (c) fundamentar algumas das opções que adotei na tradução; (d) explicar algumas referências a nomes, lugares e trechos de obras citados no texto original; e, finalmente, (e) evidenciar alguns pontos do Críton que não são tratados diretamente nesta dissertação, mas que são objetos de estudo e discussão entre os comentadores de Platão. Quanto ao trecho 49a-c, Sócrates propõe nele um princípio que limita a retaliação em resposta a uma injustiça qualquer sofrida. O estudo que me propus a fazer consiste em (a) evidenciar algumas ambigüidades presentes na formulação de tal princípio e em (b) uma análise das interpretações de três importantes comentadores de Platão sobre este tema.; This dissertation has two main objectives: (1) to perform a introductory study concerning the argument of the dialogue which lies in the passage 49a-c and (2) to present a translation of Platos Crito from the original text in Greek into Portuguese. With relation to the translation...

Retaliação coletiva e teoria de formação de alianças no sistema de solução de controvérsias da Organização Mundial do Comércio; Collective retaliation and alliance formation theory in the dispute settlement system of the world trade organization

Medrado, Renê Guilherme da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/05/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38%
Esta tese teve por objeto analisar a viabilidade de implementação de, no âmbito do sistema de solução de controvérsias (SSC) da OMC, um mecanismo de contramedidas (retaliação) coletiva, à luz da teoria de formação de alianças, tal qual desenvolvida na teoria de relações internacionais. O objetivo foi perquirir se e em que condições poderão se formar coalizões visando à aplicação de retaliação coletiva, caso tal mecanismo seja incorporado ao SSC/OMC. A tese se baseou na premissa de que o enforcement do SSC/OMC ainda se funda em soluções de self-help, ou seja, dependente da força, do poder, do Membro demandante de induzir o Membro demandado a cumprir as recomendações do Órgão de Solução de Controvérsias (OSC), mediante a aplicação de retaliação bilateral, centrada na reciprocidade. Observa-se todavia uma insuficiência e/ou ineficácia de tais contramedidas bilaterais para induzir o Membro demandado a cumprir com as recomendações do OSC em situações envolvendo desequilíbrio de poder (entre Membro demandante e Membro demandado). A teoria de formação de alianças se mostrou adequada para a análise pretendida, primeiramente porque o desequilíbrio de poder é objeto de estudo de tal teoria. Em segundo lugar...

O comportamento de retaliação do consumidor e seus antecedentes

Fernandes, Daniel Von der Heyde
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.89%
O propósito deste trabalho é investigar os antecedentes do comportamento de retaliação dos consumidores. Primeiramente, revisam-se os fundamentos teóricos relativos ao tema. A seguir, apresenta-se a metodologia empregada, ressaltando-se as quatro etapas de pesquisa realizadas. Na primeira, qualitativa, foram realizadas 27 entrevistas em profundidade, que deram origem ao questionário e aos cenários das etapas experimentais do estudo. Na segunda, foi aplicado o primeiro experimento com o objetivo de examinar os efeitos do nível de insatisfação e das demais variáveis dependentes (autoconfiança, valência, eficácia de mercado e tendência por agressão deslocada) na intenção de retaliação em dois momentos diferentes: pós-insatisfação inicial (RPII) e pós-insatisfação com o gerenciamento da reclamação (RPIGR). A autoconfiança e a tendência por agressão deslocada emergiram como fortes moderadores da relação entre nível de insatisfação e intenção de retaliação. A valência indicou exercer efeito mediador nessa relação. A eficácia de mercado não influenciou a intenção de retaliação. Ainda, como os resultados do primeiro experimento indicaram que a retaliação é um fenômeno bem mais prevalente em situações de insatisfação pós-recuperação de serviço...

Modelos culturais e o comportamento de retaliação do consumidor

Rossi, Patrícia da Camara
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.77%
Os diferentes modelos culturais do consumidor (utilitário, oposicionista e relacional) tendem a influenciar seu comportamento de retaliação após experiências insatisfatórias. Para melhor entender essa relação de influência, foi desenvolvido um estudo exploratório de natureza qualitativa que contou com 18 informantes que apresentaram comportamento retaliatório. Os dados foram coletados com base na técnica storytelling e foram trabalhados a partir da análise de conteúdo. Os resultados indicaram que os consumidores, influenciados pelos seus modelos culturais, apresentaram diferentes ações de retaliação (diretas e indiretas), diferentes objetivos (econômicos e relacionais), diferentes emoções (raiva, ansiedade, tristeza e desamparo, entre outras) e diferentes papéis diante da empresa responsável pelo duplo desvio (vingador, altruísta e vítima). Especificamente, consumidores influenciados pelo modelo cultural oposicionista apresentaram comportamentos diretos e indiretos contra o provedor, motivados por objetivos essencialmente econômicos. Esses consumidores demonstraram emoções como raiva e indignação e, por isso, a tendência foi adotar o papel de vingador. Para esses consumidores, o papel de vingador representou uma alternativa para demonstrar que possuíam o controle da situação. Consumidores influenciados pelo modelo cultural utilitário preferiram comportamentos indiretos de retaliação...

Serotonin modulates striatal responses to fairness and retaliation in humans

Crockett, MJ; Apergis-Schoute, AM; Herrmann, B; Lieberman, MD; Müller, U; Robbins, TW; Clark, L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/02/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.38%
Humans are willing to incur personal costs to punish others who violate social norms. Such ‘costly punishment’ is an important force for sustaining human cooperation, but the causal neurobiological determinants of punishment decisions remain unclear. Using a combination of behavioral, pharmacological and neuroimaging techniques, we show that manipulating the serotonin system in humans alters costly punishment decisions by modulating responses to fairness and retaliation in the striatum. Following dietary depletion of the serotonin precursor tryptophan, participants were more likely to punish those who treated them unfairly, and were slower to accept fair exchanges. Neuroimaging data revealed activations in the ventral and dorsal striatum that were associated with fairness and punishment, respectively. Depletion simultaneously reduced ventral striatal responses to fairness and increased dorsal striatal responses during punishment, an effect that predicted its influence on punishment behavior. Finally, we provide behavioral evidence that serotonin modulates specific retaliation, rather than general norm enforcement: depleted participants were more likely to punish unfair behavior directed toward themselves, but not unfair behavior directed toward others. Our findings demonstrate that serotonin modulates social value processing in the striatum...

Tariff Retaliation versus Financial Compensation in the Enforcement of International Trade Agreements

Limão, Nuno; Saggi, Kamal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
The authors analyze whether financial compensation is preferable to the current system of dispute settlement in the World Trade Organization that permits member countries to impose retaliatory tariffs in response to trade violations committed by other members. They show that monetary fines are more efficient than tariffs in terms of granting compensation to injured parties when there are violations in equilibrium. However, fines suffer from an enforcement problem since they must be paid by the violating country. If fines must ultimately be supported by the threat of retaliatory tariffs, they fail to yield a more cooperative outcome than the current system. The authors also consider the use of bonds as a means of settling disputes. If bonds can be posted with a third party, they do not have to be supported by retaliatory tariffs and can improve the negotiating position of countries that are too small to threaten tariff retaliation.

Trade Agreements and Enforcement

Bown, Chad P.; Reynolds, Kara Marie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
This paper examines the implications of the terms-of-trade theory for the determinants of outcomes arising under the enforcement provisions of international agreements. Like original trade agreement negotiations, the paper models formal trade dispute negotiations as potentially addressing the terms-of-trade externality problem that governments implement import protection above the globally efficient level so as to shift some of the policys costs to trading partners. The approach is to extend earlier theoretical models of trade agreement accession negotiations to the setting of enforcement negotiations in order to guide the empirical assessment. The paper uses instrumental variables to estimate the model on trade volume outcomes from World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes over 1995–2009. The evidence is consistent with theoretical predictions that larger import volume outcomes are associated with products that have smaller increases in foreign exporter-received prices (terms-of-trade losses for the importer) as a result of the dispute...

Essays on Administrative Protection and Trade Deflection

Avsar, Veysel
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This dissertation analyzes the trading effects and the politics of antidumping. The first essay empirically examines the influence of partisanship on antidumping. I show that an increase in the leftist orientation of the government makes labor intensive industries less likely to file an antidumping petition. I also demonstrate that the increase in the leftist orientation of the government is associated with an increase in the likelihood of an affirmative antidumping outcome for the petitions of labor intensive industries. The second essay investigates the effect of past exporting relationships of the firms, whose products are targeted by antidumping duties, on their export flows to alternative markets. My estimations show that facing an antidumping duty on a product leads to a 18% increase in the exports of the firm for that product to the alternative countries where the firms previously exported the same product and a 8% increase to the countries where the firms exported another product. On the contrary, I fail to find a significant effect of antidumping duties on the exports of the particular product to third countries to which the firm did not export before. Further, I show that a firm’s probability to start exporting the duty imposed product in a different destination increases by 8-10% if the firm already exported another product to that destination. However...

Peculiarities of retaliation in WTO dispute settlement

Anderson, K.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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The dispute resolution procedures of the World Trade Organization allow sanctions to be imposed when a country is unwilling to bring a WTO-inconsistent trade measure into conformity. Apart from the fact that the procedure for triggering the retaliation process has ambiguities that need to be removed, the retaliation itself has some undesirable economic features. This paper looks at why compensation is not preferred to retaliation and then examines five economic features of the temporary trade retaliation that WTO may permit under certain conditions. Both efficiency and equity concerns are raised. The paper concludes with some suggestions for reforming this part of WTO dispute resolution during the review of the Dispute Settlement Understanding that is due to be completed by May 2003.; Kym Anderson; Published online by Cambridge University Press 19 Aug 2002

The role of economic theory in WTO arbitrations

RUTA, Michele
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Outros Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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27.08%
How can economic theory be useful in WTO arbitrations? Motivated by this question, this paper reviews the approach that is often used to determine the level of permissible retaliation in international trade disputes (the, so called, "trade effect" approach), and its implementation under specific policy scenarios (tariffs, quotas, subsidies). Through these examples, the paper argues that economic theory, in addition to quantitative economics, can play a useful role in assisting WTO arbitrators in understanding the pros and cons of the trade effect approach and in implementing this approach under different policy scenarios.

Bite the bullet : trade retaliation, EU jurisprudence and the law and economics of ‘taking one for the team’

HOEKMAN, Bernard M.; MAVROIDIS, Petros C.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.08%
This paper discusses the Fedon case law of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), which involved a claim for compensation by Fedon (an Italian producer of eye glass cases) from the EU for the imposition of WTO-authorized retaliatory trade barriers by the United States following the failure by the EU to comply with an adverse ruling by the WTO regarding its import-regime for bananas. As a result of the EU non-compliance, European banana distributors and some bananas producers benefitted from WTO-illegal protection, at the expense of a set of EU exporters, including Fedon, that were hit by US countermeasures. By not complying with its international (WTO) obligations, the EU redistributed income across producers in different sectors as well as between suppliers and consumers of bananas. Fedon contested the non-compliance by the EU before the ECJ and sought compensation. This paper assesses the ECJ ruling against Fedon and argues that the ECJ got it wrong, both in terms of legal principle and as a matter of legal technicalities. An alternative approach is proposed that would better balance individual rights to property against the ‘general’ EU interest whether or not to comply with adverse WTO rulings.

Alternatives to retaliation in response to state sponsored terrorist attacks

Evans, Paul James
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; We consider a game played between a state sponsor of international terrorism, a terrorist organization and the victim of a terrorist attack. The state sponsor wishes to inflict as much damage to the victim as possible without risking retaliation. The victim state wishes to end these attacks as soon as possible, through non-retaliatory means if possible in order to avoid the penalty associated with retaliation. In this thesis we compare and contrast the victim strategies of buyout, political attrition, and espionage tactics in an effort to maximize the profit of the victim and end the game without retaliation.

The function of massive retaliation in the evolution of United States military strategy

Wallace, Thomas McCarty
Fonte: American University Publicador: American University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis traces the function the doctrine of Massive Retaliation played during the evolution of US military strategy from World War II through 1964, It Includes a discussion of the development of strategic bombardment, the impact of strategic atomic weapons, the development of a strategy based on massive retaliatory capability, and a short discussion of overkill. Additionally, British, French, and Russian strategies and those countries' reactions to US strategy are briefly discussed.; http://www.archive.org/details/functionofmassiv00wall; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

Tragic challenges and the moral hazard of humanitarian intervention : how and why ethnic groups provoke genocidal retaliation; How and why ethnic groups provoke genocidal retaliation

Kuperman, Alan J
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 406 p.
Português
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This dissertation explores the causes of, and possible remedies for, extremely violent ethnic conflict. It starts from a robust yet under-explored finding in the literature: Most groups that fall victim to genocidal violence actually trigger their own demise by launching armed secessions or revolutions against state authorities that only then retaliate with genocide or forced migration ("ethnic cleansing"). Accordingly, the dissertation asks why groups that are vulnerable to genocidal retaliation would provoke that very outcome by launching such "tragic challenges." To explain this phenomenon, the dissertation employs three case studies to test three hypotheses drawn from rational deterrence theory. The cases focus on three subordinate groups whose armed challenges provoked genocidal retaliation: Bosnia's Muslims in 1992-95; Rwanda's Tutsi in 1990-94; and Kosovo's Albanians in 1998-99. To gain further insight by adding variation on the theory's dependent variable, the dissertation also examines an earlier period of the third case during which the subordinate group did not launch a violent challenge, despite having substantial grievances, and thereby avoided genocidal violence (Kosovo's Albanians in 1989-97). he three hypotheses are as follows: (1) the group did not expect its armed challenge to provoke genocidal retaliation; (2) the group expected to suffer genocidal violence regardless of whether or not it launched an armed challenge; (3) the group expected its armed challenge to provoke genocidal retaliation but viewed this as an acceptable cost to achieve its goal of secession or revolution. The dissertation confirms the third hypothesis: subordinate groups launch tragic challenges when they expect to prevail and are willing to civilians as the cost of doing so.; (cont.) Most surprisingly...

The Myth of 'Rebalancing' Retaliation in WTO Dispute Settlement Practice

Spamann, Holger
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.38%
It is generally assumed that trade retaliation under the WTO performs some kind of ‘rebalancing’ by allowing the injured Member to suspend ‘concessions and obligations’ vis-à-vis the violating Member of a level equivalent to the level of ‘nullification and impairment’ suffered by the injured Member. This article argues that this perception is misguided. The article first questions if a sensible comparator exists with which equivalence for purposes of ‘rebalancing’ could be evaluated. It then argues that WTO arbitration decisions do not even succeed in their limited goal of providing for retaliation that will affect trade in the same amount as the WTO-inconsistent measure at issue. One reason is the use of an asymmetric and underspecified trade effects comparator. The other reason is very significant miscalculation of the trade effects of the violation, as shown by detailed legal-economic analysis of all relevant arbitration decisions. The decisions concerning countermeasures against prohibited export subsidies do not make any attempt at ‘rebalancing’ in the first place. The article considers political explanations of arbitration decisions. It concludes with some suggestions for improvement.

A Novel Methodology to Overcome Routing Misbehavior in MANET using Retaliation Model

Akhtar, Md. Amir Khusru; Sahoo, G.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.38%
MANET is a cooperative network in which nodes are responsible for forwarding as well as routing. Noncooperation is still a big challenge that certainly degrades the performance and reliability of a MANET. This paper presents a novel methodology to overcome routing misbehavior in MANET using Retaliation Model. In this model node misbehavior is watched and an equivalent misbehavior is given in return. This model employs several parameters such as number of packets forwarded, number of packets received for forwarding, packet forwarding ratio etc. to calculate Grade and Bonus Points. The Grade is used to isolate selfish nodes from the routing paths and the Bonus Points defines the number of packets dropped by an honest node in retaliation over its misconducts. The implementation is done in "GloMoSim" on top of the DSR protocol. We obtained up to 40% packet delivery ratio with a cost of a minimum of 7.5% overhead compared to DSR. To minimize total control traffic overhead we have included the FG Model with our model and it reduces the overhead up to 75%. This model enforces cooperation due to its stricter punishment strategy and justifies its name.; Comment: 16 pages, 6 figures, 3 tables

Cross-Retaliation in Intellectual Property: towards a more effective performance of developing Countries in the WTO dispute settlement system; Retaliação cruzada em propriedade intelectual: alternativa para uma atuação mais eficaz dos países em desenvolvimento no sistema de solução de controvérsias da OMC

Arbix, Daniel do Amaral; Árabe Neto, Abrão
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.77%
This article analyses cross-retaliation, especially that which targets intellectual property rights as an alternative to the more usual instruments available in the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) dispute settlement provisions. Cross-retaliation is examined from the perspective of developing countries, and recommended due to its potential to enhance their participation in the Dispute Settlement Body. First, the procedures of the WTO’s dispute settlement system and the possibilities to retaliate are described in order to allow the study of the requirements for cross-retaliations to be authorized and of the practical experience accumulated during the WTO disputes. Then, the peculiarities of cross-retaliation in intellectual property are exposed with the objective of identifying the positive and negative reflexes of its use, proposals for its improvement, and the parliamentary bills which aim to provide for cross-retaliation in Brazil. The article concludes with a summary of the requests by developing countries to cross-retaliate on intellectual property rights, in light of the ‘US – Upland Cotton’ dispute between Brazil and the US.; O presente artigo trata da retaliação cruzada, com enfoque na área de propriedade intelectual...

Do repertório de comportamentos do consumidor: retaliação e vingança no ciberespaço; Del repertorio de comportamientos del consumidor: represalia y venganza en el ciberespacio; From the repertoire of consumer behavior: retaliation and revenge in cyberspace

Albuquerque, Fábio Manoel Fernandes de; Pereira, Rita de Cássia de Faria; Carlo Gabriel Porto, Bellini
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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O advento da comunicação mediada por computador no ciberespaço potencializou a força do consumidor, que passou a desenvolver os seus próprios websites e reunir-se em comunidades virtuais para denunciar, protestar e repudiar publicamente falhas e injustiças realizadas em transações comerciais. Apesar da literatura fértil sobre comunidades virtuais de marca, pouco se estuda a sua antítese - as comunidades virtuais antimarca. Assim, percebe-se a necessidade de avançar o conhecimento nessa temática e, complementando investigação sobre motivações para retaliação e vingança de consumidores, analisam-se comportamentos efetivos de retaliação e de vingança de consumidores contra marcas, empresas, produtos e serviços em comunidades virtuais. Por meio de uma abordagem netnográfica, estudaram-se comunidades virtuais antimarca relacionadas a operadoras de telefonia celular, o que possibilitou a identificação de quatro comportamentos de retaliação (prevenção ao consumo, ataque pessoal, ameaça e cinismo) e cinco de vingança (evasão da marca, traição, boicote, geração de perdas e ativismo), dos quais três se apresentam como supostamente originais na literatura (ameaça, cinismo e ativismo).; Computer-mediated communication in cyberspace empowered consumers to build their own websites and gather with other consumers in virtual communities to publicly accuse...

Moral harassment and organizational retaliation: theoretical and methodological interfaces; Assédio moral e retaliação organizacional: interfaces teórico-metodológicas

Mendonça, Helenides; Universidade Católica de Goiás; Torres, Ana Raquel Rosas; Universidade Católica de Goiás; Zanini, Daniela Sacramento; Universidade Católica de Goiás
Fonte: Revista Psicologia: Organizações e Trabalho Publicador: Revista Psicologia: Organizações e Trabalho
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.38%
The objective of this work is to make a theoretical and methodological parallel between moral harassment and retaliation in the working place. These subjects are closely related to the discussions on human rights and justice in the working place that aim to plan investigations about interventions measures to promote social justice and to increase workers’ levels of life quality. In order to tackle this objective, firstly we present a theoretical discussion of both concepts and, secondly, we draw a comparison between them. Finally, we discuss the importance of incorporating such subjects in the organizational analysis.; O objetivo deste trabalho é traçar um paralelo teórico e metodológico entre o assédio moral e a retaliação no trabalho. Esses temas estão intimamente ligados às discussões sobre direitos humanos e justiça no ambiente de trabalho, que visam ao planejamento de investigações sobre medidas de intervenção para promover a justiça social e níveis mais elevados de qualidade de vida do trabalhador. Para alcançar esse objetivo, primeiramente, fazemos a discussão teórica de ambos os conceitos para, em seguida, traçar um paralelo entre eles. Finalizamos discutindo a importância da incorporação de temas dessa natureza na análise organizacional.

Dominance and retaliation in the informal structure of authority: a comparative study of Madhya Pradesh and Bihar

Chaubey, Rakesh
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.38%
In post-independence democratic India several measures have been initiated in order to bring the marginalised and depressed sections of its population into the mainstream of development. While some of these measures have yielded positive results, several others have failed miserably to achieve the desired goals. This has kept the equity issue alive as a hot topic right up to the present day, leading to a great deal of dissatisfaction among the vast majority of India's population. Given the close affinity between caste and class in India, it is not surprising that the bulk of the population who still remain outside the purview of development happen to be the lower castes of the country. The other side of the same coin is the near total manipulation of the instruments of state policy by the higher caste and the elite, thus creating a chasm between the aspirations of different sections of the country’s population. This has resulted in fractured verdicts in electoral politics and in the growth of regionalism, casteism and religious fundamentalism. The growing difference in class character between policymakers and the recipients of various policy measures has not remained unchallenged and at times manifests itself in violence. Continued inequity in the distribution of landed property in areas of intense agricultural activity...