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O Programa de Ajustamento Estrutural na República da Guiné-Bissau: uma avaliação política e ética

Cruz, Jorge Manuel M. A. Lopes da
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Mestrado em Estudos Africanos – Desenvolvimento Social e Económico em África: Análise e Gestão; Os guineenses assumiram o desenvolvimento como uma das metas a atingir e a estabilização e o ajustamento foi-lhes imposta como solução para os problemas estruturais existentes. No entanto, a forma como têm vindo a ser concebidos pelo Banco Mundial e pelo Fundo Monetário Internacional, direccionada sobretudo para a área económica, acabou por limitar o papel dos Programas de Ajustamento Estrutural (PAE) tidos como indutores do desenvolvimento, tornando-os num agregado de premissas austeras, com resultados não esperados. As propostas do FMI e do BM, tendendo para a liberalização económica e estímulo dos mercados em detrimento da intervenção estatal, traduzem-se em medidas de redução de taxas de utilização dos serviços públicos, supressão de subsídios, redimensionamento da administração pública, cortes, congelamentos salariais e privatizações. Os resultados destas reformas foram catastróficos, porquanto não só não melhoraram o défice orçamental, como os efeitos negativos das restrições orçamentais sobre o bem-estar, geraram um ambiente de promiscuidade social e o agravamento do sector informal como estratégia de sobrevivência Tendo em conta o objecto em estudo...

The Social Dimensions of Adjustment : A General Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%
Inevitable as structural adjustment has been, and successful as it might be, the engagement with poverty in Africa is going to be a long-term affair. If growth does not restart, the reverse trickle-down may further jeopardize the most vulnerable groups in the population, involving high transitional costs of adjustment. Those costs arise from the reduction in real incomes engendered by tighter monetary and fiscal policies, from increased unemployment resulting from lags in supply responses, from price adjustment in product and factor markets, and from reduced availability of social services following the contraction of public expenditures. The Social Dimensions of Adjustment (SDA) program is to be reviewed as a strategic reaction to that nascent concern about the position of the poor in the process of structural adjustment. It is seen as a catalyst of effective action aimed at poverty reduction in the framework of structural adjustment programs. SDA delineated four components: analytical research, information gathering...

Protecting the Poor Through Programmatic Adjustment Lending in Peru, Brazil and Colombia

Javier, Evangeline; Paqueo, Vicente; Rawlings, Laura B.; Rodriguez, Alberto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
Social reforms typically require long-term, incremental policy changes. Traditional World Bank (WB) funding for discrete investments or technical assistance often had little broad policy impact. Even sector adjustment loans tended to be too inflexible and short-term to support ongoing social reforms. Some countries needed new kinds of financial and technical assistance to sustain reforms during crisis and beyond. Recognizing the need for steady, incremental reforms combined with institution building, the WB introduced Programmatic Structural Adjustment Loans/Credits (PSAL/PSAC) in 1998. In the social arena, this instrument has provided fast-disbursing, flexible, multi-year support to help countries preserve their social safety nets during crises and strengthen them in the long run through capacity building and institutional reforms. In the Latin America and the Caribbean region, loans to Peru, Brazil, and Colombia illustrate how the new multi-sector social reform efforts have worked in practice.

Structural Adjustment in the Transition : Case Studies from Albania, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyz Republic, and Moldova

Siegelbaum, Paul J.; Sherif, Khaled; Borish, Michael; Clarke, George
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
The study reviews the performance of four transition countries - Albania, Azerbaijan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Moldova - in the areas of private, and financial sector development, identifying both their achievements, and challenges, to extract beneficial reform efforts, and alternative approaches, setting the pace for sustainable growth. These countries were selected because they are among the poorest in the region, whose problems are seemingly intractable, and have been largely detached from the international marketplace until the transition began. Thus, in terms of history, resource endowment, and proximity to markets they are viewed as "late reformers" in economic development, and competitiveness, despite policy reforms. Enterprise arrears, and soft budget constraints have been a significant problem in many transition economies, more often than not, manifested as some fiscal tightening occurred to offset budget constraints. Hence, a core challenge of the transition is to reduce the role of government from all encompassing presence...

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia - Breaking with the Past : The Path to Stability and Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
The study focuses on the renewed transition to democracy, and a market economy in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), within the context of extremely difficult economic, and social conditions: poor macroeconomic outcomes, with sharp drops in output, and trade, and, very high inflation; severe enterprise, financial, and infrastructure deterioration; and, worsened social indicators, showing increased poverty levels. Although the Federal authorities implemented reforms in foreign trade policy, initiated customs administration reforms, and developed a plan for bank restructuring, these early successes were still on the path of difficult reforms, and institutional strengthening. The Federal, and Republican Governments, will require the adoption of transition reforms, and investment priorities to meet three inter-dependent challenges: restoring macroeconomic stability, and external balance; stimulating growth, and creating the basis for a sustainable supply response; and, improving the social well-being of the most vulnerable...

Macroeconomic Adjustment and the Poor : Analytical Issues and Cross-Country Evidence

Agénor, Pierre-Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
The author studies the links between macroeconomic adjustment and poverty. First, he summarizes some of the recent evidence on poverty in the developing world. Second, he reviews the various channels through which macroeconomic policies affect the poor. Third, the author emphasizes the role of the labor market. He develops an analytical framework that captures some of the main features of the urban labor market in developing countries and studies the effects of fiscal adjustment on wages, employment, and poverty. Fourth, he presents cross-country regressions linking various macroeconomic and structural variables to poverty. The author finds that output growth and real exchange rate depreciations tend to lower poverty, while illiteracy, income inequality, and macroeconomic volatility tend to increase poverty. In addition, the impact of growth on poverty appears to be asymmetric, and to result from a significant relationship between episodes of increasing poverty and negative growth rates.

Building and Running General Equilibrium Models in EViews

Essama-Nssah, B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
A crucial step in policy analysis involves computing consequences of policy actions. The author shows how to implement numerically a general equilibrium model in EViews. Computable general equilibrium models are now commonly used in both industrial and developing countries to assess the impact of external shocks or economic policies on the structure of the economy or the distribution of welfare. The current version of EViews offers a set of tools for building and solving simulation models in general. The same tools make it possible to conduct policy analysis within a general equilibrium framework. Based on the generalized Salter-Swan framework and macroeconomic data for Indonesia, the author shows how to process a social accounting matrix, specify and calibrate the model, and run simulations. The results replicate welfare and structural effects of shocks and policies consistent with the underlying conceptual framework. They also reveal the key role played by structural parameters, such as the elasticity of export transformation and that of import substitution...

A Critical Review of the Literature on Structural Adjustment and the Environment

Gueorguieva, Anna; Bolt, Katherine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
This paper analyzes the available literature about the effects of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) on the environment and the convincing evidence for their success or failure. The studies covered refer to the SAPs by the World Bank as well as to general government programs that have similar policy implications. SAPs are designed to reform economies to become more liberalized and export-oriented while reducing the role of governments that have become inefficient bureaucracies. Because of the implications of policies such as debt accumulation and trade, a concise literature review on debt and trade liberalization is also included. Despite the controversy surrounding structural adjustment and the environment, the debate has been largely based on anecdotal evidence and country case studies. Most of the studies reviewed are not quantitative and have not applied rigorous statistical methods. The conclusions of studies on the effects of structural adjustment (SA) on the environment are strongly influenced by what is examined...

Alternative Paths to Structural Adjustment in Uzbekistan in a Three-Gap Framework

Ranaweera, Thilak
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
The author presents an internally consistent macroeconomic framework that could be used as a first step toward a more comprehensive, quantitative and qualitative assessment of the adjustment alternatives facing Uzbekistan. The three-gap framework focuses on the major imbalances of the economy for evaluating policy choices facing Uzbekistan. It emphasizes the domestic, and external factors that determine economic outcomes, and welfare. The author attempts to quantify two policy scenarios-gradual as against an accelerated policy implementation strategy. He finds that an aggressive adjustment policy would indeed improve most performance, and welfare indicators. Two major ingredients of such an aggressive adjustment strategy are the unification of the exchange rate, and implementation of current account convertibility in the balance of payments. The author also draws attention to the relative importance of external financing, and the sustainability of the balance of payments under alternative structural adjustment paths facing Uzbekistan.

Macroeconomic crisis and structural reforms in Papua New Guinea

Mawuli, Agogo
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 78504 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.11%
Papua New Guinea enjoyed sound macroeconomic stability prior to the 1990s, however, in the past six years, this stability has been derailed twice. The first was caused by the closure of the Bougainville Copper Mine in 1989, and the second appeared to be a loss of control of fiscal management 1994. In each case, the macroeconomic policy response was quick and decisive and orthodox austerity measures were put in place to reduce the aggregate demand.

The years 1994 and 1995 were difficult for the Papua New Guinea economy. Following a 16.8 per cent growth rate in 1993, during the next two years financial instability overshadowed other economic problems. Although this crisis derived from budgetary mismanagement, the instability of the macroeconomic environment has tended to be crisis prone. Since independence 21 years ago, economic growth has been sluggish, occasionally rising sharply with the start of a major mine but tumbling precipitously after peak production of the mine.

The macroeconomic instabilities of the 1990s may turn out to be a blessing in disguise, if they result in policy reforms that address the problems of debilitating economic performance, and not just macroeconomic policy stability. They have served as reminder to the economic managers of the structural weaknesses of the economy and have indirectly forced the formulation of a comprehensive structural adjustment program in 1995.

Structural adjustment and labor in Jamaica and the Dominican Republic

Taylor, Orville Winthorp
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Statement of the problem. It seeks to examine whether structural adjustment in Jamaica produced the desired developmental effects for labor--both organized and non-unionized--and if there is any significant difference in the Dominican Republic, which did not undergo that economic transformation. The research hypothesis is; "Structural Adjustment leads to Marginalization of labor."^ Methodology used. The methodology is mostly a straight cross-sectional analysis using data sets and publications from the UN, ILO, World Bank and IDB, as well as local statistical sources. The dissertation is primarily an historical to contemporary analysis of the Jamaican experience under structural adjustment, as it related to labor. To a greater extent it involves a straight cross-national comparison on the historical experiences of each country and a discussion of the relative similarities and differences between them, and the impact these features had on labor.^ Summary of findings. In the end, the question is asked as to whether internal factors are important in the relative success or failure of development strategies. From the data there is some indication that under structural adjustment there has been limited economic benefits for labor in Jamaica while labor standards have not improved. In the Dominican Republic the economic performance has been similar but the labor standards have improved significantly. This thus leads to the conclusion that structural adjustment may have been a factor in the resistance to labor's empowerment.^ Nevertheless...

Looking for More from Adjustment : Africa's Experience; Medidas para acentuar los beneficios derivados del ajuste : la experiencia recogida en Africa

Pape, Elizabeth
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
By the mid-1990s, after more than 15 years of adjustment lending, it had become clear that adjustment programs in Africa had not accelerated growth or reduced poverty, except in a handful of countries. The main reasons? Recipient governments did not "own" the reform programs, and they perceived the conditionality attached to the programs as being imposed on them. Adjustment programs were often unresponsive to country conditions and changes in external circumstances. In most cases the World Bank and recipient governments did not have a shared vision of what adjustment programs were supposed to achieve. In response to this diagnosis, in 1995 the Bank's Africa Region introduced the Higher Impact Adjustment Lending (HIAL) initiative. The initiative aimed to achieve a quicker, stronger, broader, and longer supply response from structural adjustment programs by: 1) increasing country selectivity and strengthening government ownership; 2) allowing more flexibility in adjustment operations--in particular, introducing new tranching mechanisms; and 3) introducing performance indicators to define expected results and assess actual outcomes. This note describes how the approach and design of these operations were adapted to achieve higher impact.

Why Has Poverty Increased in Zimbabwe?

Alwang, Jeffrey; Mills, Bradford F.; Taruvinga, Nelson
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
Poverty in Zimbabwe increased significantly during the 1990s, and it increased in all sectors of the economy. In the middle of the decade, more than 60 percent of Zimbabwean households fell below the national poverty line. There are competing reasons for this: some say it was the result of the government instituting the Economic Structural Adjustment Program (ESAP), and others say that ESAP's effectiveness was hampered by recurring drought. This document sheds light on the sources of the increase in Zimbabwean poverty, with the use of non-parametric, and parametric statistical methods. These techniques support the conclusion that the drought, though harmful, does not entirely explain the increase in poverty. The deteriorating economic environment, reducing the returns to both human, and physical assets, also had profound effects on household well-being. What are the prospects for improvement in the near future? Only serious structural changes to the economy can create labor market conditions, conducive to long-term...

The Effect of International Monetary Fund and World Bank Programs on Poverty

Easterly, William
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Structural adjustment - as measured by the number of adjustment loans from the IMF, and the World Bank - reduces the growth elasticity of poverty reduction. The author finds no evidence for structural adjustment having a direct effect on growth. The poor benefit less from output expansion in countries with many adjustment loans, than they do in countries with few such loans. By the same token, the poor suffer less from an output contraction in countries with many adjustment loans, than in countries with few. Why would this be? One hypothesis is that adjustment lending is counter-cyclical, in ways that smooth consumption for the poor. There is evidence that some policy variables under adjustment lending are counter-cyclical, but no evidence that the cyclical component of those policy variables affects poverty. The author speculates that the poor may be ill placed to take advantage of new opportunities, created by structural adjustment reforms, just as they may suffer less from the loss of old opportunities in sectors that were artificially protected before reform. Poverty's lower sensitivity to growth under adjustment lending...

Structural Change and Poverty Reduction in Brazil : The Impact of the Doha Round

Bussolo, Maurizio; Lay, Jann; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
Over the medium time horizon, skill upgrading, differentials in sectoral technological progress, and migration of labor out of farming activities are some of the major structural adjustment factors shaping the evolution of an economy and its connected poverty trends. The main focus of the authors is understanding, for the case of Brazil, how a trade shock interacts with these structural forces and ascertaining whether it enhances or hinders medium-term poverty reduction. In particular, they consider the interactions between the migration of labor out of agriculture, a potentially important poverty reduction factor, and trade liberalization, which increases the price incentives to stay in agriculture. A recursive-dynamic computable general equilibrium model simulates Doha scenarios and compares them against a business as usual scenario. The authors estimate the poverty effects using a microsimulation model that primarily takes into account individuals' labor supply decisions. Their analysis shows that trade liberalization does contribute to structural poverty reduction. But unless increased productivity and stronger growth rates are attributed to trade reform, its contribution to medium-term poverty reduction is rather small.

Brazil : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) is also a "fiduciary" assessment, given it examines Brazil's Public Financial Management system, to form a judgment on the risk to Bank, and country funds within the Brazilian budget, and the level of accountability and transparency concerning such spending. Moreover, this CFAA will feed into the Bank's lending program, in particular a second Fiscal Reform and Structural Adjustment Loans in FY03. Partly reflecting the lack of a Public Expenditure Review, this CFAA also focuses on upstream budget development issues, including linkages with the government planning systems, as well as downstream budget execution issues. The Brazilian Government appears strongly committed to improving its public financial management, in particular, two major initiatives have been recently undertaken, which significantly impacts on public financial management: a) the Multi-Annual Plan for 2000-2003 adopted a new approach, aimed at improving resource allocation through a program-based approach covering all budget expenditures...

Gender and Economic Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa; L'Ajustement economique et les considerations des differences des sexes en Afrique Subsaharienne

Grieco, Margaret
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
Gender bias, or "neutrality" in the underlying concepts, and tools of economics, has led to "invisibility" of women's economic, and non-economic work, thus, to an incomplete picture of total economic activity. This is predominantly so in Africa, where women articulated their concern regarding the social costs of adjustment, and the impact of adjustment on women. This drove to consolidating the adjustment experience with documented findings on the effects of structural adjustment, and to address the absence of attention to gender in up-stream macroeconomic analysis, and policy formulation, which are at the core of designing adjustment programs, and sectoral strategies. The note reviews the implications, or lack thereof, in considering gender as a distinguishing factor in the design of economic adjustment measures, whose analysis suggests that the improvement in the content of adjustment to include social dimensions, still has to go farther in incorporating gender concerns. In moving toward action in adjustment...

Structural Adjustment and Forest Resources : The Impact of World Bank Operations

Pandey, Kiran D.; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
Over two decades, the World Bank has undertaken many structural adjustment operations with governments of developing countries. During negotiations for structural adjustment loans (SALs), partner governments agree to specific policy reforms, whose implementation becomes a condition for disbursement of SAL funds. Conditionality varies with local circumstances, but generally supports privatization of state enterprises, liberalization of the domestic economy, and openness in international trade. Structural adjustment operations have often been controversial because they are explicitly political. Opposition, or support reflects ideological perspectives, perceptions of who gains, and who loses economically from a SAL, or beliefs about its environmental, and social impacts. Environmental groups express particular concern about SALs' impacts on the rate of deforestation. Debate about adjustment, and deforestation has been fueled largely by anecdotes, and a few country cases bases on limited time-series data. The authors broaden the analysis by combining a complete record of Bank SAL operations...

O ajuste urbano: as políticas do Banco Mundial e do BID para as cidades; El ajuste urbano: las políticas del Banco Mundial y el BID para las ciudades; The" urban adjustment": the World Bank's and the Inter-american Development Bank's policies for cities

Arantes, Pedro Fiori
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
Ao ajuste estrutural que se seguiu à crise da dívida no Terceiro Mundo, no início dos anos 80 - e ainda persiste como um ajuste permanente -, parece ter ocorrido um correspondente" ajuste urbano". Em ambos os casos, o Banco Mundial e, na América Latina, o BID, tiveram ação decisiva, em parceria com as elites e tecnocracias locais. As estratégias de ação dessas duas instituições financeiras, apesar de sua forte interferência nas políticas públicas dos países em desenvolvimento, constituem um tema novo e ainda pouco abordado pela pesquisa acadêmica. Em nosso caso, o objetivo foi desvendar o modelo de cidade que tem sido por elas defendido e qual seu significado. Na dissertação que realizei pela FAUUSP, constatei que os empréstimos do Banco Mundial e do BID - que aparecem aos gestores públicos como" tábuas de salvação" em tempos de crise -, não são" neutros" e carregam consigo uma agenda afirmativa: pretendem modelar um determinado padrão de uso do recurso público e de organização do Estado. As duas instituições difundem políticas públicas que seguem critérios empresariais de rentabilidade e um modelo de gestão estatal terceirizada, à mercê de um corpo técnico privado - formado por gerenciadoras de projeto...

International politics of structural adjustment in sub-Saharan Africa 1983-1990: With special reference to Ghana and Nigeria.

Zabadi, Istifanus Sonsare
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1992 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Sub-Saharan Africa entered the 1980s faced with a crisis of unprecedented proportions. The economies of the region which were already in decline by the late 1970s, were in danger of collapse. The severity of the crisis was also reflected in rising indebtedness, social decay and political instability. To tackle it, African leaders met at an extraordinary economic summit in Lagos in 1980 and adopted a common strategy which became known as the Lagos Plan of Action. The crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa is part of a general world-wide economic recession stemming from a period of economic decline in the leading industrial economies. As a result, the leading industrialised countries and international institutions designed strategies to tackle the crisis both at the global level and in the developing countries such as those in Sub-Saharan Africa. For Africa, the strategy adopted by the World Bank and the IMF was that of structural adjustment. The orthodox approach of the World Bank generated controversy as to its suitability to the African situation. This disagreement was a reflection of conflicting political interests as well as power relations both internationally, and within African states. This thesis analyses the impact of the politics of structural adjustment programmes in Africa...