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MicroRNA preparations from individual monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris-a comparison of six commercially available totalRNA extraction kits

Fromm, Bastian; Harris, Philip David; Bachmann, Lutz
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/06/2011 Português
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A Population Where Men Live As Long As Women: Villagrande Strisaili, Sardinia

Poulain, Michel; Pes, Gianni; Salaris, Luisa
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Usually women live longer than men and female centenarians largely outnumber male centenarians. The findings of previous studies identifying a population with a femininity ratio close to 1.0 among centenarians in the mountainous region of Sardinia was the starting point of an in-depth investigation in order to compare mortality trajectories between men and women in that population. The exceptional survival of men compared to women emerges from the comparison with similar Italian data. Age exaggeration for men has been strictly excluded as a result of the age validation procedure. The discussion suggests that besides biological/genetic factors, the behavioral factors including life style, demographic behavior, family support, and community characteristics may play an important role. No single explanation is likely to account for such an exceptional situation and a fully integrated multidisciplinary approach is urgently needed.

Substantial Loss of Conserved and Gain of Novel MicroRNA Families in Flatworms

Fromm, Bastian; Worren, Merete Molton; Hahn, Christoph; Hovig, Eivind; Bachmann, Lutz
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Recent studies on microRNA (miRNA) evolution focused mainly on the comparison of miRNA complements between animal clades. However, evolution of miRNAs within such groups is poorly explored despite the availability of comparable data that in some cases lack only a few key taxa. For flatworms (Platyhelminthes), miRNA complements are available for some free-living flatworms and all major parasitic lineages, except for the Monogenea. We present the miRNA complement of the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus salaris that facilitates a comprehensive analysis of miRNA evolution in Platyhelminthes. Using the newly designed bioinformatics pipeline miRCandRef, the miRNA complement was disentangled from next-generation sequencing of small RNAs and genomic DNA without a priori genome assembly. It consists of 39 miRNA hairpin loci of conserved miRNA families, and 22 novel miRNAs. A comparison with the miRNA complements of Schmidtea mediterranea (Turbellaria), Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda), and Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda) reveals a substantial loss of conserved bilaterian, protostomian, and lophotrochozoan miRNAs. Eight of the 46 expected conserved miRNAs were lost in all flatworms, 16 in Neodermata and 24 conserved miRNAs could not be detected in the cestode and the trematode. Such a gradual loss of miRNAs has not been reported before for other animal phyla. Currently...

Footprints of Directional Selection in Wild Atlantic Salmon Populations: Evidence for Parasite-Driven Evolution?

Zueva, Ksenia J.; Lumme, Jaakko; Veselov, Alexey E.; Kent, Matthew P.; Lien, Sigbjørn; Primmer, Craig R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/03/2014 Português
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Mechanisms of host-parasite co-adaptation have long been of interest in evolutionary biology; however, determining the genetic basis of parasite resistance has been challenging. Current advances in genome technologies provide new opportunities for obtaining a genome-scale view of the action of parasite-driven natural selection in wild populations and thus facilitate the search for specific genomic regions underlying inter-population differences in pathogen response. European populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) exhibit natural variance in susceptibility levels to the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg 1957, ranging from resistance to extreme susceptibility, and are therefore a good model for studying the evolution of virulence and resistance. However, distinguishing the molecular signatures of genetic drift and environment-associated selection in small populations such as land-locked Atlantic salmon populations presents a challenge, specifically in the search for pathogen-driven selection. We used a novel genome-scan analysis approach that enabled us to i) identify signals of selection in salmon populations affected by varying levels of genetic drift and ii) separate potentially selected loci into the categories of pathogen (G. salaris)-driven selection and selection acting upon other environmental characteristics. A total of 4631 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in Atlantic salmon from 12 different northern European populations. We identified three genomic regions potentially affected by parasite-driven selection...

Comparative Genomics of Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) Reveals Shared Genomic Features of Ecto- and Endoparastic Neodermata

Hahn, Christoph; Fromm, Bastian; Bachmann, Lutz
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/04/2014 Português
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The ectoparasitic Monogenea comprise a major part of the obligate parasitic flatworm diversity. Although genomic adaptations to parasitism have been studied in the endoparasitic tapeworms (Cestoda) and flukes (Trematoda), no representative of the Monogenea has been investigated yet. We present the high-quality draft genome of Gyrodactylus salaris, an economically important monogenean ectoparasite of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A total of 15,488 gene models were identified, of which 7,102 were functionally annotated. The controversial phylogenetic relationships within the obligate parasitic Neodermata were resolved in a phylogenomic analysis using 1,719 gene models (alignment length of >500,000 amino acids) for a set of 16 metazoan taxa. The Monogenea were found basal to the Cestoda and Trematoda, which implies ectoparasitism being plesiomorphic within the Neodermata and strongly supports a common origin of complex life cycles. Comparative analysis of seven parasitic flatworm genomes identified shared genomic features for the ecto- and endoparasitic lineages, such as a substantial reduction of the core bilaterian gene complement, including the homeodomain-containing genes, and a loss of the piwi and vasa genes, which are considered essential for animal development. Furthermore...

Reservoir hosts for Gyrodactylus salaris may play a more significant role in epidemics than previously thought

Paladini, Giuseppe; Hansen, Haakon; Williams, Chris F; Taylor, Nick GH; Rubio-Mejía, Olga L; Denholm, Scott J; Hytterød, Sigurd; Bron, James E; Shinn, Andrew P
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/12/2014 Português
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F.T. Marinetti e L'arte di far manifesti

Copetti, Rafael Zamperetti
Fonte: Florianópolis Publicador: Florianópolis
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 247 p.| il.
Português
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Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Literatura; Esta tese tem como objetivo analisar "l'arte di far manifesti" de F.T. Marinetti. Em um primeiro momento contextualiza-se o surgimento do futurismo com o intuito de proceder uma leitura de caráter geral do Marinetti pré-futurista e futurista, passando pela gestação do movimento na revista Poesia. Em um segundo momento busca-se, com o apoio da teoria dos gêneros literários, definir quais são os procedimentos dominantes que caracterizam um manifesto do futurismo italiano. Por fim, são apresentados e analisados alguns dos manifestos do futurismo italiano, tais como o Fondazione e manifesto del futurismo e o Manifesto tecnico della letteratura futurista em base, principalmente, às reflexões de Giovanni Lista e de Claudia Salaris, bem como são abordados seus desdobramentos.; This thesis has as its objective to analyze "l'artedifarmanifesti" by F.T. Marinetti. Firstly, the outbreak of futurism is contextualized with the aim to conduct a reading of general characteristics of the pre-futuristic and futuristic Marinetti, passing through the gestation of the movement in the magazine Poesia. Secondly...

Reproductive Trade-Offs May Moderate the Impact of Gyrodactylus salaris in Warmer Climates

Denholm, Scott J.; Norman, Rachel A.; Hoyle, Andrew S.; Shinn, Andrew P.; Taylor, Nick G. H.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/10/2013 Português
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Gyrodactylus salaris is a notifiable freshwater ectoparasite of salmonids. Its primary host is Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), upon which infections can cause death, and have led to massive declines in salmon numbers in Norway, where the parasite is widespread. Different strains of S. salar vary in their susceptibility, with Atlantic strains (such as those found in Norway) exhibiting no resistance to the parasite, and Baltic strains demonstrating an innate resistance sufficient to regulate parasite numbers on the host causing it to either die out or persist at a low level. In this study, Leslie matrix and compartmental models were used to generate data that demonstrated the population growth of G. salaris on an individual host is dependent on the total number of offspring per parasite, its longevity and the timing of its births. The data demonstrated that the key factor determining the rate of G. salaris population growth is the time at which the parasite first gives birth, with rapid birth rate giving rise to large population size. Furthermore, it was shown that though the parasite can give birth up to four times, only two births are required for the population to persist as long as the first birth occurs before a parasite is three days old. As temperature is known to influence the timing of the parasite's first birth...

Comparison of theoretical white dwarf cooling timescales.

Salaris, M.; Althaus, Leandro Gabriel; García-Berro, E.
Fonte: Edp Sciences S A Publicador: Edp Sciences S A
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Context. An accurate assessment of white dwarf cooling times is paramount so that white dwarf cosmochronology of Galactic populations can be put on more solid grounds. This issue is particularly relevant in view of the enhanced observational capabilities provided by the next generation of extremely large telescopes, that will offer more avenues to use white dwarfs as probes of Galactic evolution and test-beds of fundamental physics.
Aims: We estimate for the first time the consistency of results obtained from independent evolutionary codes for white dwarf models with fixed mass and chemical stratification, when the same input physics is employed in the calculations.
Methods: We compute and compare cooling times obtained from two independent and widely used stellar evolution codes, BaSTI and LPCODE evolutionary codes, using exactly the same input physics for 0.55 M white dwarf models with both pure carbon and uniform carbon-oxygen (50/50 mass fractions) cores, and pure hydrogen layers with mass fraction qH = 10-4MWD on top of pure helium buffers of mass qHe = 10-2MWD.
Results: Using the same radiative and conductive opacities...

The "Tip" of the Red Giant Branch as a distance indicator: results from evolutionary models

Salaris, M.; Cassisi, S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/1997 Português
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New theoretical evaluations of the Red Giant Branch Tip (TRGB) luminosity, by adopting the most updated physical inputs in computing canonical stellar models, are presented. Theoretical relations for the run of the TRGB bolometric and I magnitude with the metallicity are provided together with a comparison of the distance scale based on these relations and the RR Lyrae distance scale presented in Cassisi & Salaris (1996) and the Cepheid distance scale adopted by Lee, Freedman & Madore (1993). The result of this comparison - performed by adopting a sample of galactic globular clusters and a sample of resolved galaxies - discloses a satisfactory agreement between theory and observations at the level of 0.1 mag. This occurrence can be regarded as an evidence for the consistency between theoretical Red Giant, Horizontal Branch stellar models and independent Cepheid observations, and allows to safely use the provided TRGB luminosity relations as an alternative primary distance indicator for galaxies in which the stellar component has been resolved.; Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, Tex file, mnrass.sty style included. To appear in MNRAS

A new analysis of the Red Giant Branch "Tip" distance scale and the value of the Hubble constant

Salaris, M.; Cassisi, S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/03/1998 Português
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The theoretical evaluations of the Red Giant Branch Tip (TRGB) luminosity presented in Salaris & Cassisi (1997) are extended to higher metallicities, and compared with analogous independent results recently published. The comparison between our ZAHB and TRGB distance scales for galactic globular clusters presented in Salaris & Cassisi (1997) is now supplemented with a comparison with the HIPPARCOS distance scale set by local subdwarfs with accurate parallax determinations. The overall agreement between ZAHB and HIPPARCOS distances is quite good. The ZAHB and TRGB distances to resolved galaxies are in good agreement, whereas the comparison between TRGB and Cepheid distances, computed by using the calibration suggested by Madore & Freedman (1991), reveals a systematic discrepancy of the order of 0.12 mag. The TRGB distances are systematically longer in comparison with the Cepheid ones. This result supports the case for a revision of the zero point of the Cepheid distance scale, as already suggested by other authors on the basis of HIPPARCOS parallaxes. The application of our TRGB distance scale to NGC3379, provides a new distance to the Leo I group, which coupled with recent independent determinations of the distance Coma cluster-Leo I...

Population Synthesis in the Blue II. The Spectroscopic Age of 47 Tucanae

Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Faber, S. M.; Rose, James A.; Castilho, Bruno V.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We develop a new set of models for intermediate-metallicity single stellar populations in the blue/optical region and use those models to determine the spectroscopic age of 47 Tuc. The models are based on a moderately high-resolution (1.8 A FWHM) empirical spectral library, state-of-the-art theoretical isochrones from M. Salaris and the most recent set from the Padova group, and new semi-empirical calibrations between fundamental stellar parameters and observables. We highlight the importance of correctly modeling the luminosity function (LF) of the cluster at the level of the giant branch, in order to achieve a good reproduction of the integrated spectrum; agreement between the spectroscopic age and the age based on the cluster's color-magnitude diagram (CMD) is achieved only if the observed LF is used rather than the theoretical ones, which either do not include AGB stars (Salaris) or underpredict the total number counts of bright giants in the cluster by a factor of two(Padova). After all corrections are made, the CMD and the spectroscopic ages (from Hgamma and Hbeta) are in close agreement: 11--12 Gyrs for Salaris isochrones and about 13 Gyrs for Padova. The difference between the model ages is due to the inclusion of atomic diffusion in the Salaris models. Previously older spectroscopic ages were due to the underestimate of the number of red giants and/or the use of isochrones that neglected the effects of He-diffusion and alpha-enhancement. A similar underestimate in the bright giant LF...

Impact of Rotation on the Evolution of Low-Mass Stars

Brown, D.; Salaris, M.; Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/11/2007 Português
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High precision photometry and spectroscopy of low-mass stars reveal a variety of properties standard stellar evolution cannot predict. Rotation, an essential ingredient of stellar evolution, is a step towards resolving the discrepancy between model predictions and observations. The first rotating stellar model, continuously tracing a low-mass star from the pre-main sequence onto the horizontal branch, is presented. The predicted luminosity functions of stars of globular clusters and surface rotation velocities on the horizontal branch are discussed.; Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures. Oral contrubution. Proceedings of the workshop "XXI Century challenges for stellar evolution", held in Cefalu' (Sicily, Italy), August 29 - September 2, 2007; S. Cassisi and M. Salaris Eds. To be published in Mem. SAIt Vol. 79 No. 2

Population effects on the red giant clump absolute magnitude: The K-band

Salaris, Maurizio; Girardi, Leo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/08/2002 Português
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We present a detailed analysis of the behaviour of the Red Clump K-band absolute magnitude (M(K,RC)) in simple and composite stellar populations, in light of its use as standard candle for distance determinations. The advantage of using M(K,RC), following recent empirical calibrations of its value for the solar neighbourhood, arises from its very low sensitivity to the extinction by interstellar dust. We provide data and equations which allow the determination of the K-band population correction Delta(M(K,RC)) (difference between the Red Clump brightness in the solar neighbourhood and in the population under scrutiny) for any generic stellar population. These data complement the results presented in Girardi & Salaris(2001) for the V- and I-band. We show how data from galactic open clusters consistently support our predicted Delta(M(V,RC)), Delta(M(I,RC)) and Delta(M(K,RC)) values. Multiband VIK population corrections for various galaxy systems are provided. They can be used in conjunction with the method devised by Alves et al.(2002), in order to derive simultaneously reddening and distance from the use of VIK observations of Red Clump stars. We have positively tested this technique on the Galactic globular cluster 47Tuc, for which both an empirical parallax-based main sequence fitting distance and reddening estimates exist. We have also studied the case of using only V and I photometry...

An empirical test of the theoretical population corrections to the Red Clump absolute magnitude

Percival, Susan M.; Salaris, Maurizio
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/04/2003 Português
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The mean absolute magnitude of the local red clump (RC) is a very well determined quantity due to the availability of accurate HIPPARCOS parallaxes for several hundred RC stars, potentially allowing it to be used as an accurate extra-galactic distance indicator. Theoretical models predict that the RC mean magnitude has non-linear dependencies on both age and metallicity. This suggests that a population correction, based on the star formation rate (SFR) and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a particular system, should be applied to the local RC magnitude before it can be compared to the RC in that system in order to make a meaningful distance determination. Using a sample of 8 Galactic open clusters and the GC 47 Tuc, we determine the cluster distances, and hence the RC absolute magnitude in V, I and K, by applying our empirical main sequence fitting method, which utilizes a large sample of local field dwarfs with accurate HIPPARCOS parallaxes. The age and metallicity range of these 9 clusters enable us to make a quantitative assessment of the age and metallicity dependencies of the population corrections predicted by the theoretical models of Girardi & Salaris (2001). We find excellent agreement between the empirical data and the models in all 3 pass-bands...

Theoretical vs. semi-empirical relative ages of globular clusters

Pulone, L.; Salaris, M.; Weiss, A.; Buonanno, R.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/07/1998 Português
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Theoretical relative ages of galactic globular clusters have recently been challenged by a semi-empirical relation. It was used to point out that tested sets of isochrones were unable to reproduce the relation and yield internally inconsistent relative ages. We find that differential cluster ages derived with the isochrones by Salaris & Weiss (1998) are reliable and internally consistent. We also show that this consistency depends on using the lower absolute ages determined by SW98, which therefore receive more empirical support. Moreover, we discuss the effect of the clusters absolute age on the evaluation of their differential ages, and its connection with the question of their age dispersion.; Comment: accepted by A&A Letters, to appear in A&A 336, L77 (1998)

Prematica en que se manda no se puedan pedir salarios, sino se mostrare asiento del, firmado de la persona, a quien dixere ha servido, o en el libro que tuviere, y estuvieren assentados los demas salarios de criados, sin que baste provarlo con testigos, ni otro genero de prouança

Espanya; Felip III,
Fonte: Madrid : por Iuan de la Cuesta : Vendese en casa de Francisco de Robles, librero del Rey nuestro Señor, Publicador: Madrid : por Iuan de la Cuesta : Vendese en casa de Francisco de Robles, librero del Rey nuestro Señor,
Tipo: Text; info:eu-repo/semantics/book Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1616 Português
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27.32%
Caplletra xil. ornada a l'inici del text; Escut xil. a port.; Nota manuscrita a la portada: "De la Lib.ria del Lic. Dn. Man.l Ant. Moreno Muñoz Abog.do de los Rl. Cons. de la Villa del Campo & Cayp. tana="; Pragmàtica, 1616-03-02: "Dada en madrid à dos dias del mes de Março, de mil y seyscientos y diez y seys años"; Reclams; Pragmàtica en la qual s'ordena que no es poden demanar salaris, si no es mostra el consentiment firmat de la persona, que s'ha dit que s'ha servit, o en el llibre on estiguessin establerts els altres salaris dels criats, sense que sigui suficient demostrar-ho amb testimonis..

Prematica qve sv Magestad mando pvblicar sobre la reformacion de las causas de la carestia general en estos Reynos, y moderacion en los precios de las mercaderias y mantenimientos, salarios, y jornales

Espanya; Felip IV,; Rios, Lázaro de
Fonte: Madrid : por Doña Teresa Iunti Impressora del Rey nuestro Señor, Publicador: Madrid : por Doña Teresa Iunti Impressora del Rey nuestro Señor,
Tipo: Text; info:eu-repo/semantics/book Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1627 Português
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Caplletres xil. ornades; Escut reial xil. a port.; Pragmàtica, 1627-09-13: "EN la villa de Madrid, a treze dias del mes de setiembre de mil seiscientos y veinte y siete años"; Reclams; Sign.: A-C; Verso de la portada: "Lazaro de Rios"; Pragmàtica que sa Majestat ordenà publicar sobre la reformació de les causes de la carestia general d'aquests Regnes, i moderació en els preus de les mercaderies i manteniments, salaris, i jornals..

Labour market developments, non-standard employment and low wages in Germany

Leschke, Janine
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Pel que fa a les novetats introduïdes al mercat de treball i els seus resultats, a Alemanya li està anant relativament bé. De fet, i en contra de la tendència europea, Alemanya ha vist augmentar les seves taxes d'ocupació i el descens de la desocupació durant la crisi econòmica. Però, des de les reformes desreguladores de Hartz de principis i mitjans dels anys 2000, l'última dècada ha estat testimoni de l'emergència de formes no convencionals d'ocupació i el creixement del sector de baixos salaris. Un dels objectius de les reformes Hartz era augmentar les oportunitats d'ocupació, entre d’altres en el sector de baixos salaris i especialment en el sector serveis. Els treballadors no estàndard, i entre aquests aquells amb contractes de durada determinada, els treballadors d'agències temporals, els treballadors fixos a temps parcial i els mini-jobbers són els, comparativament, més afectats pels baixos salaris.; Con respecto a las novedades introducidas en el mercado de trabajo y sus resultados, a Alemania le está yendo relativamente bien. De hecho, y en contra de la tendencia europea, Alemania ha visto aumentar sus tasas de empleo y el descenso del desempleo durante la crisis económica. Pero desde las reformas desreguladoras de Hartz de principios y mediados de los años 2000...

¿Están fallando las políticas de empleo?

Miguélez, Fausto
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
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L'article analitza les polítiques d'ocupació que Espanya, sota mandat de la UE, està duent a terme en aquest període de crisi. Després de comparar les polítiques actuals amb el que havien estat tradicionalment i analitzar els seus efectes, l'article conclou que l'objectiu real no és crear i millorar l'ocupació sinó, potser, preparar a Europa –a Espanya en aquest cas- per competir amb altres regions econòmiques sobre la base de baixos salaris.; El artículo analiza las políticas de empleo que España, bajo mandato de la UE, está llevando a cabo en la crisis. Después de comparar las políticas actuales con lo que eran tradicionalmente estas políticas y analizar el efecto que están teniendo, el artículo llega a la conclusión que el objetivo real no es crear empleo y mejorar el empleo. El objetivo real puede ser preparar a Europa –a España en este caso- para competir con otras regiones económicas sobre la base de bajos salarios.; This paper describes and discusses the employment policies that Spain, under mandate of the EU, is carrying out as the result of the crisis. After comparing the current policies with those traditional ones and analyzing its effects, the article concludes that the real objective behind them is not to create and improve employment but to prepare Europe – Spain...