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O financiamento do ensino médio da rede estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (1996-2006).; The high school financing in the state teaching system in Mato Grosso do Sul (1996-2006).

Braz, Terezinha Pereira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/05/2008 Português
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Esta pesquisa tem como objeto o financiamento do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, a partir da promulgação da Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional - LDB em 1996 até 2006. O financiamento do Ensino Médio nesse estado advém da fonte Estadual, oriunda dos impostos; de recurso internacional, advinda do Programa de Melhoria e Expansão do Ensino Médio - PROMED/MEC/BID e da Comunidade Escolar. O objetivo foi investigar como se definiram as políticas de financiamento do Ensino Médio em Mato Grosso do Sul e compreender como essas fontes foram organizadas, a partir das políticas mais amplas da educação no Brasil. Sustentado por uma perspectiva marxista, o estudo pautou-se na análise dos determinantes econômicos, sociais e políticos da sociedade capitalista que definiram as políticas de financiamento investigadas. Considerando as peculiaridades do contexto brasileiro, buscou-se o aprofundamento da reflexão por meio da produção acadêmica desde os primórdios até o momento em que, sob as bases do Estado Neoliberal, intensificaram-se as lutas por medidas que assegurem recursos para a educação, conquistados a partir da Lei Calmon e consolidados na Constituição de 1988. Realizou-se o levantamento e estudo dos documentos que traçavam e definiam o financiamento...

Liceu Francês do Rio de Janeiro (1915-1965): instituições escolares e difusão da cultura francesa no exterior; The French Lyceum in Rio de Janeiro (1915-1965): school institutions and diffusion of French culture abroad

Balassiano, Ana Luiza Grillo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/05/2012 Português
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Esta pesquisa pretendeu compreender o processo de constituição, criação e desenvolvimento do Lycée Français ao Colégio Franco Brasileiro no recorte temporal que se inicia no ano de 1915 e termina no seu cinqüentenário, no ano de 1965, utilizando como fonte um repertório diversificado de documentos localizados em arquivos franceses e brasileiros. A construção deste repertório apontou que nosso objeto deveria ser focalizado sob três temporalidades distintas: Lycée Français, Liceu Franco- Brasileiro, e Colégio Franco-Brasileiro a partir de uma história institucional que se apresentou articulada em torno de três personagens centrais: Claude Alexandre Brigole, Georges Dumas e Renato Almeida, associados a cada um desses momentos. Procuramos entender a existência da instituição escolar situada nos contextos franceses e brasileiros ao longo do período analisado, acionando uma perspectiva meso de análise, que indicou olhar para o processo no movimento de escala macro e micro das relações entre educação e história franco-brasileira.; It is an object of this research to understand the process of constitution, creation and development of French Lyceum to Colégio Franco-Brasileiro in the time frame that starts in 1915 and ends in its 50th anniversary...

Essays on global strategy and institutions; Essays in global strategy and institutions

Siegel, Jordan Ian, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 177, [7] p.; 8370831 bytes; 8370637 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis examines how firms in countries with weak governance institutions access outside (technological and financial) resources and capabilities. The first essay challenges current views regarding the efficacy of renting foreign jurisdictions through cross-listings and shows that reputational mechanisms are more important. The second essay, which follows a group of Korean firms through the sequence of liberalizations and political changes since 1987, provides further evidence that reputational mechanisms are central in obtaining external resources and capabilities. The third essay suggests that Mexican firms selected alternative strategies besides cross-listings before liberalization, and that one of these strategies (forming a cross-border alliance) turned out to be more effective. The timing of liberalization is the key shift variable that determines which Mexican firms cross-listed and which firms instead formed cross-border alliances and/or acquired political connectedness. This thesis also demonstrates the complementarity of investing in domestic influence and the establishment of cross-border strategic alliances.; by Jordan Ian Siegel.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, 2003.; MIT Institute Archives copy: p. 177 and unnumbered sequence bound in reverse order between p. [130] and p. [131]; microfiched accordingly.; Includes bibliographical references.

Spinning off new ventures from research institutions outside high tech entrepreneurial areas

Degroof, Jean-Jacques
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (415 leaves); 25261611 bytes; 25261372 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In this thesis, I examine how spinning off new ventures from academic institutions works in an environment outside developed high tech clusters and how it affects models of ventures. I examine these questions by studying the case of Belgium. There seems to be two archetypes of spin-off processes depending on the academic institutions capabilities. The first, practiced by specialized research institutes, involves a proactive technology opportunity search phase and an extensive concept-testing phase before ventures are founded. It can be characterized as a high selectivity and high support policy. The second and most common type, practiced by universities, leaves the initiation of projects to individual researchers and provides limited support for concept testing before ventures are founded. Most concept testing needs to be conducted after founding. This type of spin-off process can be regarded as a low selectivity and low support policy. The few ventures, spun off by specialized research institutes could adopt a high-growth orientation right away, becoming "pure" venture capital-backed firms from the outset. Ventures spun off by universities at a very early stage could only adopt a basic business model of contract-based work, often technical consulting. About half of these ventures never intended to go beyond this business model and settled in a small business model of venture with no growth orientation. The founders of the other half tried to build a firm that was going to be more than a substitute for a job. For these founders...

Challenging operations : changing interactions, identities, and institutions in a surgical teaching hospital

Kellogg, Katherine C
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 170 leaves; 9699498 bytes; 9706646 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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If institutions are comprised of cultural and positional prescriptions for action and interpretation, then institutional change must depend at some point on thinking the unthinkable, acting in "inappropriate" ways, and convincing powerful others to give up their privilege. How does this happen? How do people come to question taken-for-granted beliefs? How do they decide to attempt the unacceptable in their interactions with others? How do they persuade those who benefit from the status quo to change? And how do they extend new understandings created in particular interactions into future situations? In this dissertation, I tell the story of surgical residents at ACADEMIC hospital who accomplished both institutional stability and institutional change in their interactions with one another in the wake of nationwide changes occurring outside their hospital. Using findings from a 15 month ethnography of this surgical teaching hospital, I demonstrate that institutional stability and change occur only insofar as they are negotiated in interactions between particular workplace members with particular reasons for wanting either to maintain or to challenge the status quo.; (cont.) I draw on these findings, in combination with identity theory and symbolic interactionism...

From ideals to institutions : institutional entrepreneurship in Mexican small business finance; Institutional entrepreneurship in Mexican small business finance

Canales, Rodrigo (Rodrigo J.)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 278 p.
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Through a combination of in-depth research and unique loan-level data, this dissertation explores the mechanisms of intentional institutional change. It argues that current accounts of institutions and institutional change require but do not provide a systematic understanding of the role of individuals in processes of change. It then uses two in-depth case studies to explore the mechanisms through which individuals can initiate institutional change. One case is the activation of the small business credit market in Mexico. The second is the expansion of micro credit in the country. Through these cases, the dissertation proposes that, contrary to conventional thinking, institutional change is not rare because institutional entrepreneurs are scarce. In fact, they are quite prevalent. Rather, what is scarce is the required combination of an opportunity for change, individuals who can recognize this opportunity, have the capabilities and skills to pursue it, and are situated in the right structural position to drive a change process. It further argues that successful institutional entrepreneurs are usually situated in positions of middle management, which provide the right balance between a motivation to experiment, access to sufficient resources...

A tale of two arbs : essays on agency and financial institutions; Essays on agency and financial institutions

Kondo, Jiro Edouard
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 128 p.
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This thesis consists of two essays covering topics in the economics of financial institutions with an emphasis on certain types of potential agency problems. In particular, it investigates two radically different types of "arbs": arbitrators and arbitrageurs. The first essay studies securities arbitration to shed light on a relevant form of financial regulation that was previously unexplored empirically: the self-regulation of financial markets. The second essay investigates the informable financing channel in the context of arbitrageur fund-raising to develop a theory of the limits to arbitrage. Further details of each essay are included below:In Chapter 1, I investigate whether self-regulation in financial markets leads to greater industry bias and expertise in enforcement. Using hand-collected data on securities arbitration disputes from the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD), I document that pro-industry arbitrators are selected more often to arbitration panels than pro-investor ones (selection on bias) and that experts are also selected more frequently to cases (selection on expertise). Moreover, both patterns vary substantially across cases. Selection on bias is strongest when large brokerage firms are sued and when cases are more important to firms while selection on expertise increases with case complexity. This suggests that arbitrators are assigned to cases in ways that lead to higher industry bias and expertise. To assess whether the NASD is responsible for these patterns...

Civil-military relations in European security institutions -- challenges of multi-institutionality in peace operations

Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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The thesis analyzes civil-military relations in European security institutions by analyzing the organization and institutional mechanisms to exercise democratic civilian control over the military elements adapted to or emerged as a need to conduct peace operations. The goal is to assess the importance of civil-military relations in planning and conducting peace operations. European security institutions have been involved in peace keeping operations in the Balkans for more then ten years.Their effectiveness is measured by the dramatic decrease of violence. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the number of troops decreased from 60,000 in 1996, when NATO-led Implementation Force (IFOR) was deployed, to a planned 2,500 at the end of 2007. The number of military forces involved in providing security, a normal task for them, is even smaller. The thesis argues that one of the factors which influenced the improvement of the effectiveness of the peace-keeping forces in Balkans after NATO took over the mission in 1995 is that NATO and EU military forces received clear missions and comprehensive political guidance from their political decision-making bodies. Because civilian structures did not micro-manage the conduct of operations despite the complex environment in which they operated...

Civil-military relations in European security institutions -- challenges of multi-institutionality in peace operations

Furnica, Pascu
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Português
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The thesis analyzes civil-military relations in European security institutions by analyzing the organization and institutional mechanisms to exercise democratic civilian control over the military elements adapted to or emerged as a need to conduct peace operations. The goal is to assess the importance of civil-military relations in planning and conducting peace operations. European security institutions have been involved in peace keeping operations in the Balkans for more then ten years.Their effectiveness is measured by the dramatic decrease of violence. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the number of troops decreased from 60,000 in 1996, when NATO-led Implementation Force (IFOR) was deployed, to a planned 2,500 at the end of 2007. The number of military forces involved in providing security, a normal task for them, is even smaller. The thesis argues that one of the factors which influenced the improvement of the effectiveness of the peace-keeping forces in Balkans after NATO took over the mission in 1995 is that NATO and EU military forces received clear missions and comprehensive political guidance from their political decision-making bodies. Because civilian structures did not micro-manage the conduct of operations despite the complex environment in which they operated...

NPS, NATO Partner to Build Transparency, Efficiency in Defense Institutions

Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office
Fonte: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Naval Postgraduate School
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Faculty Showcase News Article; As the U.S. Partnership for Peace Training and Education Center (USPTC), the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), and its Defense Resources Management Institute, are playing a pivotal role in partnering with NATO on the Building Integrity (BI) program. The BI effort, established in 2007, seeks to empower developing nations across the world with the skills, knowledge and tools to build efficient, corruption-free defense institutions.

Turkey and European security institutions

Scheer, Aaron M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 69 p. ;
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; Turkey's relationships with the West, particularly its relationship with Western security institutions, are today more important than ever. As the United States fights two wars in the region and attempts to rebuild its reputation in Europe and the Middle East, Turkey is once again central to America's plans. Yet, this crucial ally is little understood by U.S. policy makers. Turkey has a long relationship with Euro-Atlantic security institutions, specifically NATO and the various European institutions, culminating in today's European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP). The following study poses the following questions of relevance to those interested in theory and policy. Why do the government and people of Turkey participate in these institutions? What long-term policy objectives do makers of policy in Turkey wish to advance through its participation in these institutions? What are the different ways that Turkey leverages its participation to advance its goals? Specifically, how does Turkey use its participation in European security institutions to advance its positions on issues such as European Union membership, defense modernization, and its ongoing internal and external areas of conflict? How does Turkey's Ottoman legacy affect these relationships and how has this historical background shaped today's events? This thesis also sets out to answer whether Turkey is successful in its participation; in other words...

NPSF What is the NPS Foundation; Naval Postgraduate School Foundation, What is the NPS Foundation

Naval Postgraduate School Foundation
Fonte: Monterey, California; Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California; Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Outros
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Screenshot of the Naval Postgraduate School Foundation website.; The NPS Foundation is a non profit 501(c)(3) organization (Tax ID: 23-7098729) whose primary mission is to support the students, faculty and staff of the Naval Postgraduate School. Similar to other educational institutions, private support is vital to achieve standards above the sustaining level of public support. Private donations enhance the educational experience of NPS to the level of the country's best institutions of higher learning. With this support, we assist in the development of the military leaders of tomorrow, while also funding research that significantly improves our nation's security capabilities.

Civilian Institutions Programs Office

Director of Civilian Institutions Program
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School. Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School.
Tipo: Outros
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Screenshot of the Civilian Institutions Programs Office webpage from the Naval Postgraduate School website.; The Navy's fully-funded graduate education program supports 71 different subspecialties. Forty-two different curricula are currently being taught at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey. In addition, 36 other fields of study are possible from over 65 different civilian institutions nationwide. Each year approximately 20% of the graduate assignments for officers are slated to attend civilian institutions (CIVINS). OPNAVNOTE1520 (DOC) can tell you more about Funded Graduate Education Programs, or you can talk to your Detailer or Community manager for additional details.

The institutionalization of drug trafficking organizations comparing Colombia and Brazil

Dominguez, Manuel J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 87 p. ;
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; l took root with the introduciton of the drug trade in the region in the late 1970s to early 1980s. DTOs in Colombia and Brazil qualify as informal institutions based on structural composition, stability, behavioral control, and social cohesion. Sustainability in the Colombian case study is attributed to the DTOs' capacity to learn and adapt to U.S. and Colombian efforts while capitalizing on policy failures. Sustainability in the Brazilian case study is attributed to the DTOs' capacity to become entrenched in favela (poor urban) zones. Analysis of the case studies reveals divergent paths and characteristics of DTOs. In particular, internal warfare coupled with an emphasis on illicit drug production in Colombia has led DTOs to focus on the control of rural land. In Brazil, meanwhile, the absence of internal conflict an the emphasis on illicit distribution (retail) in Brazil has resulted in the DTOs focusing on controlling points of sale and internal, informal governance within the favela zones.; US Navy (USN) author

Social networks and institutions in transnational labor markets : the circular migration of Chinese and Indian engineers and professionals

Qin, Fei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 161 p.
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This dissertation examines the mechanisms of the circular migration of Chinese and Indian engineers and technology entrepreneurs. The study is based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative data - including a survey of alumni from one of the Indian Institutes of Technology, a survey of Chinese engineers in Boston, and in-depth interviews. The study first looks into the post-migration settlement process of in the host countries and identifies significant changes in migrants' social networks at different stages of their careers. The study also examines the social processes that affect the decisions of migrant engineers to return to their home countries and their experience as returnees. In contrast to the conventional wisdom that often views the migration of highly skilled workers as highly individualized, the study finds that return migration is not a lonely journey. It is very often a group process instead of an individual process. Migrants establish various types of social ties and institutions during the migration and settlement process. They also draw heavily upon these networks and institutions when they return to their home countries. Another key finding is that return migration is often associated with entrepreneurship. Returnees from overseas have a higher propensity to start their own businesses than either non-migrants or migrants who stay abroad. This pattern reflects the interaction between the opportunity structures in the home countries and migrants' individual characteristics. A mixture of opportunities and constraints that exist in China and India often leads engineers into entrepreneurship when they return. By starting their own business...

On proprietary disclosures of investment institutions

Ko, K. Jeremy (Kwangmin Jeremy), 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 74 p.; 5410215 bytes; 5409971 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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We analyze issues related to proprietary disclosures by specialized investment institutions such as hedge funds to their trading counterparties and creditors. In this paper, disclosure can be costly because of the potential for exploitation through competitive trade or "front-running". In chapter 1, we consider a model with a direct revelation mechanism between leveraged investors and their lenders. In this model, the investors need to borrow from lenders with heterogeneous risk-exposures in order to trade. Investors may obtain advantageous terms of borrowing by disclosing their investment strategy, thereby revealing its correlation to the lender's existing risk-exposure. Investors risk being "front-run" by their lender if they disclose, however. We show that in the presence of front-running, the "unraveling" result of full disclosure may not hold. Mandating disclosure has ambiguous welfare effects since it can not only lead to the matching of uncorrelated risks, but also to concentrations of risk. These results have implications for regulations on leveraged investors in financial markets. In chapter 2, we consider an indirect revelation made by an arbitrageur (e.g., hedge fund) to trading counterparties through traded securities. In this model...

Educación física y protección a la infancia en la I Restauración (1875-1931). Regulaciones laborales e instituciones complementarias escolares

Galera, Antonio D.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Entre 1875 y 1931 se adoptaron en España una serie de regulaciones administrativas cuya finalidad conjunta era la de proteger la salud y la integridad física y moral de los menores de edad de origen humilde, tanto en el ámbito laboral, al que podían acceder desde los 10 años cumplidos, como en el ámbito familiar o social; muchas de estas regulaciones se concretaron en organizaciones y actividades de apoyo escolar, pues era en la Escuela donde los maestros observaban graves deficiencias carenciales de los escolares que afectaban a su asistencia y aprovechamiento. Muchas de estas organizaciones y actividades, que se denominaron genéricamente “instituciones complementarias” de la Escuela, tenían en la educación física y en la actividad corporal sus ejes de intervención preferente, cuando no exclusiva; Between 1875 and 1931 a series of administrative regulations were issued in Spain whose combined aim was to protect the health and the physical and moral wellfare of poor children, so much in working field, where they could access since 10 years, as in family or social ones; a lot of these regulations resulted in organizations and activities of school support, as it was in school where teachers observed severe handicaps in pupils that affected their attendance and improvement. Many of these organizations and activities...

The quality of political institutions within a member state can influence the extent to which citizens perceive the EU as being democratic

Desmet, Pieterjan; de Vreese, Claes
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/10/2012 Português
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Opinions on the EU’s democratic performance vary widely across the 27 member states. While citizens in some states are highly critical of the EU’s institutions, others view them much more positively. Pieterjan Desmet and Claes de Vreese argue that public opinion toward the EU’s institutions can be shaped significantly by the quality of national political institutions within a member state. In those states with well regarded political institutions, the EU is likely to seem less democratic than it does to citizens living in a state with lower quality institutions.

Moving beyond ‘institutions matter’: some reflections on how the ‘rules of the game’ evolve and change

Srivastava, Manoj
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2004 Português
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This paper is a modest attempt to engage with the theories and debates on institutions, (especially on institutional change) offered by the different traditions working within the institutionalist perspective, to assess how helpful they are in unravelling the complex set of issues and questions raised above. I discuss four particularly relevant dimensions of an institutionalist perspective, in order to unbundle the concept of institutions and institutional change, as expressed through the abstract ideas of the structure and the dynamics of 'rules of the game'. In the first section, I briefly discuss the first three issues, which are: (a) multiplicity and multi-layering of institutions; (b) institutional arrangement; and (c) institutional appropriateness. In the following section, the issue of institutional change is examined in some detail. Three broad traditions or strands of the institutionalist perspective, namely, (i) Rational Choice Institutionalism, (ii) Historical Institutionalism, and (c) Sociological Institutionalism, are explored here, to understand how strategic actions, conflicts around asymmetrical power structure in polity and society, and engagements with the cultural systems of meaning that pervade all aspects of life and society - respectively the key themes or the conceptual constructs of these traditions - help us to understand better why 'rules of the game' evolve and change. The reflections draw attention to the fact that...

Institutions and endowments: state credibility, fiscal institutions and divergence, Argentina and Australia, c.1880-1980

Mitchell, Andrew Hunter
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2006 Português
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The thesis compares Argentine and Australian fiscal systems from the late nineteenth to the late twentieth centuries. It uses institutionalist and endowments approaches to evaluate the importance of state credibility and taxation on long run economic development. After rapid convergence in the early twentieth century, Argentina and Australia clearly diverged in the latter twentieth century. Divergence emanated from different institutional experiences, which ultimately originated from dissimilar experiences of state credibility. State credibility is the extent to which society trusts the state to act in its interests. Fiscal institutions are a clear and comparable measure of state credibility over time as they frankly express underlying political economy. As Argentina and Australia were once similarly successful settler economies with comparable geographic prospects for development, the comparison promises to transcend geographically deterministic explanations for development. Geography primarily consists of factor endowments and location. In fact Argentina was better placed to succeed in geographic terms than Australia. Yet Australia, not Argentina, secured the status of a developed country. Australia and Argentina exemplify the relative insignificance of geography in shaping development. Divergence resulted from a failure of Argentine institutions to generate sufficient space for negotiation and compromise...