Página 1 dos resultados de 1052 itens digitais encontrados em 0.010 segundos

Episodic and semantic memory in children with mesial temporal sclerosis

RZEZAK, Patricia; GUIMARAES, Catarina; FUENTES, Daniel; GUERREIRO, Marilisa M.; VALENTE, Kette Dualibi Ramos
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
The aim of this study was to analyze semantic and episodic memory deficits in children with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and their correlation with clinical epilepsy variables. For this purpose, 19 consecutive children and adolescents with MTS (8 to 16 years old) were evaluated and their performance on five episodic memory tests (short- and long-term memory and learning) and four semantic memory tests was compared with that of 28 healthy volunteers. Patients performed worse on tests of immediate and delayed verbal episodic memory, visual episodic memory, verbal and visual learning, mental scanning for semantic clues, object naming, word definition, and repetition of sentences. Clinical variables such as early age at seizure onset, severity of epilepsy, and polytherapy impaired distinct types of memory. These data confirm that children with MTS have episodic memory deficits and add new information on semantic memory. The data also demonstrate that clinical variables contribute differently to episodic and semantic memory performance. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; FAPESP[03/06025-3]; FAPESP[05/03489-4]

Semantic memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippociampal sclerosis

MESSAS, Cristiane Stravino; MANSUR, Leticia Lessa; CASTRO, Luiz Henrique Martins
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
Episodic memory impairment is a well-recognized feature of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Semantic memory has received much less attention in this patient population. In this study, semantic memory aspects (word-picture matching, word definition, confrontation and responsive naming, and word list generation) in 19 patients with left and right temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) were compared with those of normal controls. Patients with LMTS showed impaired performance in word definition (compared to controls and RMTS) and in responsive naming (compared to controls). RMTS and LMTS patients performed worse than controls in word-picture matching. Both patients with left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy performed worse than controls in word list generation and in confrontation naming tests. Attentional-executive dysfunction may have contributed to these deficits. We conclude that patients with left and right NITS display impaired aspects of semantic knowledge. A better understanding of semantic processing difficulties in these patients will provide better insight into the difficulties with activities of daily living in this patient population. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

A estrutura da memória de trabalho visual: evidências baseadas no efeito do ruído visual dinâmico; The structure of visual working memory: evidences based on dynamic visual noise effect.

Vasques, Rafael
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
O modelo de memória visuoespacial de Logie integra de forma coerente uma grande quantidade de dados experimentais, contudo tem dificuldades em explicar os efeitos de informações visuais irrelevantes, tal como o Ruído Visual Dinâmico (RVD). O RVD interfere em memórias criadas a partir de imagens mentais, mas tem efeito menos consistente nas tarefas de memória visual. Uma das suposições para a ausência do efeito do RVD em tarefas de memória visual é que os estímulos visuais são codificados inicialmente, por um curto intervalo de tempo, em uma memória visual pré-semântica e, em seguida, armazenados em uma memória semântica mais estável, não acessível à informação visual irrelevante. Neste estudo avaliamos o efeito do RVD sobre o desempenho em tarefas de memória com estímulos com diferentes níveis de nomeabilidade. Nossa suposição era que estímulos mais facilmente nomeáveis seriam mais rapidamente codificados em termos semânticos, e portanto ficariam menos tempo expostos aos efeitos do RVD. Matrizes do Visual Patterns Test, classificadas em função da nomeabilidade, foram utilizadas como estímulos em tarefas de memória de reconhecimento (Exp. 1), de recordação (Exp. 2) e de recordação baseada em dicas verbais (Exp.3). O efeito do RVD foi contrastado com o efeito de um Ruído Visual Estático (RVE) no Exp. 1 e com uma situação sem ruído nos Exp. 2 e 3. A carga de memória...

Episodic and semantic memory in children with mesial temporal sclerosis

RZEZAK, Patricia; GUIMARAES, Catarina; FUENTES, Daniel; GUERREIRO, Marilisa M.; VALENTE, Kette Dualibi Ramos
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
The aim of this study was to analyze semantic and episodic memory deficits in children with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and their correlation with clinical epilepsy variables. For this purpose, 19 consecutive children and adolescents with MTS (8 to 16 years old) were evaluated and their performance on five episodic memory tests (short- and long-term memory and learning) and four semantic memory tests was compared with that of 28 healthy volunteers. Patients performed worse on tests of immediate and delayed verbal episodic memory, visual episodic memory, verbal and visual learning, mental scanning for semantic clues, object naming, word definition, and repetition of sentences. Clinical variables such as early age at seizure onset, severity of epilepsy, and polytherapy impaired distinct types of memory. These data confirm that children with MTS have episodic memory deficits and add new information on semantic memory. The data also demonstrate that clinical variables contribute differently to episodic and semantic memory performance. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

Autobiographical and semantic memory of adolescent drug users

Oliveira,Christian César Candido de; Scheuer,Claudia Inês; Scivoletto,Sandra
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders in infancy and adolescence may impair the access to the memory of facts and events occurred during these periods. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the autobiographical and semantic memory of a group of adolescent drug users and a control group of adolescent non-users. METHODS: Twenty-five males participated in each group between 13 and 17 years old. Two questionnaires were applied: Kihlstrom e Schacter (1995) for semantic memory and Borrini et al. (1989) for autobiographical memory. RESULTS: The group of drug users had more difficulties in accessing autobiographical memory (p = 0.0205) and semantic memory (p = 0.0057). CONCLUSIONS: Some hypotheses might be raised: users presented cognitive complications that make difficult the access to long-term memories, as well as others related to the dynamics of drug use.

The Underlying Mechanisms of Semantic Memory Loss in Alzheimer’s Disease and Semantic Dementia

Rogers, Sean L.; Friedman, Rhonda B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and patients with Semantic Dementia (SD) both exhibit deficits on explicit tasks of semantic memory such as picture naming and category fluency. These deficits have been attributed to a degradation of the stored semantic network. An alternative explanation attributes the semantic deficit in AD to an impaired ability to consciously retrieve items from the semantic network. The present study used an implicit lexical-decision priming task to examine the integrity of the underlying semantic network in AD and SD patients matched for degree of impairment on explicit semantic memory tasks. The AD (n=11) and SD (n=11) patient groups were matched for age, education, level of dementia and impairment on four explicit semantic memory tasks. Healthy elderly participants (n=22) were matched for age and education. Semantic priming effects were evaluated for three types of semantic relationships (attributes, category coordinates, and category superordinates) and compared to lexical associative priming. Healthy controls showed significant priming across all conditions. In contrast, AD patients showed normal superordinate priming, and significant (although somewhat reduced) coordinate priming, but no attribute priming. SD patients showed no priming effect for any semantic relationship. All groups showed significant associative priming. The results indicate that SD patients do indeed have substantial degradation of semantic memory...

Semantic memory and verbal working memory correlates of N400 to subordinate homographs

Salisbury, Dean F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
N400 is an event-related brain potential that indexes operations in semantic memory conceptual space, whether elicited by language or some other representation (e.g., drawings). Language models typically propose three stages: lexical access or orthographic- and phonological-level analysis; lexical selection or word-level meaning and associate activation; and lexical integration, sentence- and discourse-level operations. The exact stage that N400 reflects is unknown, although opinion favors lexical integration over lexical selection. Surprisingly, little research has assessed relationships between measures of semantic memory fund of information or verbal working memory capacity and N400. Subjects performed a homograph disambiguation comprehension task with minimal working memory load. Short sentences read: The noun was adjective/verb. The nouns were either homographs or unambiguous. The adjective/verb was disambiguating for the homograph, and congruent or incongruent for the unambiguous noun. The primary noun of interest was the subordinate homograph. Comprehension of the subordinate meaning should correlate with semantic memory stores, reflecting greater knowledge. If N400 primarily reflects lexical access operations, it should also correlate with measures of semantic knowledge. If N400 reflects lexical integration...

The Construction of Semantic Memory: Grammar-Based Representations Learned from Relational Episodic Information

Battaglia, Francesco P.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization...

Semantic memory is impaired in patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobe resection for temporal lobe epilepsy

Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Ehsan, Sheeba; Baker, Gus A.; Rogers, Timothy T.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
Contemporary clinical and basic neuroscience studies have increasingly implicated the anterior temporal lobe regions, bilaterally, in the formation of coherent concepts. Mounting convergent evidence for the importance of the anterior temporal lobe in semantic memory is found in patients with bilateral anterior temporal lobe damage (e.g. semantic dementia), functional neuroimaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation studies. If this proposal is correct, then one might expect patients with anterior temporal lobe resection for long-standing temporal lobe epilepsy to be semantically impaired. Such patients, however, do not present clinically with striking comprehension deficits but with amnesia and variable anomia, leading some to conclude that semantic memory is intact in resection for temporal lobe epilepsy and thus casting doubt over the conclusions drawn from semantic dementia and linked basic neuroscience studies. Whilst there is a considerable neuropsychological literature on temporal lobe epilepsy, few studies have probed semantic memory directly, with mixed results, and none have undertaken the same type of systematic investigation of semantic processing that has been conducted with other patient groups. In this study...

The Pivotal Role of Semantic Memory in Remembering the Past and Imagining the Future

Irish, Muireann; Piguet, Olivier
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
Episodic memory refers to a complex and multifaceted process which enables the retrieval of richly detailed evocative memories from the past. In contrast, semantic memory is conceptualized as the retrieval of general conceptual knowledge divested of a specific spatiotemporal context. The neural substrates of the episodic and semantic memory systems have been dissociated in healthy individuals during functional imaging studies, and in clinical cohorts, leading to the prevailing view that episodic and semantic memory represent functionally distinct systems subtended by discrete neurobiological substrates. Importantly, however, converging evidence focusing on widespread neural networks now points to significant overlap between those regions essential for retrieval of autobiographical memories, episodic learning, and semantic processing. Here we review recent advances in episodic memory research focusing on neurodegenerative populations which has proved revelatory for our understanding of the complex interplay between episodic and semantic memory. Whereas episodic memory research has traditionally focused on retrieval of autobiographical events from the past, we also include evidence from the recent paradigm shift in which episodic memory is viewed as an adaptive and constructive process which facilitates the imagining of possible events in the future. We examine the available evidence which converges to highlight the pivotal role of semantic memory in providing schemas and meaning whether one is engaged in autobiographical retrieval for the past...

The Role of Sleep Spindles and Slow-Wave Activity in Integrating New Information in Semantic Memory

Tamminen, Jakke; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Lewis, Penelope A.
Fonte: Society for Neuroscience Publicador: Society for Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
Assimilating new information into existing knowledge is a fundamental part of consolidating new memories and allowing them to guide behavior optimally and is vital for conceptual knowledge (semantic memory), which is accrued over many years. Sleep is important for memory consolidation, but its impact upon assimilation of new information into existing semantic knowledge has received minimal examination. Here, we examined the integration process by training human participants on novel words with meanings that fell into densely or sparsely populated areas of semantic memory in two separate sessions. Overnight sleep was polysomnographically monitored after each training session and recall was tested immediately after training, after a night of sleep, and 1 week later. Results showed that participants learned equal numbers of both word types, thus equating amount and difficulty of learning across the conditions. Measures of word recognition speed showed a disadvantage for novel words in dense semantic neighborhoods, presumably due to interference from many semantically related concepts, suggesting that the novel words had been successfully integrated into semantic memory. Most critically, semantic neighborhood density influenced sleep architecture...

An fMRI comparison between younger and older adults of neural activity associated with recognition of familiar melodies

Sikka, Ritu
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
We investigated age-related differences in neural activation associated with recognition of familiar melodies, a process that requires retrieval from musical semantic memory and leads to a feeling of familiarity. We used sparse sampling fMRI to determine the neural correlates of melody processing and familiarity by comparing activation when listening to melodies versus signal-correlated noise, and to familiar versus unfamiliar melodies, respectively. Overall, activity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus correlated well with melody processing. Familiarity was associated with several frontal regions (bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, and precentral gyrus; left insular cortex), right superior temporal gyrus; left supramarginal gyrus and cingulate gyrus; bilateral putamen and thalamus; cerebellum and brainstem. No significant differences were found between younger and older adults for either melody processing or familiarity based activation. Assessment of familiarity-related group differences using less stringent criteria identified plausible areas; greater activation was seen bilaterally in the superior temporal gyrus in younger adults and in some left parietal regions in older adults. This study adds to the knowledge of musical semantic memory with results based on a large sample (N = 40) that includes older adults. Our findings for activation associated with melody processing and familiarity support some...

Les bases cognitives et cérébrales du traitement sémantique des personnes célèbres : étude chez le jeune adulte et la personne âgée saine, atteinte de TCL, ou de dépression.

Brunet, Julie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
Les connaissances que nous avons sur les personnes familières et célèbres représentent un des grands domaines de la mémoire sémantique. Elles ont une valeur sociale importante puisqu'elles nous permettent de reconnaître et d'identifier les personnes que nous connaissons et de les distinguer de personnes que nous ne connaissons pas. La présente thèse comporte deux volets : le premier volet porte sur l’étude des substrats cérébraux du traitement sémantique sur les personnes célèbres chez le jeune adulte, alors que le deuxième volet porte sur l’étude des connaissances sémantiques sur les personnes célèbres chez la personne âgée sans troubles cognitifs, atteinte d’un Trouble cognitif léger de type amnésique (TCLa), d’un Trouble cognitif léger de type amnésique avec symptômes dépressifs (TCLa-D) ou de dépression tardive. Plus précisément, ce dernier volet étudie la relation entre les troubles sémantiques et la présence de symptômes dépressifs. Le premier volet a donc pour objectif d’explorer en imagerie par résonance magnétique fonctionnelle (IRMf) les substrats cérébraux sous-tendant le traitement sémantique de visages célèbres comparé au traitement perceptif (Article 1). Le rôle des régions temporales postérieures (occipito-temporales) dans le traitement perceptif des visages est aujourd’hui bien établi. Les lobes temporaux antérieurs (LTA) semblent avoir un rôle particulièrement important dans l’identification des visages familiers et connus...

The Relation Between Depressive Symptoms and Semantic Memory in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and in Late-Life Depression

Hudon, Carol; Macoir, Joël; Belleville, Sylvie; Rousseau, François; Bouchard, Rémi W.; Verret, Louis; Chertkow, Howard; Chayer, Céline; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Joubert, Sven
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
Semantic deficits have been documented in the prodromal phase of Alzheimer’s disease, but it is unclear whether these deficits are associated with non-cognitive manifestations. For instance, recent evidence indicates that cognitive deficits in elders with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are modulated by concomitant depressive symptoms. The purposes of this study were to (i) investigate if semantic memory impairment in aMCI is modulated according to the presence (aMCI-D group) or absence (aMCI group) of depressive symptoms, and (ii) compare semantic memory performance of aMCI and aMCI-D groups to that of patients with late-life depression (LLD). Seventeen aMCI, 16 aMCI-D, 15 LLD, and 26 healthy control participants were administered a semantic questionnaire assessing famous person knowledge. Results showed that performance of aMCI-D patients was impaired compared to the control and LLD groups. However, in the aMCI group performance was comparable to that of all other groups. Overall, these findings suggest that semantic deficits in aMCI are somewhat associated with the presence of concomitant depressive symptoms. However, depression alone cannot account solely for the semantic deficits since LLD patients showed no semantic memory impairment in this study. Future studies should aim at clarifying the association between depression and semantic deficits in older adults meeting aMCI criteria.; Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada (IRSC) IAO-84674

Memoria lexico-semantica no comprometimento cognitivo leve amnestico e doença de Alzheimer leve : aspectos neuropsicologicos, de neuroimagem estrutural e modelo de organização cerebral; Lexical semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer´s disease : neuropsychological and neuroimaging aspects and model of cerebral organization

Marcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/11/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
A organização cerebral da memória léxico-semântica, assim como suas alterações em pacientes com doença de Alzheimer (DA) leve e Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve amnéstico (CCLa) não são completamente conhecidas. Neste estudo, avaliamos o desempenho de pacientes com DA leve, CCLa e idosos normais em testes léxico-semânticos como o Teste de Nomeação de Boston (TNB), Teste de Similaridades do CAMCOG e Fluência Verbal (FV) para categoria animais, além de outros domínios cognitivos. Aprofundamos o estudo do desempenho dos pacientes no TNB avaliando: 1) se houve benefício com o uso de pistas semânticas e fonêmicas, após erros espontâneos de nomeação e 2) o padrão de erros de nomeação espontâneos (classificados como semânticos, fonológicos, por omissão e por paragnosia visual); e subclassificando os erros semânticos de forma hierárquica (erros superordenados, coordenados e circunlóquios). Avaliamos também os padrões de atrofia cerebral desses pacientes em relação a controles por meio de métodos de neuroimagem estrutural por Ressonância Magnética: volumetria hipocampal e Morfometria Baseada em Voxels (RM-MBV). Ainda, correlacionamos o desempenho dos pacientes no Teste de Aprendizado Auditivo Verbal de Rey (TAAVR) com o volume hipocampal e o padrão de erros espontâneos gerais e semânticos no TNB com a densidade de substância cinzenta em todo o cérebro por RM-MBV. Os pacientes com CCLa tiveram desempenho inferior aos controles no teste de FV para animais...

Lexical semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease

Balthazar,Marcio L.F.; Martinelli,José E.; Cendes,Fernando; Damasceno,Benito P.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
OBJECTIVE: To study lexical semantic memory in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal controls. METHOD: Fifteen mild AD, 15 aMCI, and 15 normal control subjects were included. Diagnosis of AD was based on DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and that of aMCI, on the criteria of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment, using CDR 0.5 for aMCI and CDR 1 for mild AD. All subjects underwent semantic memory tests (Boston Naming-BNT, CAMCOG Similarities item), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), neuropsychological tests (counterproofs), and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Data analysis used Mann-Whitney test for intergroup comparisons and Pearson's coefficient for correlations between memory tests and counterproofs (statistical significance level was p<0.05). RESULTS: aMCI patients were similar to controls on BNT and Similarities, but worse on MMSE and RAVLT. Mild AD patients scored significantly worse than aMCI and controls on all tests. CONCLUSION: aMCI impairs episodic memory but tends to spare lexical semantic system, which can be affected in the early phase of AD.

Contribution from neuropsychology to the study of semantic memory; Contribución desde la neuropsicología al estudio de la memoria semántica

Vivas, Leticia; García García, Ricardo
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/01/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
Semantic memory has been studied from various fields. The first models emerged from cognitive psychology from the hand of the division proposed by Tulving between semantic and episodic memory. Over the past thirty years there have been parallel developments in the fields of psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology and cognitive neuropsychology. The present work is to review the contributions that have emerged within the neuropsychology to the study of semantic memory and to present an updated overview of the points of consensus. First, it is defined the term "semantics" conceptually within the field of neuropsychology. Then, there is a dichotomy that passes through both psychological and neuropsychological models on semantic memory: the existence of modals versus amodal representations. Third, there are  developed the main theoretical models in neuropsychology that emerged in an attempt to explain categoryspecific semantic deficits. Finally, more robust contributions and points that still generate some discussion are reviewed.; La memoria semántica ha sido estudiada desde diversos campos. Los primeros modelos surgieron desde la psicología cognitiva de la mano de la división propuesta por Tulving entre memoria semántica y episódica. En los últimos treinta años se han producido desarrollos en paralelo en los campos de la psicolingüística...

A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory

Denhière, Guy; Lemaire, Benoît; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/05/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is described, which is composed of subcorpora corresponding to various ages. This stratified corpus is intended as a basis for developmental studies. Finally, two applications of these models of semantic memory are presented: the first one aims at tracing the development of semantic similarities paragraph by paragraph; the second one describes an implementation of a model of text comprehension derived from the Construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1988, 1998) and based on such models of semantic memory.

Neural changes associated with semantic processing in healthy aging despite intact behavioral performance

Lacombe, Jacinthe; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Grimault, Stephan; Pineault, Jessica; Joubert, Sven
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
Semantic memory recruits an extensive neural network including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC) and the left temporoparietal region, which are involved in semantic control processes, as well as the anterior temporal lobe region (ATL) which is considered to be involved in processing semantic information at a central level. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal integrity of the semantic network in normal aging. Young and older healthy adults carried out a semantic judgment task while their cortical activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite equivalent behavioral performance, young adults activated the left IPC to a greater extent than older adults, while the latter group recruited the temporoparietal region bilaterally and the left ATL to a greater extent than younger adults. Results indicate that significant neuronal changes occur in normal aging, mainly in regions underlying semantic control processes, despite an apparent stability in performance at the behavioral level.

Memória autobiográfica e semântica em adolescentes usuários de drogas; Autobiographical and semantic memory of adolescent drug users

Oliveira, Christian César Candido de; Scheuer, Claudia Inês; Scivoletto, Sandra
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
CONTEXTO: Transtornos psiquiátricos na infância e adolescência podem prejudicar o acesso às memórias de fatos e eventos ocorridos durante esse período. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as memórias autobiográfica e semântica de adolescentes usuários e não usuários de drogas. MÉTODOS: Participaram de cada grupo 25 adolescentes do gênero masculino, com idades entre 13 e 17 anos. Dois questionários foram aplicados: Kihlstrom e Schacter (1995), que avalia a memória semântica e Borrini et al. (1989), que avalia a memória autobiográfica. RESULTADOS: O grupo de usuários de drogas apresentou maior dificuldade para acessar as memórias autobiográfica (p = 0,0205) e semântica (p = 0,0057). CONCLUSÕES: Algumas hipóteses podem ser levantadas: usuários apresentam complicações cognitivas que dificultam o acesso às memórias de longo prazo, e também outras causas relacionadas à dinâmica do uso de drogas.; BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders in infancy and adolescence may impair the access to the memory of facts and events occurred during these periods. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the autobiographical and semantic memory of a group of adolescent drug users and a control group of adolescent non-users. METHODS: Twenty-five males participated in each group between 13 and 17 years old. Two questionnaires were applied: Kihlstrom e Schacter (1995) for semantic memory and Borrini et al. (1989) for autobiographical memory. RESULTS: The group of drug users had more difficulties in accessing autobiographical memory (p = 0.0205) and semantic memory (p = 0.0057). CONCLUSIONS: Some hypotheses might be raised: users presented cognitive complications that make difficult the access to long-term memories...