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Waves generated by two or more ships in a channel

Do Nascimento, Maria Francisca; Neves, Claudio F.; De Freitas MacIel, Geraldo
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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36.82%
The numerical model FUNWAVE+Ship simulates the generation and propagation of ship waves to shore, including phenomena such as refraction, diffraction, currents and breaking of waves. The interaction of two wave trains, generated by ships moving either in the same direction at different speeds or in opposite directions, is studied. Focus is given to the wave orbital velocities and to the free surface pattern.

A review of outbreaks of waterborne disease associated with ships: evidence for risk management.

Rooney, Roisin M.; Bartram, Jamie K.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Suraj, Rohini; Todd, Ewen C. D.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 Português
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OBJECTIVE: The organization of water supply to and on ships differs considerably from that of water supply on land. Risks of contamination can arise from source water at the port or during loading, storage, or distribution on the ship. The purpose of this article is to review documented outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with passenger, cargo, fishing, and naval ships to identify contributing factors so that similar outbreaks can be prevented in the future. METHODS: The authors reviewed 21 reported outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and remedial action are presented. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with passenger ships and that more than 6,400 people were affected. Waterborne outbreaks due to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, noroviruses, Salmonella spp, Shigella sp, Cryptosporidium sp, and Giardia lamblia occurred on ships. Enterotoxigenic E. coli was the pathogen most frequently associated with outbreaks. One outbreak of chemical water poisoning also occurred on a ship. Risk factors included contaminated port water, inadequate treatment...

A review of outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships: evidence for risk management.

Rooney, Roisin M.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Bartram, Jamie K.; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Benembarek, Peter K.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 Português
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OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on setting guidelines for ship sanitation. METHODS: The authors reviewed data on 50 outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and food vehicles were collected. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with cruise ships and that almost 10,000 people were affected. Salmonella spp were most frequently associated with outbreaks. Foodborne outbreaks due to enterotoxigenic E. coli spp, Shigella spp, noroviruses (formally called Norwalk-like viruses), Vibrio spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora sp, and Trichinella sp also occurred on ships. Factors associated with the outbreaks reviewed include inadequate temperature control, infected food handlers, contaminated raw ingredients, cross-contamination...

SHIPS: Spectral Hierarchical Clustering for the Inference of Population Structure in Genetic Studies

Bouaziz, Matthieu; Paccard, Caroline; Guedj, Mickael; Ambroise, Christophe
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/10/2012 Português
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Inferring the structure of populations has many applications for genetic research. In addition to providing information for evolutionary studies, it can be used to account for the bias induced by population stratification in association studies. To this end, many algorithms have been proposed to cluster individuals into genetically homogeneous sub-populations. The parametric algorithms, such as Structure, are very popular but their underlying complexity and their high computational cost led to the development of faster parametric alternatives such as Admixture. Alternatives to these methods are the non-parametric approaches. Among this category, AWclust has proven efficient but fails to properly identify population structure for complex datasets. We present in this article a new clustering algorithm called Spectral Hierarchical clustering for the Inference of Population Structure (SHIPS), based on a divisive hierarchical clustering strategy, allowing a progressive investigation of population structure. This method takes genetic data as input to cluster individuals into homogeneous sub-populations and with the use of the gap statistic estimates the optimal number of such sub-populations. SHIPS was applied to a set of simulated discrete and admixed datasets and to real SNP datasets...

Royal Navy Ship Collection, 1784-1816

Cameron, Chantal
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Outros
Português
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Includes 41 copies of plans of Royal Navy ships, ranging in date from 1784 to 1816. Some of the ships included are the Bonne Citoyenne, Niagara, Epervier, Comet, Contest, Ferret, Childers, Anacreon, Florida, Hind, Hermes, Psyche, Princess Charlotte, Contest, Prince Regent, Caroline, Thetis, Statira, Forte, Pelican, Crescent, Euryalus, Chesapeake, Acasta, Banterer, Leda, Endymion, Amphion, President, Tonnant, Ramillies, Boyne, and St. Lawrence. Many of these ships were used by the British during the War of 1812. The original plans are at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, London. Also included is a copy of a handwritten chart with the number and size of the British and United States Squadrons on Lake Ontario, March 1814 (during the War of 1812). This includes the number and caliber of long guns and carronades, as well as the weight of metal, for different ships. British ships include the Prince Regent, Princess Charlotte, Wolfe, Royal George, Melville, Moira, Sir Sidney Smith, and Beresford. American ships include the [General] Pike, Madison, Oneida, Sylph, Gen’l Tompkins[?], Conquest, Fair American, Ontario, Pert, Asp, and Lady of the Lake. Also included is a copy of a map titled “Track of the Action”, tracking the movements of the HMS Java and the USS Constitution...

Scheduling ammunition loading and unloading for U.S. Navy ships in San Diego

Billings, Roger L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; Tomahawk cruise missiles (TCM) cost over one million dollars and are in short supply. U.S. Navy ships require TCM and other conventional ammunition be loaded in appropriate amounts prior to deploying to sea. A typical deployment lasts for six months and, when completed, any remaining ammunition must be unloaded and made ready for other deploying ships. For ships under Commander, Naval Surface Force U.S. Pacific Fleet (SURFPAC), about 3,500 tons of ammunition must be loaded and unloaded annually; this currently costs 14 million dollars for just pilots, tugboats and fuel. This thesis formulates and solves an integer linear program, Surface Navy Scheduler (SNSKED), to prescribe an ammunition load and unload schedule for San Diego homeported ships. SNSKED seeks a schedule with minimized costs subject to constraints on ships availability, port capabilities and support assets. We test SNSKED on a realistic quarterly scenario consisting of 19 combatant ships, three weapons stations, two ammunition ships, five mission types, two ammunition types, and three ways of loading ammunition. SNSKED provides optimal schedules that reduce costs by over 16 percent. We also use SNSKED to evaluate different operational policies...

Evaluation of fleet ownership versus global allocation of ships in the Combat Logistics Force

Doyle, David E.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Military Sealift Command (MSC) introduced its new Dry Cargo and Ammunition Ship (T-AKE) in June 2006, to replace its retiring ammunition and fast combat stores supply ships. MSC seeks new ways to use T-AKEs, fleet replenishment oilers, and fast combat support ships to better support the U.S. Navy. We evaluate two alternate ways to manage these ships, one where each ship operates under a particular "fleet ownership," and another where these ships are "globally allocated," serving any fleet customer as needed worldwide. We introduce an optimization-based scheduling tool, and use it to evaluate an expository 181-day peacetime scenario. We track daily inventories of 13 battle groups - carrier strike groups, expeditionary strike groups, surface strike groups, and a littoral combat ship squadron - to gain insight into how to best employ CLF ships. We determine that, in our scenario, global allocation provides significantly better service to fleet customers.

An Enterprise Model of Rising Ship Costs: Loss of Learning Due to Time between Ships and Labor Force Instability

Jessica R. Summerville; Bethia L. Cullis; Eric R. Druker; Gabriel B. Rutledge; Peter J. Braxton; Coleman, Richard L.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Relatório
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27.12%
Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program); Since the end of the Cold War, the perceived need for Navy ships has dropped, and so the shipbuilding budget has dropped. Seemingly coincidental with this budgetary pressure, and perversely aggravating the problem, ship costs began to rise steeply. We will set aside that ships have grown in weight by about three percent per year since World War II and that ever-more weapon systems are being put into them, and confine ourselves to discussions of costs rising for ships beyond the increase in 'content.' We will also set aside rises due to commodity prices and inflation and that fewer ships, divided among a fixed industrial base, reduce the base for overhead and reduce opportunity for the effects of quantity-driven learning; these effects are well understood, and yet cost growth in ships exceeds that which they explain. This paper will show two additional effects, each of which causes ship direct labor to rise in a way that has never been adequately modeled. The paper will demonstrate, via a statistically significant model, cost growth both from loss of learning due to increased time between ship starts as well as from the lessening of efficiency due to inexperienced labor caused by fluctuating demand.

Navy Acquisition via leasing: policy, politics, and polemics with the Maritime Prepositioned Ships

San Miguel, Joseph G.; Shank, John K.; Summers, Donald E.; Shank, John K.; Summers, Donald E.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: ix, 31 p.;28 cm.
Português
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36.96%
Acquisition research (Graduate School of Business & Public Policy); In recent months, leasing has been prominent in the press in connection with the Air Force's ill-fated attempt to obtain the use of Boeing re-fueling tankers without buying them. Gone from memory is the early 1980's controversial Navy leasing program of Maritime Pre-positioned Ships that had a different result. This paper presents an analysis of the various issues and parties to the very creative and innovative financing on behalf of the Navy's Military Sealift Command. Still in existence today, the 1983 contracts for thirteen TAKX ships were valued at approximately $2.6 billion. While the decision is often framed as a lease versus purchase choice, the facts indicate that the option to purchase was not seen as viable at the time. In hindsight, the TAKX leasing program was successful and cost effective, despite the whirlwind of political commentary and intrigue and the dueling quantitative analyses surrounding it. However, as an unintended (or, perhaps, intended) consequence, laws and policies have since been changed so that leasing is no longer viable for financing military assets. The case presented here considers altering existing laws and regulations to once again permit leasing of military resources.

Navy Acquisition via leasing: policy, politics, and polemics with the Maritime Prepositioned Ships

San Miguel, Joseph G.; Shank, John K.; Summers, Donald E.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: ix, 37 p.: ill.;28 cm.
Português
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36.96%
In recent months, leasing has been prominent in the press in connection with the Air Force's ill-fated attempt to obtain the use of Boeing re-fueling tankers without buying them. Gone from memory is the early 1980's controversial Navy leasing program of Maritime Pre-positioned Ships that had a different result. This paper presents an analysis of the various issues and parties to the very creative and innovative financing on behalf of the Navy's Military Sealift Command. Still in existence today, the 1983 contracts for thirteen TAKX ships were valued at approximately $2.6 billion. While the decision is often framed as a lease versus purchase choice, the facts indicate that the option to purchase was not seen as viable at the time. In hindsight, the TAKX leasing program was successful and cost effective, despite the whirlwind of political commentary and intrigue and the dueling quantitative analyses surrounding it. However, as an unintended (or, perhaps, intended) consequence, laws and policies have since been changed so that leasing is no longer viable for financing military assets. The case presented here considers altering existing laws and regulations to once again permit leasing of military resources.

Determination of cost drivers for Ship Operations (1B1B) consumable (SO) operations target accounts for Amphibious Assault ships

Sullivan, Brett M.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 79 p. ;
Português
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This thesis conducts an analysis of Amphibious Assault ships consumable ship's OPTAR disbursements for the period of 1 July 2007 to 30 April 2008. Regression analysis was used to test for a statistical relationship among total monthly disbursements by Federal Supply Group (FSG) code and various demographic information, monthly maintenance (MFOM) and training figure of merit (TFOM) scores. Monthly disbursements were aggregated by total monthly FSG investment for each ship in each month. Demographic information includes ship's homeport, Class, Fleet Response Plan (FRP) employment, age, inspection cycle and maintenance cycle. The thesis also analyzed past obligation data (by Julian dated document number) for the period of 01 October 2005 through April 2006 which included the same demographic information previously described. This portion of the analysis determined no quarterly spending cycles, but did identify large spikes in obligations at the end of each fiscal year, an expected result. Results of the analyses are that the regression analyses do not indicate a strong statistical relationship between monthly disbursements (by FSG) and demographic or figure of merit scores. Recommendation for further study include analysis of the distribution of available funds and what was purchased and analysis of ship's unfunded and phased replacement listing and end of year obligations.; US Navy (USN) author.

Robert Russell Bennett's Down to the sea in ships : a performance edition and analysis

Glaser, Kyle R.
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: D. Mus.
Português
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"Down to the Sea in Ships" should be italicized whenever possible.; Well-known for his film, television, and the Broadway stage works, Robert Russell Bennett was also a prolific composer for the wind band medium. One of his last large-scale works for band, Down to the Sea in Ships, was released by Warner Brothers Publications in 1969. The work is a five-movement suite drawn from the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) production Project 20, a television documentary series that aired from 1954 to 1973, for which Bennett supplied the musical score. The original set included a condensed score and parts with numerous errors and is currently out of print. The primary purpose of this project is to create a critical edition of Bennett’s Down to the Sea in Ships that includes a new full score and a set of parts free of errors and ambiguous or conflicting information. An anticipated benefit of this new edition will be the reintroduction of Down to the Sea in Ships into the repertoire of concert bands, and a renewed interest in the music of Robert Russell Bennett.

Ships of church and state in the sixteenth-century reformation and counterreformation : setting sail for the modern state

LEIBFRIED, Stephan; WINTER, Wolfgang
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Outros Formato: application/pdf
Português
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The lecture was delivered on 21 March 2012; Depictions of ships of church and state have a long-standing religious and political tradition. Noah’s Ark or the Barque of St. Peter represent the community of the saved and redeemed. However, since Plato at least, the ship also symbolizes the Greek polis and later the Roman Empire. From the fourth century 'the Constantinian era' on, these traditions merged. Christianity was made the state religion. Over the course of a millennium, church and state united in a religiously homogeneous, yet not always harmonious, Corpus Christianum. In the sixteenth century, the Reformation led to disenchantment with the sacred character of both church and state as mediators indispensible for religious and secular salvation. The alleged immediate relation of the individual to God led to a diverging of state and church in a long and conflictual process. Depictions of ships became of a denominational character. They mirrored conflicts over religious domination, the relationship between state and church and key dogmas. They strove to reassure the viewer of his allegiance to the respective faith and confessional state; at the same time, they tried to mobilise against the other denomination and its confessional state. Confessionalization therefore generated new (not always harmonious) religiously charged states and corresponding ships of (state-)churches. We found several on the Protestant side...

Les navires vikings : conception géométrique et architecture traditionnelle au Moyen Âge scandinave.

Lafrenière Archambault, Luce
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Selon l’image reçue des Vikings, ce peuple incarne l'esprit d’une immense solidarité primitive ayant su résister rudement au joug du christianisme et à la domination du Latin en Europe occidentale. Cette image n’est pas sans ses contradictions et, s’il est vrai que l’écriture était encore inconnue en Scandinavie durant les premiers siècles de l’expansion viking, on sait maintenant que le commerce et la colonisation, autant que les célèbres raids, motivèrent l’irruption des peuples scandinaves sur la scène médiévale. Quant aux navires de ces marchands, colonisateurs, pêcheurs et guerriers, ils apparaissent, un peu à l’image des Vikings eux-mêmes, sur le grand tableau de l’histoire nautique sous l’enseigne d’une originalité et d’une technicité sans parallèle. Comment les Vikings construisaient-ils leurs navires, en leur donnant une symétrie, un équilibre et une finesse si achevés? Les premiers ethnologues qui se sont intéressés à cette question ont privilégié les idées issues d'une tradition acquise par des générations de constructeurs, et d'astuces simples pour équilibrer tribord et bâbord. Puis, ils se sont rapidement tournés vers les techniques inhérentes à la construction à clin : utilisation de planches fendues et non sciées et de rivets abondants témoignant d’une sidérurgie acquise depuis peu. Le problème que présentent ces navires...

LHA(R): Amphibious Assault Ships For The 21st Century

Bebermeyer, Robert; Galanis, Konstantinos; Price, Shelly
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 2767137 bytes; application/pdf
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Amphibious assault ships such as the current LHA and LHD classes are an essential element of the country's ability to exert influence anywhere in the world. The current amphibious assault ships represent the most capable amphibious ships in the world. The LHA 1 class ships are aging, however, with most reaching the end of their expected service lives between 2011 and 2015. It is not feasible to extend the service life of the LHA 1 class due to the rapid technological advances that have taken place during their lifetime. Most have already used their entire growth margin in areas such as combat systems and topside weights. The evolving combat systems and aircraft requirements will only exacerbate these matters. The best solution is to replace the LHA. As the US faces a future with uncertain threats, it is necessary to field a flexible force. In order to make the amphibious forces flexible, selective offload capability must be considered. This allows Marines to access the equipment and vehicles they need for any given operation at any time. A second change that adds a great deal of flexibility is the addition of more ships. Currently, an Amphibious Ready Group (ARG) consists of three ships, an LHA or LHD, an LSD, and an LPD. Replacing the LHA with two ships has several advantages...

Acoustic signature of two Spanish oceanographic ships

Santiago Páez, José Salvador; Carbó, Rafael
Fonte: Sociedad Española de Acústica Publicador: Sociedad Española de Acústica
Tipo: Comunicación de congreso Formato: 150768 bytes; application/pdf
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5 pages, 4 figures.-- PACS nr.: 43.-- Communication presented at: Forum Acusticum Sevilla 2002 (Sevilla, Spain, 16-20 Sep 2002), comprising: 3rd European Congress on Acoustics; XXXIII Spanish Congress on Acoustics (TecniAcústica 2002); European and Japanese Symposium on Acoustics; 3rd Iberian Congress on Acoustics.-- Special issue of the journal Revista de Acústica, Vol. XXXIII, year 2002.; The acoustic signature of an oceanographic ship that could be used to improve fishing techniques, detection of fish schools, etc. is an important characteristic to ameliorate the range of actuation of the ship.; Two different propulsion techniques used in the ships Cornide de Saavedra (two diesel engines, variable propeller) and Vizconde de Eza (diesel-electric engines, fixed pitch propeller) are measured and compared as regard noise radiated to the water, and the acoustic signatures of both ships are determined according to ICES recommendations.; Peer reviewed

H.M. Ships 'Alert' and 'Discovery'

Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Imagem Formato: glass lantern slide, hand coloured; width:83mm height:83mm
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View of two sailing ships 'Discovery' and 'Alert' under sail.

Two ships (poss. Alert and Discovery) sailing through ice berg

Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Imagem Formato: glass lantern slide, hand coloured; width:83mm height:83mm
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Seascape with stylised depiction of icebergs, walrus and sea birds in foreground. Two sailing ships, probably 'Alert' and 'Discovery', in background.

Emissions from Ships with respect to Their Effects on Clouds

Hobbs, Peter V.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Strader, Scott R.; Hegg, Dean A.; Frick, Glendon M.; Hoppel, William A.; Gasparovic, Richard F.; Russell, Lynn M.; Johnson, Douglas W.; O'Dowd, Colin; Durkee, Philip A.; Nielsen, Kurt E.; Innis, Geo
Fonte: American Meteorological Society Publicador: American Meteorological Society
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/08/2000 Português
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Emissions of particles, gases, heat, and water vapor from ships are discussed with respect to their potential for changing the microstructure of marine stratiform clouds and producing the phenomenon known as "ship tracks." Airborne measurements are used to derive emission factors of SO_2 and NO from diesel-powered and steam turbine-powered ships, burning low-grade marine fuel oil (MFO); they were ~15–89 and ~2–25 g kg^(-1) of fuel burned, respectively. By contrast a steam turbine–powered ship burning high-grade navy distillate fuel had an SO_2 emission factor of ~6 g kg^(-1). Various types of ships, burning both MFO and navy distillate fuel, emitted from ~4 x 10^(15) to 2 x 10^(16) total particles per kilogram of fuel burned (~4 x 10^(15)–1.5 x 10^(16) particles per second). However, diesel-powered ships burning MFO emitted particles with a larger mode radius (~0.03–0.05 µm) and larger maximum sizes than those powered by steam turbines burning navy distillate fuel (mode radius ~0.02 µm). Consequently, if the particles have similar chemical compositions, those emitted by diesel ships burning MFO will serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at lower supersaturations (and will therefore be more likely to produce ship tracks) than the particles emitted by steam turbine ships burning distillate fuel. Since steam turbine–powered ships fueled by MFO emit particles with a mode radius similar to that of diesel-powered ships fueled by MFO...

Reducing sulfur emissions from ships

Wang, Chengfeng; Corbett, James J.; Winebrake, James
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We apply the Waterway Network Ship Traffic, Energy and Environment Model (STEEM) to evaluate cost-effectiveness of three control strategies for reducing SO2 emissions from ships calling on West Coast U.S. ports, a potential SOx Emission Control Area (SECA) under international maritime regulations. Ships carrying U.S. foreign commerce emitted ~88,000 tons of SO2 in the U.S. West Coast EEZ in 2002. Compared to regulations prescribing low-sulfur fuels, a performance-based policy can reduce 70% more SO2 with savings up to $247 million per year for the West Coast fleet. Variation among marginal costs of control for individual ships choosing between fuel-switching and aftertreatment reveals strong cost-saving potential of an economic incentive instrument. Least-cost SO2 control for 4,748 unique ships traveling in existing European or hypothetical West Coast control areas shows that SECA emissions control targets can be achieved by scrubbing exhaust gas of only one out of ten ships, and annually saves up to $154 million beyond the performance-based control policy. Spatial evaluation of ship emissions reductions shows that market-based instruments can reduce more SO2 closer to land while being more cost-effective for the fleet. Results suggest that combining performance requirements with market-based instruments can control most effectively SO2 emissions from ships.