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Química Sem Fronteiras: o desafio da energia

Rocha,Gisele Olímpio da; Andrade,Jailson Bittencourt de; Guarieiro,Aline Lefol Nani; Guarieiro,Lílian Lefol Nani; Ramos,Luiz Pereira
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.85%
Coal, natural gas and petroleum-based liquid fuels are still the most widely used energy sources in modern society. The current scenario contrasts with the foreseen shortage of petroleum that was spread out in the beginning of the XXI century, when the concept of "energy security" emerged as an urgent agenda to ensure a good balance between energy supply and demand. Much beyond protecting refineries and oil ducts from terrorist attacks, these issues soon developed to a portfolio of measures related to process sustainability, involving at least three fundamental dimensions: (a) the need for technological breakthroughs to improve energy production worldwide; (b) the improvement of energy efficiency in all sectors of modern society; and (c) the increase of the social perception that education is a key-word towards a better use of our energy resources. Together with these technological, economic or social issues, "energy security" is also strongly influenced by environmental issues involving greenhouse gas emissions, loss of biodiversity in environmentally sensitive areas, pollution and poor solid waste management. For these and other reasons, the implementation of more sustainable practices in our currently available industrial facilities and the search for alternative energy sources that could partly replace the fossil fuels became a major priority throughout the world. Regarding fossil fuels...

Análise de Sustentabilidade em Projetos de Instalações de Produção de Petróleo

Pacheco, José Marcos Leite
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
A proposal for a global analysis of sustainability in projects related in oil facilities is presented. By considering economic, environmental and social aspects in the early stages of design, the suggested method is more comprehensive and can be used to complement the analysis commonly applied in the petroleum industry, such as: Study of Technical and Economic Feasibility; Environmental Impact Assessment and Risk Analysis. Several authors, associations, certification bodies and oil companies suggest different approaches to study sustainability in some specific activities (or industries). In this study, a checklist of significant sustainability aspects for the oil industry (surface facilities) was assembled. In addition, a matrix was developed to assess the sustainability items relevant to these projects. In this work, the checklist interacts with the matrix to perform a "Preliminary Analysis of Sustainability of the Enterprise" (APSE). This method allows the identification of aspects that contribute significantly to global sustainability. From this analysis, which includes economic, social and environmental aspects, is built a report that is used to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the impact of the sustainability aspects of the project. In this analysis are identified items that strongly influence the economic...

Reducing the Footprint of Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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25.85%
Reducing the footprint of growth requires a focus on three key issues: a) transforming urban areas into greener, more efficient, resilient, and socially inclusive cities, better able to capture the economic benefits associated with urbanization; b) ensuring sound management of the brown environmental agenda to provide the conditions for continued sustainable economic green growth while preventing and minimizing negative impacts and risks for human health and the environment; and c) promoting energy efficiency in housing, transport, urban infrastructure, and waste management to enhance the sustainability and competitiveness of the Mexican economy.

Results-Based Financing for Municipal Solid Waste

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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25.91%
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is a crucial service provided by cities around the world, but is often inefficient and underperforming in developing countries. This report provides eight examples of RBF designs, each tailored to the specific context and needs of the solid waste sector in the specific city or country. These projects are currently in various stages of preparation or implementation; hence, lessons can be inferred only in terms of how solid waste projects can be developed using RBF principles. The eight examples could be classified into three main categories: (a) RBF to improve solid waste service delivery and fee collection: in Nepal and the West Bank, the projects use RBF subsidies to improve the financial sustainability of MSW services by increasing user fee collection while simultaneously improving waste collection services; (b) RBF to promote recycling and source separation: in the cases of China, Indonesia, and Malaysia, an incentive payment model is used to improve source separation and collection of waste through changes in behavior at the household level; and (c) RBF to strengthen waste collection and transport in under-served communities: in Mali and Tanzania...

Enhancing Environmental and Social Sustainability of Mining in Armenia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Mining/Oil and Gas
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
This paper aims to inform Armenia's policy dialogue on environmental and social issues in the mining sector. The paper is based on the premise that for the mining sector to have positive, long-term impacts in Armenia, it is necessary to take into consideration the short- and long-term environmental and social impacts of the sector and to promote strategic planning and efficient management of natural resources. The mining sector in Armenia has yet to adopt global best practices in this sector, and this paper aims to provide guidance on some of the mechanisms that can be adopted to improve the governance and overall impact of mining in the country. The document is structured as follows: chapter one presents an introduction to this thematic paper. Chapter two provides an overview of the mining sector in Armenia, including its underpinning institutional and regulatory framework. It also singles out policy gaps and regulatory inconsistencies that need to be addressed. Chapter three presents some useful lessons of the application of Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment (SESA) as a tool for sustainable planning of mining development in the country. This chapter also compares uses of an SESA versus Environmental Impact Assessments and defines the need and use of Cumulative Impact Assessment (CIA). Chapter four describes the principles of valuation of natural capital as a means to complement traditional cost-benefit analysis and comparisons of development alternatives in the decision-making process. Chapter five looks at the design and implementation of benefit-sharing mechanisms to ensure that the mining activities lead to positive social impacts across the country. Chapter six looks at the process of determining and dealing with the social costs of mining in Armenia. Chapter seven provides a series of conclusions and recommendations as well as implementation challenges that will summarize the application of such recommendations in present-day Armenia and its mining sector.

Environmental optimization of the public space of cities Action on urban pavements and elements to support sustainable mobility

Fernández Mendoza, Joan Manuel
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.86%
El planeamiento urbano empieza a estar fuertemente focalizado en la provisión de redes adecuadas de infraestructuras que estimulen el desarrollo de una movilidad sostenible. Sin embargo, la integración de criterios ambientales en el diseño y gestión de las infraestructuras necesarias para el sustento de la movilidad urbana es mínima. Teniendo en cuenta la enorme extensión y la creciente inversión global en el despliegue de nuevas infraestructuras urbanas para el sustento de la movilidad sostenible, la carga ambiental aportada al espacio público de las ciudades puede ser significativa. Esta tesis doctoral se centra en la caracterización del comportamiento ambiental del ciclo de vida de diseños convencionales de aceras de hormigón, asfalto y granito e instalaciones para la recarga de vehículos eléctricos de dos ruedas. Las aceras son pavimentos urbanos básicos implementados para el sustento de la actividad peatonal y ciclista como los modos de movilidad urbana más limpios. A su vez, las aceras son la matriz sobre la cual se distribuye un abanico diverso de elementos urbanos relacionados con el soporte de la movilidad sostenible. Las instalaciones para la recarga de vehículos eléctricos son un elemento urbano que se está implementando masivamente en las ciudades para promover la electrificación del parque de vehículos urbanos como una estrategia prometedora para reducir significativamente el consumo de petróleo y las emisiones contaminantes de la movilidad motorizada. A través de la aplicación de la metodología de Análisis del Ciclo de Vida se identifican los diseños ambientalmente más óptimos para reducir la carga ambiental aportada al espacio público y contribuir a incrementar el valor ambiental de promover la movilidad sostenible en las ciudades. Asimismo...