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Asthma management and asthma control in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Uppsala, Sweden: a questionnaire-based comparison

SKORUP, Paul; RIZZO, Luiz Vicente; MACHADO-BOMAN, Lavinia; JANSON, Christer
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Global Initiative Against Asthma (GINA) was developed to meet the global challenge of asthma. GINA has been adopted in most countries and comparison of asthma management in different parts of the world may be of help when assessing the global dissemination of the guideline. The overall goals in GINA include that asthma patients should be free of symptoms, acute asthma attacks and activity limitations. The aim of the present study was to compare asthma management and asthma control in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Uppsala, Sweden. Information was collected from asthmatics in Sao Paulo and Uppsala with a questionnaire. The questionnaire dealt with the following issues: symptoms, smoking, self-management, hospital visits, effect on school/work and medication. The Sao Paulo patients were more likely to have uncontrolled asthma (36% vs 13%, P < 0.001), having made emergency room visits (57% vs 29%, P < 0.001) and having lost days at school or work because of their asthma (46% vs 28%, P = 0.03) than the asthmatics from Uppsala. There were no difference in the use of inhaled corticosteroids, but the Brazilian patients were more likely to be using theophylline (18% vs 1%, P = 0.001) and less likely to be using long-acting beta-2 agonists (18% vs 37%...

The Modern State and the Re-Creation of the Indigenous Other: The Case of the Authentic Sámi in Sweden and the White Man’s Indian in the United States of America.

Zini, Luca
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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The present study comparatively examined the socio-political and economic transformation of the indigenous Sámi in Sweden and the Indian American in the United States of America occurring first as a consequence of colonization and later as a product of interaction with the modern territorial and industrial state, from approximately 1500 to 1900. The first colonial encounters of the Europeans with these autochthonous populations ultimately created an imagery of the exotic Other and of the noble savage. Despite these disparaging representations, the cross-cultural settings in which these interactions took place also produced the hybrid communities and syncretic life that allowed levels of cultural accommodation, autonomous space, and indigenous agency to emerge. By the nineteenth century, however, the modern territorial and industrial state rearranges the dynamics and reaches of power across a redefined territorial sovereign space, consequently, remapping belongingness and identity. In this context, the status of indigenous peoples, as in the case of Sámi and of Indian Americans, began to change at par with industrialization and with modernity. At this point in time, indigenous populations became a hindrance to be dealt with the legal re-codification of Indigenousness into a vacuumed limbo of disenfranchisement. It is...

Planning for holistic sustainability: a study of the ’process’ in Kerala (India) and Sweden.

Sharma, Vigya
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Numerous attempts have been undertaken to deliver a common understanding of the concept of sustainability. Most of these attempts however, have remained contested and ineffective. Weak conceptualisation has also affected the process of operationalisation of sustainability. This thesis addresses the above issues by firstly, interpreting sustainability and its underlying principles from a perspective that draws together social, economic, environmental, cultural, and institutional conditions and cross-linkages. Secondly, and more importantly, the research focuses on ‘how’ to operationalise sustainability across different regions. In doing so, the research acknowledges the significance of planning pathways in the process of achieving sustainability. The research has been conducted using two case studies that critically examine the effectiveness of contemporary sustainability planning processes in Kerala (India) and Sweden. A total of 42 in-depth interviews, three focus group discussions and several participant observations have contributed to primary data collection for the two case studies. The research has developed a set of ‘substantive’ and ‘process’ criteria based on which planning efficacy in Kerala and Sweden has been evaluated. By focusing on the ‘how’ and ‘why’ rather than the ‘what’ aspects of the sustainability problematique...

Contribution of main causes of death to social inequalities in mortality in the whole population of Scania, Sweden

Rosvall, M.; Chaix, B.; Lynch, J.; Lindstrom, M.; Merlo, J.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Background: To more efficiently reduce social inequalities in mortality, it is important to establish which causes of death contribute the most to socioeconomic mortality differentials. Few studies have investigated which diseases contribute to existing socioeconomic mortality differences in specific age groups and none were in samples of the whole population, where selection bias is minimized. The aim of the present study was to determine which causes of death contribute the most to social inequalities in mortality in each age group in the whole population of Scania, Sweden. Methods: Data from LOMAS (Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis in Skåne) were used to estimate 12-year follow-up mortality rates across levels of socioeconomic position (SEP) and workforce participation in 975,938 men and women aged 0 to 80 years, during 1991–2002. Results: The results generally showed increasing absolute mortality differences between those holding manual and non-manual occupations with increasing age, while there were inverted u-shaped associations when using relative inequality measures. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) contributed to 52% of the male socioeconomic difference in overall mortality, cancer to 18%, external causes to 4% and psychiatric disorders to 3%. The corresponding contributions in women were 55%...

Is it commodification, de-commodification, familialism or de-familialization? Parental leave in Sweden and Finland; Ist es Kommodifizierung, De-Kommodifizierung, Familiarismus oder De-Familiarisierung? Erziehungsurlaub in Schweden und Finnland

Schleutker, Elina
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Report (Bericht)
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The aim of this paper is to discuss four central concepts of welfare state policy, (commodification, de-commodification, familialization, de-familialization) in the context of parental leave policies in two social democratic welfare states, Sweden and Finland. One could claim that the parental leave in these countries is including all of the four elements, but could mostly be characterized by commodification, de-commodification and de-familialization of the mothers. Sweden with its more generous parental leave (both when it comes to the amount of the days and the compensation) is being more de-commodifying and de-familializing than Finland. Despite the critique towards these Esping-Andersen´s concepts, they can be said to be more clarifying than confusing when discussing parental leave in Sweden and Finland, while the dimensions of the parental leave in these two countries seem to be complex and cannot be captured with only one concept.; Diese Arbeit behandelt vier zentrale Konzepte der Wohlfahrtsstaatspolitik (commodification, de-commodification, familialization, de-familialization) vor dem Hintergrund der Politiken des Eltern-/Erziehungsurlaubes in Schweden und Finnland, zwei sozialdemikratischen Wohlfahrtsstaaten. Man könnte sagen...

Changing security policy in Finland and Sweden

POLVI-LOHIKOSKI, Johanna
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
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Defence date: 22 September 2003; Examining board: Dr. Pauli Järvenpää (Ministry of Defence, Finland) ; Prof. Rutger Lindahl (University of Göteborg, Sweden) ; Prof. Helen Wallace (EUI) ; Prof. Jan Zielonka (EUI - Supervisor)

Bridging Politics and Science: The Concept of Social Engineering in Sweden and the USA, Circa 1890-1950

MARKLUND, Carl
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
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This dissertation aims to problematize the historical concept of “social engineering.” In historiography, social engineering is usually understood as the application of scientific theory to political and social practice. As such, it is thought to have characterized much of early 20th century expansion of public interest and state responsibility into previously non-politicized areas of private life, especially when deceptive and/or technological in nature. It has also been seen as an expression of mechanistic “modernity” and “technocracy.” Through a comparative and conceptual histoire croisée of social engineering this dissertation studies how this concept was “spoken” in Sweden and the USA circa 1890-1950. The comparison shows that social engineering rhetoric emphasized the role of human agency and voluntarism in social change, rather than social laws or mechanistic determinism. As such, it highlighted the “constructed” character of the social and opened up the reach of the political. While it did indeed make an analytical separation between science and politics (in the interest of “efficiency” and “objectivity” of science) it also sought to bridge this very gap functionally (in the interest of the “justice” and “representativity” of politics). Rather than a technocratic attempt at moving against...

Adapting the welfare state : privatisation in health care in Denmark, England and Sweden

OLESEN, Jeppe Dørup
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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This dissertation deals with the following question: In the past decades some of the countries most dedicated to the universal public welfare state have privatised many of their welfare service provisions. Why is this so? The dissertation takes a close look at privatisation policies in health care in Denmark, Sweden and England in order to figure out how and why the private health care sector has expanded rapidly in recent years. Health care services in Denmark, Sweden and England provide good examples of welfare state service privatisation because these three countries have spent decades building up universal public health care systems that offer free and equal access to all citizens - and these programmes are very popular. In this dissertation I find that the most common explanations for welfare state reform fail to explain these changes: Privatisation policies are not the result of partisan politics, instead they are supported by Social Democratic / Labour parties and in some cases the unions as well. Privatisation is not the result of pressures for fiscal retrenchment; in fact, public health care funding has increased in all three countries over the past decade. Neither is privatisation the straight forward result of new right wing ideas. Certainly...

“Gypsies”, “travellers” and “peasants”: A study on ethnic boundary drawing in Finland and Sweden, c.1860-1925

TERVONEN, Miika
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
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The study concerns two minority groups, the Finnish Roma and the Swedish Travellers, and their changing relationship with the ‘peasants’ - ie. the mainstream sedentary population - in a period of economic modernization and nation-state building. Leaning on a wide array of qualitative material, the research forms an analysis of interethnic relations, with a particular focus on micro-level interaction, conflicts and boundary drawing. As a socio-historical research, it aims to broaden a topic which has conventionally been approached from political and cultural perspectives. Contrasting with an ‘isolation thesis’ implicit in much of the previous literature, the study found that the Roma and Traveller populations were in the research period tied into constant interaction with the sedentary rural population. Yet, close everyday interaction and established networks co-existed with extremely strong ethnic differentiation, upheld from both sides of the divide. This was clear in relation to those transgressing the ethnic boundary, be it through inter-ethnic matrimony, being raised as a foster children, ‘settling down’, etc. Despite constant re-adaptations, the Swedish Travellers and particularly Finnish Roma seem to have lost much of previous occupational diversity during the research period. Upheavals and social stratification in the rural society wiped out old niches and the established local positions connected to this. A process of marginalization was reinforced by local vagrancy- and social control. These followed a circular logic...

Inherited Conflicts: Spaces of contention between second-generation Turkish and Kurdish diasporas in Sweden and Germany

BASER, Bahar
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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This thesis aims to contribute to a broader understanding of spill-over of homeland conflicts the host country by diaspora groups and analyses how the repercussions of the Kurdish question in Turkey are reflected in the interactions between second-generation Turks and Kurds in Sweden and Germany. It is argued that the on-going conflict adversely affects the relationship between the two ethnic groups, but that the tensions and conflict dynamics are not an exact reflection of the situation in the homeland, and instead take a different form in each hostland. The contentions between the groups and their grievances are dependent on several factors that are rooted in the hostland and directly or indirectly affect how these groups establish contact with one another. These include: the profile of the migrants; the size of the ethnic communities; the ratio of one ethnic community to another in the hostland; the political and discursive opportunity structures in the hostland; and the relations between the homeland and the hostland. The second generation were selected as the sample group in this thesis as they offer a clearer picture of the host country impact, as well as the persistence of conflict dynamics in the diaspora spaces. The arguments that this thesis makes are based largely on field research...

Sweden after the Cold War: the implications for security policy changes for U.S. regional strategies

Skinner, Jon A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: ix, 129 p.
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; In support of US regional strategy requirements this thesis focuses on Sweden. The change in Sweden's neutrality policy, coupled with an increased defence budget, are the two most apparent developments. Less visible are changes in Swedish defence doctrine, missions and capability. This thesis will attempt to predict the degree and character of Sweden's move toward integration into broader security arrangements and identify the relevant implications. Further, this thesis contends that the two developments of that are shaping Swedish security policy in new directions are the end of the Cold War and Sweden's integration into the European Community (EC). In the short term, this implies for Sweden a security policy more closely paralleled with US objectives. In the long term what has been largely a bilateral Swedish-US strategic relationship will be engulfed in larger US-European questions. Within an integrated Europe, Sweden will be in a grouping of European states the most favorable to US policy.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Leaving Dock Trelleburg, Sweden; Image 107 of 338

Fonte: Rice University Publicador: Rice University
Tipo: photographs; Image
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A river and some buildings in Trelleburg, Sweden. The photograph was taken while Edgar Odett Lovett was leaving Trelleburg. Original resource is a badly damaged black and white photograph.; In 1908, the Rice Institute Board of Trustees sent their newly chosen President, Edgar Odell Lovett, on a world tour seeking out the best aspects of the leading colleges and universities. Dr. and Mrs. Lovett traveled in the company of their secretary, Mr. Carrington Weems, who took these photos to document their travels. They are images of places, more so than people. Dr. and Mrs. Lovett themselves are generally not featured. Each image has an image number that reflects the order in which it was taken on the trip, from number 1 (beginning in Canada and going east around the world) through number 338 (returning to the U.S. through California and ending in Texas), ranging in date from 1908-1909. The names of each image were recorded by Carrington Weems, with the only exception being a county name added in parenthesis when the place name was not present in Weems' original title.

Student persistence in STEM fields: school structures and student choices in Finland, Sweden and the United States

Saari, Jennifer von Reis
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Faculty of Education; Trinity Hall Publicador: University of Cambridge; Faculty of Education; Trinity Hall
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
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The PDF version of this dissertation contains hyperlinks.; In science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, producing high level talent and increasing equity of access and engagement are prominent but sometimes conflicting policy directives. Yet, retention and persistence are important outcomes both for the production of elite talent and for promoting equity within STEM fields. This dissertation investigates the effects of policy on student persistence in Finland, Sweden and the United States. Drawing on interviews with upper-secondary school students and teachers (Finland: 26 students, 8 teachers; Sweden: 29 students and 10 teachers; United States: 19 students, 2 mentors) and surveys (Finland: 255 students, Sweden: 130 students, United States: 288 students), this study investigates the effects that different structures (including contrasting policies of stratification and differentiation, specialist magnet schools and enrichment programmes) have on students? intentions to persist in STEM fields. This study supports the theory that educational policies mediate student persistence both through structural possibility, and through the development of students? identities and non-cognitive skills. Here, non-cognitive skills (such as self-efficacy and self-concept) are considered part of an ?adaptive habitus? and a latent variable comprised of domain-specific non-cognitive skills is used in models of student persistence. The models illustrate the do- main specific interactions of educational structures...

POLICY MECHANISMS TO REDUCE CO2 EMISSIONS FROM COMMUTERS IN GÄVLE, SWEDEN

Johansson Moberg, Mikael
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 2001042 bytes; application/pdf
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In the municipality of Gävle, Sweden, the transportation sector accounts for as much as one third of total carbon emissions. The main contributors to carbon emissions in transportation are from freight and commuting traffic. This paper focuses on commuter contributions and analyzes policies aimed at reducing the emissions from this source. The analysis is made using TRESIS, a simulation model created by ITLS in Australia. The model is calibrated using data from a transportation survey from 2006 and data from Statistics Sweden, the Swedish agency of statistics. The results of this study indicate that reducing the cost of public transportation would probably initiate a shift towards the use of buses for commuters; however, this study concludes that even with a significant shift to public transportation, carbon emissions would decrease by less than 1%. Data suggests that improvement in fuel efficiency and electrification of private transportation would bring about the greatest reduction of carbon emissions.

Drumlin Formation Time: Evidence from Nothern and Central Sweden

Hattestrand, Clas; Gotz, Svea; Naslund, Jens-Ove; Fabel, Frederick; Stroeven, Arjen
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Large-scale drumlins occur abundantly throughout central and northern Sweden. Whereas many drumlins in the north are an integral part of a relict glacial landscape > 100,000 years old, those to the south are generally interpreted as of last deglaciation age. Typically, the latter ones have not been overprinted by younger glacial landforms. Despite this apparent difference in formation history, drumlins in both regions have similar directional and morphological characteristics. A systematic analysis of >3000 drumlins in (i) areas within relief landscapes, (ii) areas with an ambiguous deglaciation age assignment, and (iii) areas within deglacial landscapes, indicates that these latter deglaciation drumlins differ clearly in both shape and size from drumlins in the other two types of landscapes. In addition, numerical modelling indicates that basal melting conditions, a prerequisite for drumlin formation, prevailed only for a very limited time over much of northern Sweden during the last deglaciation, but lasted for longer periods of time during earlier stages of the Weichselian. A reconnaissance radionuclide bedrock exposure date from the crag of a large drumlin in the relict landscape indicates that glacial erosion, and presumably drumlin formation...

Mortalidade infantil nos Estados Unidos, Suécia e Estado de São Paulo; Infant mortality in the United States, Sweden and the State of S.Paulo

Laurenti, Ruy
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/1987 Português
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Data regarding infant, early neonatal, neonatal, pos-neonatal and perinatal mortality are presented for the USA, Sweden and the State of São Paulo, Brazil, for the period from 1950 to 1982. Sweden, throughout the period presents the lowest rates and the State of São Paulo the highest. The rates for the State of São Paulo can be considered very high and the data show that at the beginning of the 80's the infant mortality was similar to that observed in Sweden half a century before and the mortality under one day of life was higher than that for all the first year of life. For the three populations there is a decline in all the rates, but in Sweden and the USA, although presenting the hower rates, the decline is more pronounced.; São apresentados dados de mortalidade infantil, neonatal precoce, neonatal, pós-neonatal e perinatal, para Estados Unidos e Suécia e o Estado de São Paulo em uma série temporal de 1950 a 1982. A Suécia, consistentemente, apresenta os menores coeficientes, sendo que aqueles para o Estado de São Paulo podem ser considerados ainda bastante elevados, pois no início da década de 80 apresentava uma mortalidade infantil igual a daquele país meio século antes e a mortalidade de menores de 1 dia foi maior que a mortalidade para todo o primeiro ano de vida na Suécia. Para as três populações existe declínio de todos os coeficientes...

A National Current Research Information System for Sweden

Johansson, Åke; Ottosson, Mats Ola
Fonte: euroCRIS Publicador: euroCRIS
Tipo: Conference Paper
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Presented at the CRIS2012 Conference in Prague.-- 5 pages.-- Full conference programme available at: http://www.cris2012.org/findByFilter.do?categoryId=1158; Sweden ScienceNet is a national platform continuously collecting, structuring and providing access to key information on research projects in Sweden. It is based on the desire of the ten member universities in Sweden ScienceNet to increase the visibility of their research activities and to facilitate future collaborations and enable strategic questions about the research funding to be answered. Sweden ScienceNet has from 2012 been commissioned by the Government to the Swedish Research Council to administer and further develop in collaboration with the universities. This paper outlines the reasons why Sweden ScienceNet has succeeded where previous national initiatives in Sweden have failed, but also brings up for discussion the challenges Sweden ScienceNet is facing to ensure that it stays sustainable in the future.

Adherence to treatment: what is done in Sweden?: Practice, education and research

Södergärd,Björn
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Internet) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
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Objective: The objective of this review was to identify the practice, education and research of pharmacists in Sweden in regard to adherence to treatment. Methods: Medline was searched up to the end of February 2008. In addition to the Medline search performed, other available sources were also used to identify relevant articles. Results: No adherence-specific programs have been implemented in Swedish pharmacies. No adherence-specific courses are provided in Swedish Universities educating pharmacists. The adherence-related research has so far mainly focused on refill non-adherence, primary non-adherence and patient reported non-adherence and readiness to treatment. Conclusions: Adherence-related practice and education of pharmacists will probably change due to the deregulation of the pharmacy market that will take place in the near future in Sweden. Research on adherence will need to be strengthened in the sense that it has so far not been guided by adherence-related theoretical frameworks, despite the fact that there are several theories to hand that try to explain adherence.

Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

Volmer,Daisy; Haavik,Svein; Ekedahl,Anders
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Internet) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2012 Português
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Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1) by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2) by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3) by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers. Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4) and Sweden (n=7) and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9). Results: Pharmacists´ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45%) and Sweden (0.38%). Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%), printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1%) in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9%) in Sweden. More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries). However...

Socioeconomic differences in the burden of disease in Sweden

Ljung,Rickard; Peterson,Stefan; Hallqvist,Johan; Heimerson,Inger; Diderichsen,Finn
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2005 Português
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OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyse how much of the total burden of disease in Sweden, measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), is a result of inequalities in health between socioeconomic groups. We also sought to determine how this unequal burden is distributed across different disease groups and socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Our analysis used data from the Swedish Burden of Disease Study. We studied all Swedish men and women in three age groups (15-44, 45-64, 65-84) and five major socioeconomic groups. The 18 disease and injury groups that contributed to 65% of the total burden of disease were analysed using attributable fractions and the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality. FINDINGS: About 30% of the burden of disease among women and 37% of the burden among men is a differential burden resulting from socioeconomic inequalities in health. A large part of this unequally distributed burden falls on unskilled manual workers. The largest contributors to inequalities in health for women are ischaemic heart disease, depression and neurosis, and stroke. For men, the largest contributors are ischaemic heart disease, alcohol addiction and self-inflicted injuries. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to use socioeconomic differences...