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Universal Health Coverage for Inclusive and Sustainable Development : Country Summary Report for Bangladesh

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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Bangladesh is a low-income country with gross national income of $1,940 per capita in purchasing power parity (PPP) in 2011. It has made great strides in economic and social development outcomes, particularly in health, and is on track to achieving most of the health-related Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets. Under-five mortality has been cut by half in the last decade (to 46 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2011). It has also strongly invested in and promoted family planning programs since the 1950s. Fertility rates have fallen sharply to 2.2 births per woman in 2011. But despite this drop, its population is projected to grow to 202 million by 2050 (Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat 2013). About one-third of the population is still poor. Bangladesh spends about 3.8 percent of GDP on health, while public spending accounts for one-third of total health expenditures (THE). Out-of-pocket (OOP) spending constitutes about 60 percent of THE...

Immigration to the European Union : the EU, Estonia and Malta providing access for third country nationals to the EU

ROOTS, Lehte
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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66.71%
For some time now, the EU has been regulating the field of immigration. Several years ago, immigration control was considered a pure sovereign right and it was the obligation of the state to protect its borders from unwanted immigrants. Therefore, it is interesting to show how the step by step development of European immigration control has led to common EU immigration and asylum legislation. This thesis looks at the different access possibilities for third country nationals entering the EU. It considers the different ways people immigrate to Europe, both legally and illegally. The access possibilities for family reunification, students, researchers and workers are examined. Applying for asylum is one way third country nationals can access EU member states, and will be discussed throughout the thesis. This study examines how EU immigration law is applied in two small EU Member States that joined the EU in 2004, Estonia and Malta. The aim is to evaluate whether the access of third country nationals to Europe through these member states has been simplified since joining the EU. Are the rules of access to the EU clear? What kind of problems has the implementation of EU law created for small new member states? In the course of this research...

Media Content

BENNETT, Samuel; TER WAL, Jessika; LIPINSKI, Artur; FABISZAK, Malgorzata; KRZYZANOWSKI, Michal
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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36.25%
Content and discourse analysis of media coverage about migration and migrants in European societies reveals that the representation of third country nationals (TCNs), i.e. ‘new’, first generation migrants without nationality of the EU Member States, in the 2000s is still problematic. This finding, based on a review of over 150 publications in five languages, and on 68 interviews with media professionals in six EU Member States, is shown through the predominance of negative and stereotypical portrayal, the negative themes often associated with migrants, and the lack of participation by TCNs in the definition of news and news agendas. These general findings can be differentiated for specific national contexts, media types, types of coverage, and migrant groups. The questions raised relate to selection of news themes and frames, the preferred genres for reporting or programming, the definition of news and main news actors, the sources used and quoted, the labels, the group categorisations, evaluations, news frames and discourse elements such as topoi used in media contents. These elements together are the building blocks for media portrayal of migrant groups that ultimately contribute to the perception of migrants and migrant issues in the public sphere. Besides providing a detailed analysis of relevant research findings and fieldwork...

Integration Requirements in EU Migration Law

DE VRIES, Karin
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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36.3%
In recent years, integration requirements have come to play a role in EU immigration law. Several directives – the Family Reunification Directive (2003/86), the Long-Term Residents Directive (2003/109) and the Blue Card Directive (2009/50) – allow Member States to demand third country nationals’ compliance with such requirements. A definition of integration requirements has not, however, been provided. This paper distinguishes between two functions of integration requirements: one is to equip migrants with the right skills to further their participation in society, whereas the other is to operate as a selection criterion, determining, which third country nationals are granted admission, residence or access to other rights, and who is to be excluded. An analysis of the three directives shows that the integration clauses in those directives do not all have the same function and that there is room for a more uniform and consistent concept of integration in EU immigration law. The paper also considers, on a more theoretical level, the role played by integration requirements in shaping a European concept of citizenship for third county nationals.

Inclusive Democracy in Europe

Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf; digital
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In this publication, academics, policy-makers, and representatives of civil society explore the history and nature of migrant political participation in Europe and consider policy options for remedying the democratic deficit in light of the political realities of modern Europe. The contributors provide a comprehensive discussion of inclusive democracy in the European Union, considering principles of democracy, conceptions of national and EU citizenship, and the political and institutional practicalities of national and European policy change. The first section brings together contributions from the 2011 Dissemination Conference organised by the European Union Democracy Observatory (EUDO, www.eudo.eu ) and co-funded by the European Commission (Lifelong Learning Programme, Jean Monnet action) on Inclusive Democracy in Europe. The second section of the eBook exhibits the EUDO CITIZENSHIP Forum Debate on the voting rights of second-country nationals in the European Union. Contributors to the debate examine the contradictory nature of two of the fundamental rights of EU citizenship: the right to free movement and the right to participate in the political life of one’s country of residence. Those who exercise their right to free movement sometimes forfeit their right to vote in national elections in their country of origin but are also disenfranchised in their country of residence.; -- P. 6. Foreword / Kristen Jeffers -- Section I: Conference Papers : p. 14. The Participation Of Immigrants In Political Processes And Institutions / Jan Niessen. -- P. 28. External Voting Rights And The European Polity / David Owen. -- P. 38. Immigrant Electoral Participation In The European Union: Different From Natives? / Stéfanie André. -- p. 46. The Voting Rights Of Foreign Residents In France In 2012 / Bernard Delemotte. -- p. 50. Migrants’ Political Integration In Ireland: Looking Beyond The Right To Vote In Local Elections / Fidèle Mutwarasibo. -- Section II: Forum Debate On National Voting Rights. -- p. 66. Kick-Off Contribution / Philippe Cayla And Catriona Seth. -- p. 68. Eu Citizens Should Have Voting Rights In National Elections...

The EU as a family- friendly destination? : Family reunification rights for Indian nationals in the EU and Access of family members to the Labour Market

EISELE, Katharina; HEIMANN, Carla
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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This article analyses and evaluates the family reunification schemes for Indian nationals in the EU with a focus on the three EU Member States the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark from a comparative legal perspective. First, the EU legislation governing the reunification of families is examined that is applicable to third-country nationals regardless of nationality. Second, this article investigates how the national laws of the selected three Member States are designed, in which respect they are favourable or not, and whether the legal frameworks allow family members to become part of the labour force in the host Member State. These analyses allow to draw a number of conclusions as to how “family-friendly” the EU and some of its Member States present themselves, and whether the legal schemes under review promote the objective of making the EU more attractive as destination for third-country workers, including Indian nationals.; CARIM-India: Developing a knowledge base for policymaking on India-EU migration; CARIM-India is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union

Reaching out : the external dimension of the EU’s migration policy : a comparative study on India and Australia

EISELE, Katharina; WIESBROCK, Anja
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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36.13%
This paper seeks to examine the external dimension of the EU’s migration policy by concentrating, first, on the EU’s legal framework in the area of migration followed by an analysis of the policy developments under the GAMM. In a second step, this paper depicts the EU relations with India and Australia, respectively, in terms of migration matters with a view to explore how the EU has defined its current positions towards these two third countries in form of a comparative case study. India and Australia have been selected for an analysis because the migration flows prevailing in each state vary and the level of economic development differs notably. While Australia has always been an immigration country and maintains traditional ties with the European continent, India has only recently emerged as a major country of emigration to the EU. Yet, the EU constitutes a major partner for both countries. Finally, some conclusive remarks are made on the diverging migration rules for third-country nationals from India and Australia.; CARIM-India: Developing a knowledge base for policymaking on India-EU migration; CARIM-India is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union

India-EU migration : the social security rights of Indian nationals moving to and within the European Union

VAN DER MEI, A. P. (Anne Pieter)
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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46.22%
With the intensification of the economic relationships between India and the European Union (EU) labour mobility from India to the EU is bound to increase in the forthcoming years. This mobility raises numerous questions not only as regards immigration and labour market access, but also in relation to social social security. This paper focuses on the social security status of Indian nationals moving to EU Member States for employment reasons. It presents and analyses, first, the EU’s internal social security coordination regime with a view to establishing the social security status of third country nationals, and Indian workers in particular, moving between EU Member States and, second, the external coordination applicable to Indian nationals, moving from India to individual EU Member States (Belgium and the Netherlands) for employment reasons.; CARIM-India: Developing a knowledge base for policymaking on India-EU migration; CARIM-India is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union

Reform, counter-reform and the politics of citizenship : local voting rights for third country nationals in Greece

TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Anna
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Greece has experienced significant economic immigration during the last 20 years without having been prepared for it. Greek migration management and migrant integration policies have been slow to develop and, despite rapid demographic change, native Greeks have largely retained a predominantly mono-ethnic and mono-religious view of the nation. Indeed, until recently, Greece had one of the most restrictive citizenship regimes in Europe. The situation changed in March 2010 when the socialist government passed a new citizenship law that has facilitated the access to citizenship of both first and second generation migrants. The same law also introduced local voting rights for third-country nationals that reside in Greece legally for 5 years or more. This paper discusses this new law and in particular, the issue of local voting rights in the Greek social and political context. It analyses who spearheaded the drive for change, who opposed the law and the concession of local voting rights and on what grounds. The paper reviews parliamentary debates, policy documents, data from the last local elections and the recent decision of the Greek State Council which annulled the law by deeming it unconstitutional. The analysis places developments in Greece in the context of relevant theoretical debates in the field of citizenship studies reviewing briefly the overall trends on the issue of local political participation of noncitizens in Europe.; Published online before print April 28...

Country report : integration policies in Spain

PASETTI, Francesco
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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It is only since the beginning of the XXI century, with Law 4/2000, that integration has been incorporated into political and social debates in Spain; still, the current institutional framework took place almost a decade later with Law 2/2009. This legal measure introduced a framework of multi-level governance of migration based on cooperation among central administration institutions, local governments and civil society. The integration model established by Spanish policymakers presents itself as diversified and responsive to the different dimensions related to integration. The main focus is on the areas of reception, education and employment, with employment representing the destination of most financial allocations. The main political tool is represented by the Strategic Plan for Citizenship and Integration (PECI), whose action is complemented by other measures addressing specific immigrant communities. The PECI proved to be a fruitful tool for integration and social cohesion, especially taking into account the context of the economic crisis and the intense growth of migration inflow that characterized this period of implementation.; INTERACT - Researching Third Country Nationals? Integration as a Three-way Process - Immigrants...

Integration policy and activities in Poland

STEFANSKA, Renata
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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66.34%
This report aims to present integration activities undertaken by state and non-state institutional actors at the national and local level in Poland. Up to now, the issue of immigrant integration in Poland has been neither a social nor a political problem, which can be explained in particular by the fact that foreigners constitute only a small portion of Polish society. A lack of interest in immigration by the wider public fosters the elaboration of integration-related policy in a more technocratic way, without pressure from politicians and the media. Despite the adoption of the strategic document “Poland’s Migration Policy – Current State of Play and Further Actions” by the Polish government in 2012 (supplemented by the action plan approved in 2014), Poland’s integration policy may still be regarded as not well-considered or developed. It is based largely on integration activities carried out by NGOs and is highly dependent on the availability of EU funds. Without this external funding, the majority of integration projects in Poland targeted at third country nationals, especially those not under international protection, could not be implemented.; INTERACT - Researching Third Country Nationals’ Integration as a Three-way Process - Immigrants...

Pretending there is no union : non-derivative quasi-citizenship rights of third-country nationals in the EU

KOCHENOV, Dimitry; VAN DEN BRINK, Martijn
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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The enjoyment of some rights by third-country nationals in the EU is not dependent on the primary beneficiary of rights (be it a person or a company), thereby connecting the third-country nationals with the law of the Union directly, without any proxy Moreover, in essence some of such rights are remarkably similar to the rights that EU citizens enjoy. Such directly enjoyable quasi-EU citizenship rights and their holders – many a category of third country nationals – constitute the key focus of this contribution, which aspires to walk through all the main statuses of third country nationals in the EU enjoying direct – as opposed to derivative – quasi-citizenship rights in the Union. Concluding such overview three significant interrelated problems with the way how third country nationals are treated in the EU are outlined: EU migration regulation assumes the denial of the legal political reality of the Union; 1. EU migration regulation bars rationality from being taken into account when third country 2.nationals’ rights are at stake; EU migration regulation sends a problematic signal that the goals and principles of the Union 3.can be consistently ignored. We argue that such treatment of the legal-political reality of the European integration project is most unhelpful and has to be changed.

Exploratory cross-national survey of origin and destination migrant organisations

SALAMONSKA Justyna; UNTERREINER, Anne
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Recent developments in migration studies have shown how important it is to consider multiple actors, both at origin and destination, in studying migrants’ integration processes. In light of these developments, the INTERACT survey provides a new tool to research migrant integration. Its novelty lies in offering a cross-national approach to civil society organisations at both destination and origin. These organisations are taken as actors relevant for migrant integration in EU destination countries. Upon completion the survey gathered over 900 responses from organisations working predominantly (but not only) in employment, education, language and social relations. These organisations had different levels of reach, but their voices give us a better understanding of how they support migrants in their efforts to integrate in the EU. Although the exploratory character of the survey does not allow for generalisations about all civil society organisations, it sheds light on how these actors’ activities affect migrant integration between origin and destination, and how organisations perceive states of origin and their policies in the context of the day-to-day reality of migrant incorporation in the receiving society. In this methodological paper...

Libertades comunitarias y nacionales de terceros estados

S??nchez Lorenzo, Sixto A.
Fonte: Iprolex Publicador: Iprolex
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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La ???nacionalidad??? es un criterio de alcance relativo en el ??mbito de las libertades comunitarias. La nacionalidad de un Estado miembro es una condici??n indispensable en el ??mbito de la ciudadan??a europea, esto es, para el ejercicio de derechos pol??ticos o de contenido jur??dico-p??blico. Sin embargo, su relevancia es menor en el ??mbito de los derechos econ??micos. Hay diferentes factores que muestran su relativismo: En primer t??rmino, no incide en la aplicaci??n de la libre circulaci??n de mercanc??as ni de capitales, ni afecta a las normas de cooperaci??n judicial civil. En el ??mbito de las libertades personales (trabajadores y servicios) hay supuestos de extensi??n a nacionales de terceros Estados por las normas de extranjer??a: familiares de un nacional comunitario, residentes de larga duraci??n, nacionales de terceros Estados que disfrutan de un convenio de cooperaci??n con la Comunidad Europea, etc. Por otra parte, la jurisprudencia del TJCE ha reducido la exigencia de nacionalidad a la posesi??n de un pasaporte o documento de identidad, al hilo de casos de doble nacionalidad. Finalmente, aunque las libertades personales excluyen el tratamiento de las situaciones puramente internas, la ciudadan??a europea permite incluir tales situaciones cuando est?? en juego el derecho a la libre circulaci??n de personas (As. Garc??a Avello). Asimismo...

Ciudadan??a, familia y mujer inmigrante v??ctima de violencia de g??nero

Soto Moya, Mercedes
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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56.34%
La mayor sensibilizaci??n social, legal y judicial sobre la necesidad de erradicar la violencia de g??nero en el ??mbito dom??stico demanda de todas las Instituciones P??blicas una respuesta adecuada y eficaz para salvaguardar los derechos de las mujeres. Este art??culo tiene como objetivo fundamental poner de relieve la soluci??n legislativa que se ha dado a este problema en relaci??n con las mujeres nacionales de terceros Estados. Los legisladores comunitario y espa??ol han incluido preceptos relativos a la violencia de g??nero en el ??mbito dom??stico para tres grupos de mujeres: a) mujeres casadas o que son pareja registrada de nacionales comunitarios, EEE, suizos o espa??oles; b) mujeres casadas con nacionales de terceros Estados; c) mujeres que se encuentran en Espa??a, casadas o no, en situaci??n irregular. La legislaci??n que se analiza s??lo regula la situaci??n jur??dico-administrativa a la que es factible acceder si se es v??ctima de esta clase de violencia. Es decir, qu?? tipos de autorizaciones pueden concederse y qu?? posibles ???beneficios??? se pueden obtener, pero solo en el plano documental. No se estudia, por tanto, ni la respuesta penal ni la respuesta civil a la violencia de g??nero.; The major social, legal and judicial sensitization on the need to eradicate the gender-based violence demand of all the Public Institutions a suitable and effective response to safeguard the rights of the women. The principal aim of this article is to highlight the legislative solution that has been met to this problem in relation with immigrant women (third-country nationals). The Spanish and EC lawmakers have included rules relating to gender-based violence for three groups of women: a) Married women or registered partnership of citizens of the Union...

The Europeanisation of national immigration policies? : liberalising effects of EU membership in a new immigration country

MAVRODI, Georgia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Defense date: 28/05/2010; Examining Board: Andrew Geddes (University of Sheffield), Donatella Della Porta (EUI) (Supervisor), Virginie Guiraudon (CNRS) (Co-supervisor), Anna Triandafyllidou (Democritus University of Thrace); This study examines the impact of European integration in immigration issues on Greek immigration policy. Contrary to widely held claims that immigration policies in Europe become more and more restrictive - the well-known debate on 'Fortress Europe' - Greek legislation on entry, residence and rights of third-country nationals has undergone gradual liberalising developments. This paradox drove my inquiry into the factors, institutions and processes that may explain liberalising immigration policy change for a period of fifteen years (1990 - 2005). Greece, similarly to the rest of southern European 'new' immigration countries, is often charged with the implicit or explicit assumption that its recent turn into a host country for immigrants makes her receptive to the restrictive influence of EU policies on immigration. Is that so? What impact, if any, has cooperation on immigration issues at the EU level had on Greek immigration policy developments and why? What form has it taken, under what conditions, and what mechanisms have been at work? In search for answers...

The politics of immigrant integration in post-enlargement Europe migrants : co-ethnics and European citizens in Italy and Spain

BARBULESCU, Roxana
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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36.54%
Examining Board: Professor Rainer Bauböck, European University Institute (EUI Supervisor) Professor Kitty C. Calavita, University of California, Irvine Professor Andrew Geddes, University of Sheffield Professor Claire Kilpatrick, European University Institute.; Defence date: 11 June 2013; In migration studies, it is taken for granted that states do not only attempt to control overall numbers of immigrants, but also establish different regulatory regimes for refugees, labour migrants, family reunification, co-ethnics and many other categories of migrants. In studies of immigrant integration, however, most analyses have assumed that each state pursues a single and coherent national approach. The aim of this dissertation is to challenge this assumption by examining how states pursue integration differently for different categories of migrants in post-enlargement Europe. In addition to third country nationals I consider also migrants who have a special cultural and historical bond with their host countries, such as emigrants and descendants of emigrants or migrants from the former colonies (co-ethnics), as well as European Union citizens from old and new member states. The dissertation builds on empirical evidence collected from 1985 to 2012 at national...

Third country nationals and European Union law : a critical analysis of issues in European Community and European Union law regarding natural persons who are nationals of third countries and live in member states

OLIVEIRA, Alvaro Castro
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
Português
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36.16%
Defence date: 19 April 1996; Examining board: H. U. Jesserun d'Oliveira, E.U.I.-Univ. Amsterdam (supervisor) ; David O'Keeffe, U.C.L.-College of Europe, Bruges (co-supervisor) ; Brian Bercusson, E.U.I.-Manchester University (co-supervisor) ; R.M. Moura Ramos, Univ.Coimbra-EC Court of First Istance ; Francis Snyder, E.U.I.

Maintaining national culture abroad : countries of origin, culture and diaspora

GSIR, Sonia; MESCOLI, Elsa
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
Português
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46.05%
INTERACT - Researching Third Country Nationals? Integration as a Three-way Process - Immigrants, Countries of Emigration and Countries of Immigration as Actors of Integration; Within the framework of the INTERACT project, this paper aims to shed light onto a specific facet of the role of sending countries in migrants' integration processes: culture. Culture is analysed as one of the tools that both migrants and countries of origin resort to in order to maintain reciprocal ties after migration. Following a brief presentation of the anthropological and sociological definitions of culture and the consequent notion of 'cultural identity' on which the analysis builds, we study the concrete implementation of these dynamics. In particular, our attention is deployed at three levels: the level of migrants' everyday practices (including the use of the origin language); the policy level (pertaining to both diaspora and integration); and the association level (cultural centres in particular). Through the study of several transversal examples, we consider the broader issue at stake in this paper: the possible connection between migrants' performance in the culture of their country of origin and integration processes. We take into account the European legal framework within which both migrants and national governments function...

Latvia's integration policies

APSITE-BERINA, Elina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
Português
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66.59%
INTERACT - Researching Third Country Nationals’ Integration as a Three-way Process - Immigrants, Countries of Emigration and Countries of Immigration as Actors of Integration; This report contributes of the understanding of current integration processes in Latvia. Its main aim is to highlight political and public debate about integration in Latvia, which is currently a low-immigration country. The report aims to identify integration processes for third-country nationals. Besides third-country nationals residing in Latvia, there are also a number of non-residents living in the country, which creates a backdrop for integration issues. The report also aims to recognise the main third-country national groups residing in Latvia and to identify tools for integration measures as well as assessing the success of policy implementation. In addition, it aims to show the main activities that exist for third-country nationals’ integration in Latvia as well as to shed light on the mechanisms within integration processes in Latvia. As a result of EU funding, integration activities – both practical and informative – have been successfully implemented and serve as a key tools for local society to cope with third-country national integration.; INTERACT is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union.