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Road traffic casualties: understanding the night‐time death toll

Plainis, S; Murray, I J; Pallikaris, I G
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2006 Português
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25.64%
A disproportionate number of fatal injuries occur after dark. The paper presents some statistics of road traffic injuries in a novel way which suggests that low luminance plays a major role in this effect. A sound physiological explanation for this is advanced based on the poor temporal characteristics of rod photoreceptors. It is argued that processing information based on low luminance, low contrast targets is much slower than that for high contrast bright targets. To test the idea, simple visual reaction times were measured under typical low visibility conditions encountered on non‐lit roads and were found to be substantially longer than under optimal conditions. It is shown that longer reaction times translate into significantly increased stopping distances. This important point has received insufficient attention in the road safety literature, by the Highways Agency, the police, injury prevention officials, and the UK Highway Code.

Fast Traffic Sign Recognition with a Rotation Invariant Binary Pattern Based Feature

Yin, Shouyi; Ouyang, Peng; Liu, Leibo; Guo, Yike; Wei, Shaojun
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/01/2015 Português
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25.76%
Robust and fast traffic sign recognition is very important but difficult for safe driving assistance systems. This study addresses fast and robust traffic sign recognition to enhance driving safety. The proposed method includes three stages. First, a typical Hough transformation is adopted to implement coarse-grained location of the candidate regions of traffic signs. Second, a RIBP (Rotation Invariant Binary Pattern) based feature in the affine and Gaussian space is proposed to reduce the time of traffic sign detection and achieve robust traffic sign detection in terms of scale, rotation, and illumination. Third, the techniques of ANN (Artificial Neutral Network) based feature dimension reduction and classification are designed to reduce the traffic sign recognition time. Compared with the current work, the experimental results in the public datasets show that this work achieves robustness in traffic sign recognition with comparable recognition accuracy and faster processing speed, including training speed and recognition speed.

Petroleum Product Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa : Comparative Efficiency Analysis of 12 Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Petroleum products are used across the entire economy in every country. Gasoline and diesel are the primary fuels used in road transport. Oil is used in power generation, accounting for eleven percent of total electricity generated in Africa in 2007. Adequate and reliable supply of transport services and electricity in turn are essential for economic development. Households use a variety of petroleum products: kerosene is used for lighting, cooking, and heating; liquefied petroleum gas for cooking and heating; and gasoline and diesel for private vehicles as well as captive power generation. Prices users pay for these petroleum products have macroeconomic and microeconomic consequences. At the macroeconomic level, oil price levels can affect the balance of payments, gross domestic product (GDP), and, where fuel prices are subsidized, government budgets, contingent liabilities, or both. At the microeconomic level, higher oil prices lower effective household income in three ways. First, households pay more for petroleum products they consume directly. Seventy percent of Sub-Saharan Africans are not yet connected to electricity; most without access rely on kerosene for lighting. Second...

Border Crossing Monitoring along the Northern Corridor

Fitzmaurice, Mike; Hartmann, Olivier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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25.85%
Border-crossing times in East Africa have been identified as a major constraint for smooth trade flows, both for regional trade and for international transit. Delays at borders disrupt efficient trade logistics, impacting on the transport costs and prices, and ultimately on trade competitiveness. In order to improve the efficiency of border crossings in East Africa, the East Africa Community (EAC) has resolved to convert the main border crossings into a Stop Border Post (OSBP), in which all border agencies from the two sides of the border coordinate their interventions, thus reducing documentation processing time. This program is supported by several multilateral and bilateral donors as component of their assistance to regional integration in the EAC. The paper is divided into four sections. The first section provides background information on the Northern Corridor. The second section presents the conclusions that can be drawn from the survey, presented in the Northern Corridor context with the key issues that will require further discussion among stakeholders and further action. From a wider perspective...

Cambodia Trade Corridor Performance Assessment

World Bank Group
Fonte: Phnom Penh Publicador: Phnom Penh
Português
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25.79%
The study found that logistics costs are high due to transshipment costs and various forms of payments. Many of these payments are imposed by the private sector with little or no transparency on how or where the costs are incurred. International trade corridors in Cambodia therefore perform well in terms of time but not cost. However, the corridors with transshipment have higher costs than the national corridor between Phnom Penh and Sihanoukville or the river corridor to the port of Cai Mep in Vietnam. Large shippers and international firms prefer to use several sub-contractors to make logistics arrangements so they do not have to coordinate what can be fairly complex and challenging arrangements for shipments. Intermediation in logistics is largely carried out by local agencies, leading to high intermediation costs. The main reason for the high intermediation cost is the prevalence and wide acceptance of facilitation fees as inducements for fast clearance and processing. Facilitation fees, largely informal...

Environmental and Social Management System Implementation Handbook : Crop Production

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This Handbook is intended to be a practical guide to help companies in the crop production industry develop and implement an environmental and social management system, which should help to improve overall operations. If a company has existing management systems for quality or health and safety, this Handbook will help to expand them to include environmental and social performance. Sections I and II provide background on environmental and social management systems (ESMS) in the crop production industry. Section III provides step-by-step instructions on how to develop and implement an ESMS. The ESMS Toolkit and Case Studies give tools to help develop and implement the systems described in the Handbook, and presents two case studies on companies in the crop production industry that implemented ESMS.

Baltic States and Poland Trade Logistics Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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The Baltic States; Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Poland are situated along strategic trade corridors within Europe, constituting the EUs eastern border with Russia and other CIS countries. EU membership has triggered rapid economic growth for the Baltic States and Poland due to the removal of trade barriers and reduced transaction costs. A heavy influx of EU grants has targeted development and improvement of transport infrastructure, and this support will continue until 2015. The EU grants are largely used for development of international corridors, which play a key role in strengthening the competitiveness of these new member states. Since their accession to the EU in 2004, these countries enjoyed remarkable growth. While the countries underwent varying degrees of contractions in 2009, signs of recovery are showing albeit with considerable uncertainty in the future. Growth in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in recent years has been unsustainable and was driven by a disproportionate increase in the non-tradable sector (construction...

Ultrasonic sensors in urban traffic driving-aid systems

Alonso Rentería, Luciano; Milanés, Vicente; Torre Ferrero, Carlos; Godoy, Jorge; Pérez Oria, Juan María; Pedro, Teresa de
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
Português
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35.82%
Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS), Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems.

Bangladesh : Growth and Export Competitiveness

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Bangladesh's growth over the past two decades or more, in terms of developing-country standards, has been notable. Such record of progress is one guide to the country's potential to grow, and to score well in world markets. To this end, i.e., to make the most of its export opportunities on a changing international playing field, Bangladesh needs to follow a strategic game plan, invest in infrastructure, technology and skills, streamline policies, and improve quality and safety standards. This report describes actions that can untie the hands of the country's exporters, and put solid progress within their grasp. The concrete recommendations made in the report for improving export competitiveness, could serve as a critical basis for making the needed revisions in the two pivotal trade policy instruments of the Government --Import Policy Order 2003-06, and Export Policy Order 2003-06 -- in light of the current global trading environment. The report looks at the sources of competitive disadvantage, and stipulates macroeconomic stability is, and must remain the strategic foundation for all of Bangladesh's competitive prospects. On economic governance, the results of this study's breakthrough use of a powerful analytical tool -- integrated value-chain analyses (IVCA) -- pinpoint the price exacted by obstacles to export growth...

Bhutan : Transport Sector Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Landlocked Bhutan faces unique challenges, and opportunities as it pursues the development of its transport sector into the 21st century. Bhutan's population growth rate is high, rural-urban migration is accelerating, and, fueled by sustained economic growth, the country is urbanizing rapidly, giving rise to an expanding urban middle class, with rising expectations of well-paid employment, accessible services, and consumption potential. However, accessibility to a large measure depends on availability of reliable, and affordable transportation. Poor rural access is synonymous with rural isolation, and poverty, while high external and domestic transport costs constrain the country's economic and social development. Transportation poses a considerable cost disadvantage to business and commercial undertakings; road transport is slow and regularly disrupted by landslides and flooding; air transport is costly and erratic. Costly transport is a major factor constraining the development of tourism, horticultural exports...

Liberia's Infrastructure : A Continental Perspective

Foster, Vivien; Pushak, Nataliya
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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Liberia's power generating capacity and national grid were completely demolished during 14 years of civil war. Piped water access fell from 15 percent of the population in 1986 to less than 3 percent in 2008. War also left the national road network in a state of severe disrepair. Since the return of peace, the port of Monrovia has resumed normal operations under private management, and progress has been made in securing donor finance for road reconstruction. Liberia has also successfully liberalized its mobile telephone markets, with low-priced access surging to 40 percent in 2009. Liberia's starkest challenge lies in funding a more cost-effective power sector. The country's generation capacity is barely one-tenth of the benchmark level of Africa's other low-income countries. The cost of generating power is exorbitant, and the power tariff is three times the regional average. Addressing Liberia's public infrastructure needs will require sustained expenditures of between $350 million and $600 million annually...

Green Logistics : Enablers for Sustainable Development

Fransoo, Jan C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note
Português
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Logistics is the backbone of industry and commerce. As a discipline, it describes the management and coordination of activities along supply chains. These activities include freight transport, storage, inventory management, materials handling and related information processing. A large part of logistics activities are often outsourced to specialized providers that provide cost-effective services. Research has shown that, at least in high income economies, the value of services is not assessed in monetary and service quality terms alone. In making decisions, logistics professionals are increasingly taking into consideration external effects such as emissions, pollution, noise, and accidents. 'Green logistics' may not be an independent policy area. Rather, the supply chain perspective provides a framework to understand and deal with issues that are separate but ultimately interrelated. Importantly, looking at supply chains helps policy makers understand the interests and actions of private sector operators. 'Green logistics' may therefore propose a number of tools and identify emerging sustainable solutions contributing to the overarching objective of 'green growth.'

Sudan’s Infrastructure : A Continental Perspective

Ranganathan, Rupa; Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia M.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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15.75%
Improvements in infrastructure across Sudan in recent years have contributed 1.7 percentage points to the country's per capita growth. Consistent with trends in other countries, the ICT revolution that swept Africa contributed more than any other sector to growth in Sudan. Raising the infrastructure endowment of all parts of Sudan to that of the region's best performer -- Mauritius -- could boost annual growth by about 3.5 percentage points. Sudan has heavily invested in infrastructure in recent years. Notable achievements include tripling power-generation capacity, liberalizing the ICT sector, and connecting to an undersea fiber-optic cable. Looking ahead, Sudan's most pressing infrastructure challenges lie in the water and transport sectors. In the water sector, the country needs to dramatically improve access to safe sources of water and sanitation while improving utility efficiency. In the transport sector the country needs to vastly expand rural and international connectivity and improve quality across the network. Sudan presently spends about $1.5 billion per year on infrastructure...

Senegal's Infrastructure : A Continental Perspective

Torres, Clemencia; Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia M.; Dominguez, Carolina
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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Infrastructure contributed 1 percentage point to Senegal's improved per capita growth performance between 2000 and 2005, placing it in the middle of the distribution among West African countries. Raising the country's infrastructure endowment to that of the region's middle-income countries (MICs) could boost annual growth by about 2.7 percentage points. Senegal has made significant progress in some areas of its infrastructure, including the transport, electricity, water, and information-and-communication-technology (ICT) sectors. But looking ahead, the country faces important infrastructure challenges, including improving road conditions, boosting air and rail traffic, updating electricity infrastructure, and boosting the pace of expansion of the water-and-sanitation network. Senegal currently spends around $911 million per year on infrastructure, with $312 million lost annually to inefficiencies. Comparing spending needs with existing spending and potential efficiency gains leaves an annual funding gap of $578 million per year. Senegal has the potential close this gap by bringing in more private-sector investment.

Petroleum Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa : Analysis and Assessment of 12 Countries

Kojima, Masami; Matthews, William; Sexsmith, Fred
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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25.7%
This regional study takes twelve oil-importing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and asks the following two questions: does each stage in the supply chain, from import of crude oil or refined products to retail, seem to be efficiently run and are the efficiency gains passed on to end-users? And if not, what are the potential causes and possible means of remedying the problems? The study focuses on Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal in West Africa and Botswana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda in East and Southern Africa, covering a wide range of conditions that affect price levels, such as the market size, geography (whether landlocked or coastal), existence of domestic refineries, degree of sector liberalization including pricing, and level of economic development.

East Africa's Infrastructure : A Regional Perspective

Ranganathan, Rupa; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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Sound infrastructure is critical for growth in East Africa. During 1995-2005, improvements in infrastructure boosted growth by one percentage point per year, due largely to wider access to information and communication technologies (ICTs). Although power infrastructure sapped growth in other regions of Africa, it contributed 0.2 percentage points per year growth in East Africa. If East Africa's infrastructure could be improved to the level of the strongest performing country in Africa (Mauritius), regional growth performance would be boosted by some six percentage points, with power making the strongest contribution. East Africa's infrastructure ranks behind that of southern and western Africa across a range of indicators, though in terms of access to improved sources of water and sanitation and Internet density, it is comparable with or superior to the subcontinent s leader, southern Africa. By contrast, density of fixed-line telephones, power generation capacity, and access to electricity remain extremely low...

ECCAS's Infrastructure : A Regional Perspective

Ranganathan, Rupa; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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Sound infrastructure is fundamental for growth across the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). During 1995-2005, improvements in infrastructure boosted growth in Central Africa by 1 percentage point per capita annually, primarily due to the introduction and expansion of mobile telephony. Improved roads also made a small contribution. Conversely, inadequate power deterred growth to a greater degree than elsewhere in Africa. ECCAS must address a complex set of challenges. Economic activity takes place in isolated pockets separated by vast distances. Two countries are landlocked and dependent on regional corridors; seven countries have populations of under 10 million; and eight have economies that are smaller than $10 billion/year. This difficult economic geography demands a regional approach to developing infrastructure. Yet Central Africa's infrastructure has the poorest performance record in all of Africa on most aggregate indicators. Transportation is slow and the most expensive in Sub-Saharan Africa...

ECOWAS's Infrastructure : A Regional Perspective

Ranganathan, Rupa; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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35.94%
Infrastructure improvements boosted growth in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) by one percentage point per capita per year during 1995-2005, primarily thanks to growth in information and communication technology. Deficient power infrastructure held growth back by 0.1 percent. Raising the region's infrastructure to the level of Mauritius could boost growth by 5 percentage points. Overall, infrastructure in the 15 ECOWAS countries ranks consistently behind southern Africa across many indicators. However, there is parity in access to household services -- water, sanitation, and power. ECOWAS has a well-developed regional road network, though sea corridors and ports need attention. Surface transport is expensive and slow, owing to cartelization, restrictive regulations, and delays. There is no regional rail network. Air transport has improved despite the lack of a strong hub-and-spoke structure. Safety remains a concern. Electrical power, the most expensive and least reliable in Africa...

Del videojuego a la realidad : sistema interactivo para la seguridad vial

Orozco, Ana María; Baeza Valencia, David Felipe; Navarro Cadavid, Andrés; Llano, Gonzalo
Fonte: Universidad Icesi; Facultad de Ingeniería Publicador: Universidad Icesi; Facultad de Ingeniería
Tipo: article; Artículo Formato: PDF; p.37-50; Electrónico
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El vertiginoso crecimiento de los centros urbanos, las tecnologías emergentes y la demanda de nuevos servicios por parte de la población plantea encaminar esfuerzos hacia el desarrollo de las ciudades inteligentes. Éste concepto ha tomado fuerza entre los sectores político, económico, social, académico, ambiental y civil; de forma paralela, se han generado iniciativas que conducen hacia la integración de la infraestructura, la tecnología y los servicios para los ciudadanos. En éste contexto, una de las problemáticas con mayor impacto en la sociedad es la seguridad vial. Es necesario contar con mecanismos que disminuyan la accidentalidad, mejoren la atención a incidentes, optimicen la movilidad urbana y planeación municipal, ayuden a reducir el consumo de combustible y la emisión de gases de efecto de invernadero, así como ofrecer información dinámica y efectiva a los viajeros. En este artículo se describen dos (2) enfoques que contribuyen de manera eficiente dicho problema: los videojuegos como juegos serios y los sistemas de transporte inteligente. Ambos enfoques están encaminados a evitar colisiones y su diseño e implementación requieren componentes altamente tecnológicos (e.g. sistemas telemáticos e informáticos...

The effects of car window tinting on visual performance: A comparison of elderly and young drivers

Burns, Nicholas; Nettelbeck, Ted; White, Michael; Willson, Jacqueline
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A major concern in allowing the tinting of car front side windows to 35% visible light transmittance (VLT) is that tasks performed through these windows often require the rapid detection of low-contrast, unilluminated targets. If the tinting interferes with detection of targets then road safety may be compromized. Speed of cognitive and visual processing declines with age; performance on backward pattern masking tasks can indicate this slowing in processing speed. Two experiments compared performance of the young and elderly adult on two backward pattern masking tasks with levels of VLT from 100 to 20%. The first experiment found a decrement in performance for the elderly at 63% VLT and for all participants at 20% VLT. The second experiment found a decrement in performance for the elderly at 35% VLT. It was concluded that road safety may be compromized if the front side windows of cars are tinted to 35% VLT.