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Translating Ribosomes Inhibit Poliovirus Negative-Strand RNA Synthesis

Barton, David J.; Morasco, B. Joan; Flanegan, James B.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1999 Português
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Poliovirus has a single-stranded RNA genome of positive polarity that serves two essential functions at the start of the viral replication cycle in infected cells. First, it is translated to synthesize viral proteins and, second, it is copied by the viral polymerase to synthesize negative-strand RNA. We investigated these two reactions by using HeLa S10 in vitro translation-RNA replication reactions. Preinitiation RNA replication complexes were isolated from these reactions and then used to measure the sequential synthesis of negative- and positive-strand RNAs in the presence of different protein synthesis inhibitors. Puromycin was found to stimulate RNA replication overall. In contrast, RNA replication was inhibited by diphtheria toxin, cycloheximide, anisomycin, and ricin A chain. Dose-response experiments showed that precisely the same concentration of a specific drug was required to inhibit protein synthesis and to either stimulate or inhibit RNA replication. This suggested that the ability of these drugs to affect RNA replication was linked to their ability to alter the normal clearance of translating ribosomes from the input viral RNA. Consistent with this idea was the finding that the protein synthesis inhibitors had no measurable effect on positive-strand synthesis in normal RNA replication complexes. In marked contrast...

In Vivo Association of the Stability Control Protein αCP with Actively Translating mRNAs

Ji, Xinjun; Kong, Jian; Liebhaber, Stephen A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2003 Português
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Posttranscriptional controls play a major role in eucaryotic gene expression. These controls are mediated by sequence-specific interactions of cis-acting determinants in target mRNAs with one or more protein factors. The positioning of a subset of these mRNA-protein (RNP) complexes within the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) may allow them to remain associated with the mRNA during active translation. Robust expression of human α-globin mRNA during erythroid differentiation has been linked to formation of a binary complex between a KH-domain protein, αCP, and a 3′ UTR C-rich motif. Detection of this “α-complex” has been limited to in vitro studies, and the functional state of the α-globin mRNA targeted by αCP has not been defined. In the present study we demonstrate that a significant fraction of αCP is associated with polysomal mRNA. Targeted analysis of the polysomal RNP complexes revealed that αCP is specifically bound to actively translating α-globin mRNA. The bound αCP is restricted to the poly(C)-rich 3′ UTR motif and is dislodged when ribosomes are allowed to enter this region. These data validate the general importance of the 3′ UTR as a sheltered site for RNP complexes and support a specific model in which the stabilizing function of αCP is mediated on actively translating target mRNAs.

Twenty-five Years of Translating Service at NIH

Martin, Jess A.; Everhardy, William H.; Rogers, Phillip R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1965 Português
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The growth of the Translating Unit of the National Institutes of Health Library, founded in 1938, was slow until 1950, when seventeen translators and clerical assistants comprised its staff. Today eleven staff members translate, type, and distribute translations from eighteen European languages. Contract service is arranged for those languages for which the Unit has little or no competency. Three recent innovations have improved the translating service: (1) production standards, (2) fee for service, and (3) microfilmed translations. A monthly bulletin, Recent Translations, a Selected List, includes those articles translated by the Translating Unit of the NIH Library. An author index to all translations cited in the Selected List is now available upon request.

Real-time observation of signal recognition particle binding to actively translating ribosomes

Noriega, Thomas R; Chen, Jin; Walter, Peter; Puglisi, Joseph D
Fonte: eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd Publicador: eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/10/2014 Português
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The signal recognition particle (SRP) directs translating ribosome-nascent chain complexes (RNCs) that display a signal sequence to protein translocation channels in target membranes. All previous work on the initial step of the targeting reaction, when SRP binds to RNCs, used stalled and non-translating RNCs. This meant that an important dimension of the co-translational process remained unstudied. We apply single-molecule fluorescence measurements to observe directly and in real-time E. coli SRP binding to actively translating RNCs. We show at physiologically relevant SRP concentrations that SRP-RNC association and dissociation rates depend on nascent chain length and the exposure of a functional signal sequence outside the ribosome. Our results resolve a long-standing question: how can a limited, sub-stoichiometric pool of cellular SRP effectively distinguish RNCs displaying a signal sequence from those that are not? The answer is strikingly simple: as originally proposed, SRP only stably engages translating RNCs exposing a functional signal sequence.

A review of translating and interpreting services in Australia

Patchett, Pippa
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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The translating and interpreting industry in Australia is in a fractured state. The main players in the industry each face their own unique problems which are compounded when the industry is viewed as a whole. The Translating and Interpreting Service (TIS) is a 24 hour, 7 days a week interpreting and translating service available to Australians of Non-English speaking backgrounds (NESS) to assist them in achieving equitable access to government services. The service provided by TIS is broken into fee-free and fee-paying services dependant on who the client is and what service they which to access. Interpreting for visits to the doctor are provided free of charge, however visits to the pharmacy are not. Access to local government is free, however state and federal government agencies must pay. TIS also faces commercialisation. Providing free services to NESS Australians is expensive and so the fee-paying provisions were brought in during 1991. The result has been a business like approach to what is essentially a government obligation. Changes brought about by this new vision include the consolidation of services to Melbourne, the introduction of an Interactive Voice Response Unit and the push towards telephone interpreting over on-site interpreting. The risk of these changes is that the shaky equity and access available to NESS Australians will be trampled in the name of cost saving. NAATI...

L'oeuvre au service de la traduction : l'écriture vianesque, une invitation à la traduction créative

Cardin-Simard, Isabelle
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Stanley Chapman n’est pas un traducteur ni même un écrivain très connu. Le volume de ses écrits originaux, qui sont d’ailleurs difficiles voire impossibles à trouver, et des traductions à son actif reste mince. Peut-être serait-il même passé complètement inaperçu, sauf bien sûr chez ses compères du Collège de ’Pataphysique, de l’Oulipo et de l’Outrapo, s’il n’avait pas traduit deux romans phares de l’écrivain français Boris Vian: L’Écume des jours et L’Arrache-coeur. La prose singulière de Vian l’aurait-elle incité à passer à l’acte d’écriture qui trouve justement sa source et se déploie dans l’acte du traduire ? Par ailleurs, les affinités intellectuelles que partageaient Vian et Chapman pourraient-elles aussi être en cause dans cette expérience du traduire ? Henri Meschonnic et Antoine Berman nous informent que la critique de la traduction a le pouvoir de révéler le rapport intime entre la pensée, l’écriture et la traduction. À partir de la « poétique du traduire » de Meschonnic et de « l’analytique de la traduction » de Berman, ce mémoire interroge en quoi Heartsnatcher, la traduction anglaise de L’Arrache-coeur, peut être considérée comme un acte de « traduire-écrire ». Étayée des notions de rythme et de signifiance...

Traduzindo os progris riports de Charlie : uma experiência sobre escuta e tradução; Translating Charlie's progris riports : an experience about listening and translation

Letícia Yukari Iwasaki Kushida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/03/2013 Português
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Esta dissertação tem como objetivo refletir sobre tradução e sobre o trabalho de escuta do tradutor por meio da elaboração de uma tradução de Flowers for Algernon (1966), romance de ficção científica, escrito pelo estadunidense Daniel Keyes. Uma das hipóteses deste trabalho é a de que a escuta do outro e de si mesmo em cada língua mobiliza, de certa forma, um tipo de ética da tradução. O livro conta a história de Charlie Gordon, um homem com deficiência intelectual que se submete a um experimento científico, uma cirurgia para elevar seu quociente de inteligência (QI). A narrativa em primeira pessoa é caracterizada por aspectos textuais de uma pessoa com dificuldades de escrita da língua inglesa e que apresenta mudanças gradativas na qualidade dessa escrita à medida que o experimento surte o efeito esperado. No romance de Keyes, interessa-nos a exigência da voz do tradutor, uma prova que passa pela literatura, mas que pede outro tipo de criação que não aquela que tradicionalmente reconhecemos como artística. Diante dessa prova de tradução, surgem indagações como: de que maneira traduzir esses "escritos" de Charlie? Como lidar com as dificuldades de escrita de uma língua em outra? Essas perguntas fazem-nos refletir sobre o erro e o preconceito linguísticos...

Translating between Horn Representations and their Characteristic Models

Khardon, Roni
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
Português
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Characteristic models are an alternative, model based, representation for Horn expressions. It has been shown that these two representations are incomparable and each has its advantages over the other. It is therefore natural to ask what is the cost of translating, back and forth, between these representations. Interestingly, the same translation questions arise in database theory, where it has applications to the design of relational databases. We study the complexity of these problems and prove some positive and negative results. Our main result is that the two translation problems are equivalent under polynomial reductions, and that they are equivalent to the corresponding decision problem. Namely, translating is equivalent to deciding whether a given set a models is the set of characteristic models for a given Horn expression. We also relate these problems to translating between the CNF and DNF representations of monotone functions, a well known problem for which no polynomial time algorithm is known. It is shown that in general our translation problems are at least as hard as the latter, and in a special case they are equivalent to it.; Engineering and Applied Sciences

Hidden Translation and Translating Coset in Quantum Computing

Friedl, K.; Ivanyos, G.; Magniez, F.; Santha, M.; Sen, P.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We give efficient quantum algorithms for the problems of Hidden Translation and Hidden Subgroup in a large class of non-abelian solvable groups including solvable groups of constant exponent and of constant length derived series. Our algorithms are recursive. For the base case, we solve efficiently Hidden Translation in $\Z_{p}^{n}$, whenever $p$ is a fixed prime. For the induction step, we introduce the problem Translating Coset generalizing both Hidden Translation and Hidden Subgroup, and prove a powerful self-reducibility result: Translating Coset in a finite solvable group $G$ is reducible to instances of Translating Coset in $G/N$ and $N$, for appropriate normal subgroups $N$ of $G$. Our self-reducibility framework combined with Kuperberg's subexponential quantum algorithm for solving Hidden Translation in any abelian group, leads to subexponential quantum algorithms for Hidden Translation and Hidden Subgroup in any solvable group.; Comment: Journal version: change of title and several minor updates

Global existence for a translating near-circular Hele-Shaw bubble with surface tension

Ye, J.; Tanveer, S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This paper concerns global existence for arbitrary nonzero surface tension of bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell that translate in the presence of a pressure gradient. When the cell width to bubble size is sufficiently large, we show that a unique steady translating near-circular bubble symmetric about the channel centerline exists, where the bubble translation speed in the laboratory frame is found as part of the solution. We prove global existence for symmetric sufficiently smooth initial conditions close to this shape and show that the steady translating bubble solution is an attractor within this class of disturbances. In the absence of side walls, we prove stability of the steady translating circular bubble without restriction on symmetry of initial conditions. These results hold for any nonzero surface tension despite the fact that a local planar approximation near the front of the bubble would suggest Saffman Taylor instability. We exploit a boundary integral approach that is particularly suitable for analysis of nonzero viscosity ratio between fluid inside and outside the bubble. An important element of the proof was the introduction of a weighted Sobolev norm that accounts for stabilization due to advection of disturbances from the front to the back of the bubble.

Translating graphs by mean curvature flow

Shahriyari, Leili
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The aim of this work is studying translating graphs by mean curvature flow in $\Real^3$. We prove non-existence of complete translating graphs over bounded domains in $\Real^2$. Furthermore, we show that there are only three types of complete translating graphs in $\Real^3$; entire graphs, graphs between two vertical planes, and graphs in one side of a plane. In the last two types, graphs are asymptotic to planes next to their boundaries. We also prove stability of translating graphs and then we obtain a pointwise curvature bound for translating graphs in $\Real^3$.

Translating solutions to Lagrangian mean curvature flow

Neves, André; Tian, Gang
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/11/2007 Português
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We prove some non-existence theorems for translating solutions to Lagrangian mean curvature flow. More precisely, we show that translating solutions with an $L^2$ bound on the mean curvature are planes and that almost-calibrated translating solutions which are static are also planes. Recent work of D. Joyce, Y.-I. Lee, and M.-P. Tsui, shows that these conditions are optimal.; Comment: 26 pages, 1 figure, submitted

Hamiltonian L-stability of Lagrangian Translating Solitons

Yang, Liuqing
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/07/2014 Português
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In this paper, we compute the first and second variation formulas for the F-functional of translating solitons and study the Hamiltonian L-stability of Lagrangian translating solitons. We prove that any Lagrangian translating soliton is Hamiltonian L-stable.; Comment: arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1312.7759

Self-similar solutions and translating solitons for Lagrangian mean curvature flow

Joyce, Dominic; Lee, Yng-Ing; Tsui, Mao-Pei
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We construct many self-similar and translating solitons for Lagrangian mean curvature flow, including self-expanders and translating solitons with arbitrarily small oscillation on the Lagrangian angle. Our translating solitons play the same role as cigar solitons in Ricci flow, and are important in studying the regularity of Lagrangian mean curvature flow. Given two transverse Lagrangian planes R^n in C^n with sum of characteristic angles less than pi, we show there exists a Lagrangian self-expander asymptotic to this pair of planes. The Maslov class of these self-expanders is zero. Thus they can serve as local models for surgeries on Lagrangian mean curvature flow. Families of self-shrinkers and self-expanders with different topologies are also constructed. This paper generalizes the work of Anciaux, Joyce, Lawlor, and Lee and Wang.; Comment: 33 pages. (v2) minor corrections. to appear in Journal of Differential Geometry

Traduire, se traduire, être traduit. Un après midi autour de la traduction littéraire à l’Université de New York en France (Paris). Translating, self-translating, being translated. A lecture series on literary translation at NYU in Paris

Tanqueiro, Helena
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Le 11 avril 2008 a eu lieu à l’Université de New York en France (Paris) un après midi de réflexion autour de la traduction littéraire, Traduire, se traduire, être traduit, organisé par Patricia López López-Gay. Cette dernière, Francesc Parcerisas Vázquez et Helena Tanqueiro Milheiro ont présenté chacun une communication scientifique suivie d’une séance de questions-réponses. Ils sont tous les trois membres de l’équipe de recherche AUTOTRAD sur l’autotraduction littéraire du Département de Traduction et d’Interprétation de l’Université Autonome de Barcelone (UAB). Suivent les interventions, par ordre de participation, de Tanqueiro, de López L.-Gay et de Parcerisas. Tanqueiro défend que l’autotraduction est traduction. López L.-Gay se penche sur la question de l’invisibilité en traduction, et sur le fait que dans le cas de l’autotraduction, la double position occupée par l’autotraducteur permet une marge de liberté plus large qu’à l’accoutumée face aux règles et usages du champ littéraire. Parcerisas se centre lui-aussi sur l’invisibilité en autotraduction pour en fournir un cas limite.; On April 11th 2008, the New York University in Paris hosted a lecture series and open discussion on the topic of literary translation. Translating...

Translating the imaginary world in the Harry Potter series or how Muggles, Quaffles, Snitches, and Nickles travel to other cultures

Valero Garcés, Carmen
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 Português
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El éxito reciente de la serie de Harry Potter (HP) con más de110 millones de libros impresos, publicado en 200 países y 47 lenguas en menos de cinco años, y ya llevado al cine, convierte a la serie en un objeto inexcusable de estudio. En las páginas que siguen es mi intención servirme de la comparación del texto inglés y las traducciones a seis lenguas diferentes -español, catalán, portugués, italiano, francés y alemán- para explorar la transferencia del humor a través de lenguas y culturas. Para ello, en primer lugar, llevaré a cabo un análisis comparativo de la traducción de nombres propios y construcciones léxicas utilizadas para designar a algunos de esos personajes llenos de humor y magia creados por J.K. Rowling. En segundo lugar, extenderé el análisis comparativo en las seis lenguas con el texto original a la traducción de nombres de lugares, y en tercer lugar, compararé la traducción de nombres de determinados objetos y cosas que poseen un tono humorístico. A partir de ahí extraeré algunas conclusiones sobre las estrategias utilizadas por los diferentes traductores en las diferentes lenguas. El modelo de funcionalismo aplicado a la traducción literaria que presenta Nord (1997) nos servirá de marco teórico.; This paper deals with the transfer of humour across languages and cultures. I will take as a case in point the well-known Harry Potter children's books by J.K. Rowling. Written originally in English...

Experimental study of three-dimensional vortex structures in translating and rotating plates

Kim, D.; Gharib, M.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Motivated by the unsteady force generation of flying animals, vortex formation and vorticity transport processes around small aspect-ratio translating and rotating plates with a high angle of attack are investigated. Defocusing Digital Particle Image Velocimetry was employed to explore the structure and dynamics of the vortex generated by the plates. For both translating and rotating cases, we observe the presence of a spanwise flow over the plate and the consequent effect of vorticity transport due to the tilting of the leading-edge vortex. While the spanwise flow is confined inside the leading-edge vortex for the translating case, it is widely present over the plate and the wake region of the rotating case. The distribution of the spanwise flow is a prominent distinction between the vortex structures of these two cases. As the Reynolds number decreases, due to the increase in viscosity, the leading-edge and tip vortices tend to spread inside the area swept by the rotating plate. The different vorticity distributions of the low and high Reynolds number cases are consistent with the difference in measured lift forces, which is confirmed using the vorticity moment theory.

Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland: the challenges in translating to children; Alice no País das Maravilhas: os desafios em traduzir para crianças

Chargorodsky, Eliana Capiotto
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/06/2015 Português
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O presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar as características da literatura infantil e as adaptações que o tradutor faz para que tais características sejam respeitadas durante o processo tradutório. Os fatores que mais desafiam o tradutor quando este traduz literatura infantil, muito mais do que quando ele traduz literatura adulta, são as diferenças culturais e temporais entre o polissistema do texto de partida e o polissistema do texto de chegada. Em casos em que tais diferenças estão presentes, pergunta-se, até que ponto o texto deve ser adaptado para a realidade da criança? É com o intuito de contribuir com alguns exemplos para reflexões a esse respeito que analisamos as escolhas que três tradutores brasileiros fizeram em trechos críticos encontrados na clássica obra britânica da época vitoriana, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865), de Lewis Carroll; duas das traduções tinham como público-alvo a criança e uma tinha como público alvo os adultos eruditos. Com base nessas traduções, também pudemos comparar as diferenças entre as escolhas feitas para crianças e as feitas para adultos.; This paper aims to analyze the characteristics of the literature for children as well as the adaptations translators make so that these characteristics are respected throughout the translating process. The factors that challenge the translators the most while they are translating literature for children are the cultural and temporal differences between the polysystem of the source text and the polysystem of the target text. These factors are much more challenging when one is translating literature for children than when they are translating adults’ literature. In cases in which those differences are present...

Translating Shakespeare’s imagery for the Chinese audience – With reference to Hamlet and its versions in Chinese and in European languages / A tradução das imagens de Shakespeare para a audiência chinesa – Com referência a Hamlet e suas versões em chinês

K. P. Wong, Laurence; Chinese University of Hong Kong; Althoff, Gustavo; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/08/2013 Português
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-4237.2013n13p239De um modo geral, a mensagem de um poema é transmitida em três níveis: o semântico, o sintático e o fonológico. Quão traduzível cada um desses níveis é para o tradutor depende do quanto de cognação exista entre as línguas fonte e alvo: quanto mais cognação, mais traduzível cada um desses níveis. Assim, em relação aos três níveis, a tradução entre línguas da mesma família, como o inglês e o francês, pertencentes à família indo-europeia, é mais fácil do que a tradução entre línguas de famílias diferentes, como o inglês e o chinês, que pertencem, respectivamente, às famílias indo-europeia e sino-tibetana. Se se quiser fazer uma outra distinção, pode-se dizer que na tradução entre a língua chinesa e as línguas europeias o nível semântico é menos desafiador do que os níveis sintático e fonológico uma vez que as características sintáticas e fonológicas estão atreladas à língua e não se prestam prontamente à tradução, ao passo que, de modo geral, pares de línguas quaisquer contam com palavras e expressões correspondentes no nível semântico para expressar idéias ou descrever objetos, eventos, percepções e sentimentos semelhantes. Porque uma imagem deve sua existência...

Resenha: Game Localization: Translating for the global entertainment industry; Book review: Game Localization: Translating for the global entertainment industry.

da Silva, Fernando; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2014 Português
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-4237.2014n15p166O'HAGAN, Minako; MANGIRON, Carmen. Game Localization: Translating for the global entertainment industry. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2013. 374 p.; Book review: O'HAGAN, Minako and MANGIRON, Carmen. Game Localization: Translating for the global entertainment industry. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2013. 374 p