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Public Office, Private Interests : Accountability through Income and Asset Disclosure

World Bank; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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17.01%
The fight against corruption is a developmental imperative. While international efforts have achieved some significant results, they also illustrate the extent of the challenges that remain. A key lesson of experience is that tackling corruption needs to be waged simultaneously on two fronts: prevention and enforcement. Both approaches are complementary and self-reinforcing. The vast scale of illicit financial flows from the proceeds of corruption and the challenges associated with national and international asset recovery efforts call, in particular, for significant investments in prevention and a broadening of prevention tools. Income and asset disclosure (IAD) systems are gaining prominence as a tool in the fight against corruption, and have the potential to support efforts in both prevention and enforcement. This contribution is recognized in the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) and other international anticorruption agreements. Chapter one of this guides provides an overview of the objectives of IAD systems...

On the Take : Criminalizing Illicit Enrichment to Fight Corruption

Muzila, Lindy; Morales, Michelle; Mathias, Marianne; Berger, Tammar
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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Developing countries lose an estimated US$20–40 billion each year through bribery, misappropriation of funds, and other corrupt practices. Often, the most visible manifestation of corruption is the enrichment of a corrupt public official. Despite such visibility, prosecuting corruption can be very problematic, particularly when it requires proving the offer or acceptance of a bribe. Even when the corruption is established in a court of law, linking the proceeds of the crime to the offense in order to recover assets is a complex endeavor. In response, some countries looking to strengthen their overall arsenal against corruption have criminalized illicit enrichment. In its Article 20, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) recommends, but does not mandate, States Parties to adopt illicit enrichment as a criminal offense, defining the same as an intentional and “significant increase in the assets of a public official that he or she cannot reasonably explain in relation to his or her lawful income.” The illicit enrichment offense has spurred significant debates involving due processes of law. Others question how jurisdictions are actually using the offense. Finally, many jurisdictions that serve as financial centers do not recognize illicit enrichment as an offense...

Left Out of the Bargain : Settlements in Foreign Bribery Cases and Implications for Asset Recovery

Oduor, Jacinta Anyango; Fernando, Francisca M. U.; Flah, Agustin; Gottwald, Dorothee; Dorothee, Jeanne M.; Mathias, Marianne; Park, Ji Won; Stolpe, Oliver
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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Over the past decade, countries have increasingly used settlements—that is, any procedure short of a full trial—to conclude foreign bribery cases and have imposed billions in monetary sanctions. There exists a gap in knowledge, however, regarding settlement practices around the world and the disposition of these monetary sanctions—notably through the lens of recovery of stolen assets. Left Out of the Bargain , a study by the Stolen Asset RecoveryInitiative (StAR), provides an overview of settlement practices by civil and common law countries that have been active in the fight against foreign bribery.

Stolen Asset Recovery : A Good Practices Guide for Non-conviction Based Asset Forfeiture; Recuperacion de activos robados : guia de buenas practicas para el decomisode activos sin condena

Greenberg, Theodore S.; Samuel, Linda M.; Grant, Wingate; Gray, Larissa
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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The guide is organized into three major parts: Part A first provides an overview of the problem of stolen assets and the problem of recovering the assets once they are transferred abroad. Second, it describes how the international community has taken steps to respond to the problem through United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) and the Stolen Asset Recovery (StAR) Initiative. UNCAC introduced a new framework to facilitate the tracing, freezing, seizing, forfeiture, and return of assets stolen through corrupt practices and hidden in foreign jurisdictions. The StAR Initiative developed an action plan to support the domestication and implementation of asset recovery provisions under UNCAC, to facilitate countries' efforts to recover stolen assets that have been hidden in foreign jurisdictions, and ultimately, to help deter such flows and eliminate safe havens for hiding corruption proceeds. Third and finally, Part A introduces non-conviction based (NCB) asset forfeiture as one of the critical tools to combat corruption...

Public Wrongs, Private Actions : Civil Lawsuits to Recover Stolen Assets

Brun, Jean Pierre; Dubois, Pascale Helene; van der Does de Willebois, Emile; Hauch, Jeanne; Jaïs, Sarah; Mekki, Yannis; Sotiropoulou, Anastasia; Sylvester, Katherine Rose; Uttamchandani, Mahesh
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.77%
Corruption and thefts of public assets harm a diffuse set of victims, weakens confidence in public institutions, damages the private investment climate, and threatens the foundations of the society as a whole. In developing countries with scarce public resources, the cost of corruption is an impediment to development: developing countries lose between US$20 to US$40 billion each year through bribery, misappropriation of funds, and other corrupt practices. Corruption is by no means a "victimless crime." This study aims to explore the standing of States and Government entities as victims and the possible recourse to private actions to redress public wrongs. States and Government entities may act as private litigants and bring civil suits to recover assets lost to corruption. The goal of this work is to promote knowledge and understanding as well as to increase the use of civil remedies and private lawsuits to recover stolen assets in the context of the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) offences. The UNCAC...

L’Office des Nations Unies contre la drogue et le crime et la lutte internationale contre la corruption : perceptions des professionnels

Stefanov, Ivaylo
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Travail aux cycles supérieurs / Graduate student work
Português
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Outre les changements sociaux associés à la fin du communisme, les années 1990 marquent également une augmentation de l’intérêt à l’égard de la corruption et de ses effets néfastes sur le développement. En raison de la pression exercée par les États-Unis et l’augmentation de la visibilité de la corruption, plusieurs organisations internationales ont vu l’intérêt de s’impliquer dans la lutte anticorruption. La littérature soutient que la Convention des Nations Unies contre la corruption représente le document international anticorruption par excellence. Adopté en 2003, il compte aujourd’hui 144 pays signataires. Cependant, et malgré l’importance du document, les perceptions des professionnels demeurent cachées derrière les discours institutionnels. Par conséquent, cette étude de cas se concentre sur les perceptions des employés travaillant au sein de la Branche de corruption et crime économique de l’ONUDC. Ils révèlent plusieurs difficultés techniques reliées à leur travail. Entre autres, les professionnels évoquent la charge de travail, les moyens financiers et la considération de leur jugement lors du processus d’évaluation. Leurs fonctions sont également limitées par des défis associés à la mise en oeuvre de la convention : l’absence de sanctions directes pour les pays non conformes...