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Arquitetura, espaço urbano e criminalidade

Vivan, Mariana
Fonte: Florianópolis Publicador: Florianópolis
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 191 p.| il., grafs., tabs.
Português
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16.21%
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo; O aumento da criminalidade no País e possíveis alternativas de prevenção a esse fenômeno vêm sendo investigados por vários pesquisadores. Entre essas alternativas, há um crescente interesse no papel que o projeto urbano e demais instrumentos de regulação da forma urbana, incluindo aí os índices urbanísticos, poderiam desempenhar, o que sugere que a organização dos espaços pode minimizar as oportunidades do crime ocorrer. Partindo das hipóteses de que a possibilidade de vigilância natural proporcionada pela conexão visual entre área pública e privada, bem como pelo fluxo de pedestres em uma área, inibe a ocorrência de crimes, esta pesquisa tem como objetivo entender a contribuição da forma urbana e das edificações na geração de segurança urbana, analisando a influência de variáveis físicas das edificações relacionadas à conexão visual (quantidade de aberturas e elementos de visibilidade), e por fim, verificar a relação de causalidade entre as características configuracionais da malha urbana, representadas pelas medidas da sintaxe espacial, e a ocorrência de crimes. A cidade de Florianópolis-SC foi dividida em seis regiões...

A Difference-in-Differences Analysis of Health, Safety, and Greening Vacant Urban Space

Branas, Charles C.; Cheney, Rose A.; MacDonald, John M.; Tam, Vicky W.; Jackson, Tara D.; Ten Have, Thomas R.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.71%
Greening of vacant urban land may affect health and safety. The authors conducted a decade-long difference-in-differences analysis of the impact of a vacant lot greening program in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on health and safety outcomes. “Before” and “after” outcome differences among treated vacant lots were compared with matched groups of control vacant lots that were eligible but did not receive treatment. Control lots from 2 eligibility pools were randomly selected and matched to treated lots at a 3:1 ratio by city section. Random-effects regression models were fitted, along with alternative models and robustness checks. Across 4 sections of Philadelphia, 4,436 vacant lots totaling over 7.8 million square feet (about 725,000 m2) were greened from 1999 to 2008. Regression-adjusted estimates showed that vacant lot greening was associated with consistent reductions in gun assaults across all 4 sections of the city (P < 0.001) and consistent reductions in vandalism in 1 section of the city (P < 0.001). Regression-adjusted estimates also showed that vacant lot greening was associated with residents’ reporting less stress and more exercise in select sections of the city (P < 0.01). Once greened, vacant lots may reduce certain crimes and promote some aspects of health. Limitations of the current study are discussed. Community-based trials are warranted to further test these findings.

Les terrains vacants et la lisibilité du centre-ville de Montréal.

André, Jean-Philippe
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Les terrains vacants sont, à Montréal, des éléments indéniables dans la composition de la trame urbaine. Leur présence soutenue intéresse déjà depuis longtemps de nombreux auteurs et décideurs municipaux. Toutefois, il s’avère que l’on connaît peu les caractéristiques paysagères de ces espaces. Cette recherche en aménagement vise à compléter nos connaissances sur cette typologie d’espace urbain. Elle porte sur la caractérisation paysagère des terrains vacants du centre-ville de Montréal et sur l’étude de leur potentiel visuel à mettre en valeur les attributs significatifs du paysage urbain. Ces deux études doivent permettre de comprendre le rôle joué par ces vides dans la perception du paysage urbain. Cette démarche s’interroge sur la possibilité que certains vides puissent être justifiés et légitimés en regard de la notion de lisibilité du paysage urbain (Lynch, 1976, 1982). Les terrains joueraient un rôle important au niveau de la perception des paysages urbains. Il s’agit de démontrer le potentiel des espaces vacants dans la mise en valeur du paysage urbain, dans l’optique, pour certains d’entre eux, de légitimer le vide ou une partie du vide qui les définit, de les rendre structurants dans la composition urbaine. Grâce à un travail d’observation des caractéristiques urbaines...

Niche life

Radune, Matthew
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 73 p.; application/pdf
Português
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26.22%
This design project attempts to enlarge the role of urban codes to deal with issues relevant to the condition of the metropolis as a type of ecological niche. It is my view that urban codes are the most useful design mechanism for post-environmental relations between humans and the urban fields they reside within. These codes must be written not to designate that which cannot be done, but to provoke successful innovation by those following them. This is especially the case in a metropolis without zoning such as this. The project is a master planned community in an urban instead of ex-urban context as is typical, formed on a brownfields site, which is currently the oil services company Halliburton's mostly vacant headquarters just Northeast of downtown Houston. Coding of this site to be used by developers of the site must take into account parameters inherent in the site itself, in this case a polluted parking lot lying in a floodplain. To a certain extent these conditions pervade the landscape of Houston itself, and so this is in a sense a case study for a wider field of operation.

Étude exploratoire sur les espaces équivoques, leurs dynamiques d’appropriation et les enjeux urbanistiques à Montréal

Joncas, Christophe-Hubert
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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36.11%
Cette recherche s’intéresse aux espaces équivoques, soit des espaces jugés ambigus en raison des modes d’appropriation qu’on y retrouve. Par un processus heuristique et à l’aide d’une double étude de cas exploratoire, qui emprunte des méthodes de recherche ethnographiques, cette recherche a pour objectif de mieux caractériser les espaces équivoques. Les deux espaces considérés, tous deux situés dans la partie nord de l’arrondissement du Plateau-Mont-Royal à Montréal, sont un terrain vague informellement appelé le Parc sans Nom et une friche industrielle informellement appelée le Champ des Possibles. Les positions des gestionnaires municipaux et des usagers des deux sites seront analysées selon trois dimensions : les contraintes physiques, les mesures coercitives et les perceptions du risque et du potentiel de conflits. Les résultats issus de ces analyses permettent de constater que les espaces équivoques émergent par processus de co-construction. Ces résultats permettent également de soulever des pistes de réflexion sur les rapports entre les individus et l’espace urbain.; This research takes an interest in the equivocal spaces, which means the ambiguous spaces resulting form different forms of spatial appropriation that take place in them. By a heuristic process and with an exploratory two case studies...

Branch Street Ryokan : relaxation through reactivating human senses

Sugeta, Keiko, 1969-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 58 p.; 6222877 bytes; 12426998 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
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26.01%
My thesis is a Japanese traditional Inn, called Ryokan. The is open to anyone seeking refuge from the rapid pace of urban life, including local residents and tourists, yet is limited to adults in order to keep quietness within. It is similar to a Bed & Breakfast in terms of person-to-person service, yet its emphasis is on the idea of reactivating human senses by offering an intimate experience with the surrounding nature through materials. The intention of my thesis is to explore an experience in Ryokan architect~re. The thesis introduces Ryokan architecture as a typology. Incorporating ritualistic Japanese inn traditions, the architecture is designed with a sense of order, which encourages guests to settle their state of mind. The inn investigates the notion of 'continuity of moments (in time)' through a manipulation of light and water as well as through materiality, which is to lure forgotten human senses. Communal bathing experience within the inn enhances stimulation to human sanity. Beacon Hill in Boston is selected as the site for the Ryokan. The site's existing condition is a 6000sq ft-vacant-lot. Although it is just one block-in from the very active and busy intersection of Charles and Beacon Street, the site offers quietness and tranquility. Given that I sensed the stark contrast between the very busy streets and the solitude of this site...