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Optimum size in grid soil sampling for variable rate application in site-specific management; Tamanho ideal em grades de amostragem de solos para aplicação em taxa variável em manejo localizado

NANNI, Marcos Rafael; POVH, Fabrício Pinheiro; DEMATTÊ, José Alexandre Melo; OLIVEIRA, Roney Berti de; CHICATI, Marcelo Luiz; CEZAR, Everson
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The importance of understanding spatial variability of soils is connected to crop management planning. This understanding makes it possible to treat soil not as a uniform, but a variable entity, and it enables site-specific management to increase production efficiency, which is the target of precision agriculture. Questions remain as the optimum soil sampling interval needed to make site-specific fertilizer recommendations in Brazil. The objectives of this study were: i) to evaluate the spatial variability of the main attributes that influence fertilization recommendations, using georeferenced soil samples arranged in grid patterns of different resolutions; ii) to compare the spatial maps generated with those obtained with the standard sampling of 1 sample ha-1, in order to verify the appropriateness of the spatial resolution. The attributes evaluated were phosphorus (P), potassium (K), organic matter (OM), base saturation (V%) and clay. Soil samples were collected in a 100 × 100 m georeferenced grid. Thinning was performed in order to create a grid with one sample every 2.07, 2.88, 3.75 and 7.20 ha. Geostatistical techniques, such as semivariogram and interpolation using kriging, were used to analyze the attributes at the different grid resolutions. This analysis was performed with the Vesper software package. The maps created by this method were compared using the kappa statistics. Additionally...