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Viral Persistence, Antibody to E1 and E2, and Hypervariable Region 1 Sequence Stability in Hepatitis C Virus-Inoculated Chimpanzees

Bassett, Suzanne E.; Thomas, David L.; Brasky, Kathleen M.; Lanford, Robert E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1999 Português
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46.27%
The relationship of viral persistence, the immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins, and envelope sequence variability was examined in chimpanzees. Antibody reactivity to the HCV envelope proteins E1 or E2 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in more than 90% of a human serum panel. Although the ELISAs appeared to be sensitive indicators of HCV infection in human serum panels, the results of a cross-sectional study revealed that a low percentage of HCV-inoculated chimpanzees had detectable antibody to E1 (22%) and E2 (15%). Viral clearance, which was recognized in 28 (61%) of the chimpanzees, was not associated with an antibody response to E1 or E2. On the contrary, antibody to E2 was observed only in viremic chimpanzees. A longitudinal study of animals that cleared the viral infection or became chronically infected confirmed the low level of antibody to E1, E2, and the HVR-1. In 10 chronically infected animals, the sequence variation in the E2 hypervariable region (HVR-1) was minimal and did not coincide with antibody to E2 or to the HVR-1. In addition, low nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation was observed in the E1 and E2 regions from two chronically infected chimpanzees. These results suggest that mechanisms in addition to the emergence of HVR-1 antibody escape variants are involved in maintaining viral persistence. The significance of antibodies to E1 and E2 in the chimpanzee animal model is discussed.

CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells Make Discrete Contributions to Demyelination and Neurologic Disease in a Viral Model of Multiple Sclerosis

Murray, P. D.; Pavelko, K. D.; Leibowitz, J.; Lin, X.; Rodriguez, M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1998 Português
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46.34%
Following intracerebral infection with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), susceptible strains of mice (SJL and PLJ) develop virus persistence and demyelination similar to that found in human multiple sclerosis. Resistant strains of mice (C57BL/6) clear virus and do not develop demyelination. To resolve the controversy about the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the development of demyelination and neurologic deficits in diseases of the central nervous system, we analyzed TMEV infection in CD4- and CD8-deficient B6, PLJ, and SJL mice. Genetic deletion of either CD4 or CD8 from resistant B6 mice resulted in viral persistence and demyelination during the chronic stage of disease. Viral persistence and demyelination were detected in all strains of susceptible background. Although genetic deletion of CD8 had no effect on the extent of demyelination in susceptible strains, deletion of CD4 dramatically increased the degree of demyelination observed. Whereas strains with deletions of CD4 showed severe neurologic deficits, mice with deletions of CD8 showed minimal or no deficits despite demyelination. In all strains, deletion of CD4 but not CD8 resulted in a decreased delayed-type hypersensitivity response to viral antigen. We conclude that each T-cell subset makes a discrete and nonredundant contribution to protection from viral persistence and demyelination in resistant strains. In contrast...

Role of Viral Persistence in Retaining CD8+ T Cells within the Central Nervous System

Marten, Norman W.; Stohlman, Stephen A.; Bergmann, Cornelia C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2000 Português
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46.22%
The continued presence of virus-specific CD8+ T cells within the central nervous system (CNS) following resolution of acute viral encephalomyelitis implicates organ-specific retention. The role of viral persistence in locally maintaining T cells was investigated by infecting mice with either a demyelinating, paralytic (V-1) or nonpathogenic (V-2) variant of a neurotropic mouse hepatitis virus, which differ in the ability to persist within the CNS. Class I tetramer technology revealed more infiltrating virus-specific CD8+ T cells during acute V-1 compared to V-2 infection. However, both total and virus-specific CD8+ T cells accumulated at similar peak levels in spinal cords by day 10 postinfection (p.i.). Decreasing viral RNA levels in both brains and spinal cords following initial virus clearance coincided with an overall progressive loss of both total and virus-specific CD8+ T cells. By 9 weeks p.i., T cells had largely disappeared from brains of both infected groups, consistent with the decline of viral RNA. T cells also completely disappeared from V-2-infected spinal cords coincident with the absence of viral RNA. By contrast, a significant number of CD8+ T cells which contained detectable viral RNA were recovered from spinal cords of V-1-infected mice. The data indicate that residual virus from a primary CNS infection is a vital component in mediating local retention of both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and that once minimal thresholds of stimuli are lost...

Control of Central Nervous System Viral Persistence by Neutralizing Antibody

Ramakrishna, Chandran; Bergmann, Cornelia C.; Atkinson, Roscoe; Stohlman, Stephen A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2003 Português
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46.35%
Replication of the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus within the central nervous system is controlled by cellular immunity. However, following initial clearance, virus reactivates in the absence of humoral immunity. Viral recrudescence is prevented by the transfer of antiviral antibody (Ab). To characterize the specificity and biological functions of Ab critical for maintaining viral persistence, monoclonal Abs specific for the viral spike, matrix, and nucleocapsid proteins were transferred into infected B-cell-deficient mice following initial virus clearance. Neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) but not IgA anti-spike Ab suppressed virus recrudescence, reduced viral antigen in most cell types except oligodendroglia, and was associated with reduced demyelination. Nonneutralizing monoclonal Abs specific for the spike, matrix, and nucleocapsid proteins did not prevent recrudescence, demonstrating that neutralization is critical for maintaining JHM mouse hepatitis virus persistence within the central nervous system. Ab-mediated protection was not associated with alterations in virus-specific T-cell function or inflammation. Furthermore, neutralizing Ab delayed but did not prevent virus recrudescence. These data indicate that following acute viral clearance cellular immunity is ineffective in controlling virus recrudescence and suggest that the continued presence of neutralizing Ab is the essential effector in maintaining viral persistence within the central nervous system.

Oncogenesis of mammary glands, skin, and bones by polyomavirus correlates with viral persistence and prolonged genome replication potential.

Wirth, J J; Martin, L G; Fluck, M M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1997 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
A correlation between polyomavirus-induced oncogenesis and viral persistence on the one hand and/or prolonged genome replication potential on the other was established with respect to their respective organ distributions. Prolonged replication potential is defined as the capacity of a genome to replicate in a given organ from the time of infection up to the onset of oncogenesis. This conclusion was derived following intraperitoneal infection of BALB/c mice with wild-type strain A2. Viral genomes were used as parameters of persistence and replication and were detected by Southern blotting and PCR analysis. The major tumor target organs (mammary gland, skin, and bone), which have not been previously analyzed for persistence, were compared with other, non-tumor-prone organs (kidney, liver, lung, spleen, and salivary gland). A progressive loss of viral genomes was observed in all tissues as a function of time postinfection; however, genomes were shown to persist through 20 weeks postinfection in the mammary glands, skin, and bones to an extent similar to that in the previously described kidneys (D. J. McCance, J. Virol. 39:958-962, 1981; W. P. Rowe, J. W. Hartley, J. D. Estes, and R. J. Huebner, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 4:189-209, 1960). Thus...

Antibodies to varicella-zoster virus modulate antigen distribution but fail to induce viral persistence in vitro.

Sadzot-Delvaux, C; Marc, P; Lebon, L; Merville-Louis, M P; Piette, J; Rentier, B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1992 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) persists in human sensory ganglia. One of the hypotheses to explain the induction or the maintenance of VZV latency is that it could be promoted by the immune response itself. It is known that in the case of viruses which bud off the infected cell membrane, virus-specific antibodies can induce antigenic modulation, i.e., spatial redistribution of viral antigens and modulation of their synthesis. To determine whether antigenic modulation occurs during VZV infection in vitro and could possibly be involved in viral persistence, we have grown infected cells in the presence of anti-VZV antibodies either transiently or permanently. The distribution of immune complexes and viral proteins was then analyzed. In transient immunomodulation experiments, the distribution of one or more viral antigens was modified not only in the cytoplasmic membranes but also in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of infected cells. When infected cells were kept permanently in the presence of antibodies, the same pattern of redistribution of immune complexes was observed and the localization of internal viral glycoproteins was significantly modified. However, antibodies did not prevent the lytic effect of infection; they altered neither the infectious virus yield nor the Western immunoblot pattern of viral proteins...

Persistence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Is Determined by a Cellular Cofactor of a Viral Autoprotease

Lackner, T.; Müller, A.; König, M.; Thiel, H.-J.; Tautz, N.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Polyprotein processing control is a crucial step in the life cycle of positive-strand RNA viruses. Recently, a vital autoprotease generating an essential viral replication factor was identified in such a virus, namely, the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus. Surprisingly, the activity of this protease, which resides in nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), diminishes early after infection, resulting in the limitation of viral RNA replication. Here, we describe that a cellular chaperone termed Jiv (J-domain protein interacting with viral protein) acts as a cofactor of the NS2 protease. Consumption of the intracellular Jiv pool is responsible for temporal regulation of protease activity: overexpression of Jiv interfered with regulation and correlated with increased accumulation of viral RNA; downregulation of the cellular Jiv level accelerated the decline of protease activity and reduced intracellular viral RNA levels and virion production. Accordingly, the amount of a cellular protein controls pestiviral replication by limiting the generation of active viral protease molecules and replication complexes. Importantly, this unique mechanism of replication control is essential for maintenance of the noncytopathogenic phenotype of the virus and thereby for its ability to establish persistent infections. These results add an entirely novel aspect to the understanding of the molecular basis of viral persistence.

The immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitope region of Theiler’s virus in resistant C57BL/6 mice is critical for anti-viral immune responses, viral persistence, and binding to the host cells.

Myoung, Jinjong; Hou, Wanqiu; Kang, Bongsu; Lyman, Michael A.; Kang, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Byung S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Theiler’s virus infection induces an immune-mediated demyelinating disease, providing a relevant animal model of human multiple sclerosis. VP2121–130-specific CD8+ T cells in resistant H-2b mice account for the majority of CNS-infiltrating CD8+ T cells. To further study the role of the CD8+ T cells, we generated a panel of mutant viruses substituted with L, G, or T at the anchor residue (M130) of the VP2121–130 epitope. M130L virus (M130L-V) with a substitution of M with L displayed similar properties as wild-type virus (WT-V). However, M130G-V and M130T-V could not establish a persistent infection in the CNS. The level of both virus-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses is significantly reduced in mice infected with these variant viruses. While all mutant and wild-type viruses replicate comparably in BHK cells, replication of M130G-V and M130T-V in macrophages was significantly lower compared to those infected with WT-V and M130L-V. Interestingly, these mutant viruses deficient in replication in primary mouse cells showed drastically reduced binding ability to the cells. These results suggest that the anchor residue of the predominant CD8+ T cell epitope of TMEV in resistant mice is critical for the virus to infect target cells and this deficiency may result in poor viral persistence leading to correspondingly low T cell responses in the periphery and CNS. Thus...

The natural history of encephalomyocarditis virus-induced myositis and myocarditis in mice. Viral persistence demonstrated by in situ hybridization

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/11/1988 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Picornaviruses can initiate chronic inflammation that persists after the virus can no longer be cultured from inflamed tissues. In an attempt to understand this transition we have sought evidence for viral persistence by methods that detect viral genome independent of whether or not whole competent virus is present. In mice infected with a myotropic variant of encephalomyocarditis virus, EMC-221A, virus can be cultured in high yield at 1 wk and in low yield at 2 wk from skeletal muscle, heart, and brain; a small number of plaque-forming units could be cultured from brain at 4 wk. By contrast, in situ hybridization detected viral nucleic acid at least a week or two thereafter, often in single cells. In the skeletal muscle, inflammation disappeared by 3 wk, but in heart it remained for the full 12 wk of observation. In the brain, microglial nodules, sometimes with associated viral nucleic acid, were present for a long period. Application of this technique allows a more accurate assessment of the role of viral persistence in the pathogenesis of virus-initiated but apparently autoimmune inflammation.

Invited Commentary: Is Monitoring of Human Papillomavirus Infection for Viral Persistence Ready for Use in Cervical Cancer Screening?

Castle, Philip E.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Persistent cervical infections by approximately 15 carcinogenic genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause virtually all cases of cervical cancer and its immediate precancerous precursor, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma in situ. As is shown in a meta-analysis by Koshiol et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2008;168:123–137), detection of carcinogenic HPV viral persistence could be used to identify women at the greatest risk of cervical precancer. Specifically, women who have carcinogenic HPV infection that persists for at least 1 year versus those whose infections clear are at significantly elevated risk of having or developing cervical precancer. However, before detection of HPV persistence can be used in cervical cancer screening, several considerations need to be addressed: 1) validation and Food and Drug Administration approval of a reliable HPV genotyping test, 2) rational clinical algorithms based on risk of precancer and cancer for the clinical management of HPV persistence, 3) clinician and patient acceptability of monitoring of HPV infections (including not responding excessively to the first positive HPV test and waiting 1–2 years for infections to either persist or resolve), and 4) patient compliance with recommended follow-up. Investigators will need to address these and other key issues in order to realize the potential utility of HPV viral monitoring for improving the accuracy of cervical cancer screening.

High Programmed Death-1 levels on HCV specific T cells during acute infection are associated with viral persistence and require preservation of cognate antigen during chronic infection1

Rutebemberwa, Alleluiah; Ray, Stuart C.; Astemborski, Jacquie; Levine, Jordana; Liu, Lin; Dowd, Kimberly A.; Clute, Shalyn; Wang, Changyu; Korman, Alan; Sette, Alessandro; Sidney, John; Pardoll, Drew M.; Cox, Andrea L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
HCV is an important human pathogen that represents a model for chronic infection since the majority of infected individuals fail to clear the infection despite generation of virus-specific T cell responses during the period of acute infection. While viral sequence evolution at targeted MHC class I restricted epitopes represents one mechanism for immune escape in HCV, many targeted epitopes remain intact under circumstances of viral persistence. In order to explore alternative mechanisms of HCV immune evasion, we analyzed patterns of expression of a major inhibitory receptor on T cells, programmed death-1 (PD-1), from the time of initial infection and correlated these with HCV RNA levels, outcome of infection, and sequence escape within the targeted epitope. We show that the level of PD-1 expression in early HCV infection is significantly higher on HCV-specific T cells from those who progress to chronic HCV infection compared to those who clear infection. This correlation is independent of HCV RNA levels, compatible with the notion that high PD-1 expression on HCV-specific CD8 T cells during acute infection inhibits viral clearance. Viral escape during persistent infection is associated with reduction in PD-1 levels on the surface of HCV specific T cells...

Absence of mouse 2B4 promotes NK cell–mediated killing of activated CD8+ T cells, leading to prolonged viral persistence and altered pathogenesis

Waggoner, Stephen N.; Taniguchi, Ruth T.; Mathew, Porunelloor A.; Kumar, Vinay; Welsh, Raymond M.
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Persistent viral infections are often associated with inefficient T cell responses and sustained high-level expression of inhibitory receptors, such as the NK cell receptor 2B4 (also known as CD244), on virus-specific T cells. However, the role of 2B4 in T cell dysfunction is undefined, and it is unknown whether NK cells contribute to regulation of these processes. We show here that persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of mice lacking 2B4 resulted in diminished LCMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses, prolonged viral persistence, and spleen and thymic pathologies that differed from those observed in infected wild-type mice. Surprisingly, these altered phenotypes were not caused by 2B4 deficiency in T cells. Rather, the entire and long-lasting pathology and viral persistence were regulated by 2B4-deficient NK cells acting early in infection. In the absence of 2B4, NK cells lysed activated (defined as CD44hi) but not naive (defined as CD44lo) CD8+ T cells in a perforin-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. These results illustrate the importance of NK cell self-tolerance to activated CD8+ T cells and demonstrate how an apparent T cell–associated persistent infection can actually be regulated by NK cells.

Strain- and Age-Associated Variation in Viral Persistence and Antibody Response to Mouse Parvovirus 1 in Experimentally Infected Mice

Filipovska-Naumovska, Emilija; Thompson, Martin J; Hopwood, Deborah; Pass, David A; Wilcox, Graham E
Fonte: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science Publicador: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
The effect of mouse strain and age at infection on viral replication and concurrent antibody response to mouse parvovirus 1 (isolate MPV1f) was evaluated for 305 d after inoculation in 4 strains of mice. The results confirmed previous reports that mouse strain and age at infection are significant factors in viral persistence and antibody development and detection. Random-bred Arc:Arc(s) mice originally bred from CD1 stock inoculated as juveniles (4 wk) or adults (8 wk) developed persistent viral infection for 152 d after inoculation and an antibody response that persisted for 295 d. Mice of C57BL/6J background inoculated as juveniles had detectable viral DNA in large intestinal content and tissues for 24 d after inoculation and an antibody response that persisted for 288 d. However, viral DNA was not detected in tissues of C57BL/6J mice inoculated as adults, although an antibody was detected for 111 d after inoculation; these results suggest probable viral replication in adult C57BL/6J mice but at levels below the limits of detection. BALB/cArc mice inoculated as juveniles or adults had detectable virus DNA in tissues for 108 to 242 d after inoculation, but no antibody was detected. Similarly, BALB/c-Foxn1nu/Arc mice had detectable levels of viral DNA in tissues for 98 to 131 d but no measurable antibody. The difficulty of detecting antibody in mice with a BALB/c background indicates they are unsuitable for routine surveillance of MPV1f infection.

PD-1 Blockage Reverses Immune Dysfunction and Hepatitis B Viral Persistence in a Mouse Animal Model

Tzeng, Horng-Tay; Tsai, Hwei-Fang; Liao, Hsiu-Jung; Lin, Yi-Jiun; Chen, Lieping; Chen, Pei-Jer; Hsu, Ping-Ning
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Persistent hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection results in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies in animal models of viral infection indicate that the interaction between the inhibitory receptor, programmed death (PD)-1, on lymphocytes and its ligand (PD-L1) play a critical role in T-cell exhaustion by inducing T-cell inactivation. High PD-1 expression levels by peripheral T-lymphocytes and the possibility of improving T-cell function by blocking PD-1-mediated signaling confirm the importance of this inhibitory pathway in inducing T-cell exhaustion. We studied T-cell exhaustion and the effects of PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade on intrahepatic infiltrating T-cells in our recently developed mouse model of HBV persistence. In this mouse animal model, we demonstrated that there were increased intrahepatic PD-1-expressing CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in mice with HBV persistence, but PD-1 upregulation was resolved in mice which had cleared HBV. The Intrahepatic CD8+ T-cells expressed higher levels of PD-1 and lower levels of CD127 in mice with HBV persistence. Blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions increased HBcAg-specific interferon (IFN)-γ production in intrahepatic T lymphocytes. Furthermore, blocking the interaction of PD-1 with PD-L1 by an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) reversed the exhausted phenotype in intrahepatic T lymphocytes and viral persistence to clearance of HBV in vivo. Our results indicated that PD-1 blockage reverses immune dysfunction and viral persistence of HBV infection in a mouse animal model...

HIV type 1 persistence in CD4¯/CD8¯ double negative T cells from patients on antiretroviral therapy; HIV type 1 persistence in CD4-bar/CD8-bar double negative T cells from patients on antiretroviral therapy

Cheney, K.; Kumar, R.; Purins, A.; Mundy, L.; Fergusson, A.; Shaw, D.; Burrell, C.; Li, P.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert Inc Publ Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert Inc Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
The establishment of reservoirs of latently infected cells is thought to contribute to the persistence of HIV-1 infection in the host. Studies so far have mainly focused on the long-lived reservoir of HIV-infected resting CD4+ T cells. A discrete population of HIV-infected CD4¯/CD8¯ double negative (DN) T cells has recently been shown to exist and may also play a role in HIV-1 persistence. DN T cells are CD3 positive, either TCRαβ or TCRγδ positive, but lack both CD4 and CD8 surface markers. We developed a novel, magnetic bead column-based cell fractionation procedure for isolating >99% pure DN T cells. CD4+, CD8+, and DN T cells were purified from 23 samples of a cohort of 18 HIV-1-infected patients. Each cell fraction was analyzed for levels of total and integrated HIV-1 DNA. A correlation was observed between the presence of HIV-1 DNA in the DN T cell fraction and plasma viral load (VL). Using a micrococulture technique, we saw an initial release of virus from DN T cells of a patient with high VL. Analysis of env and nef sequence data suggested that the HIV-1 present in CD4+ and DN T cells originated from a common infecting strain. Different from the published literature, we have demonstrated the presence of HIV-1 DNA in DN T cells only in patients who are experiencing HAART failure. While these cells may have a limited role in viral persistence in high VL patients...

Chicken infectious anemia virus vaccination induces immune disorders and viral persistency in infectious bursal disease virus-infected young chicks

Vaziry, Asaad
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
La bursite infectieuse aviaire (IBD) est une des causes majeures de pertes économiques pour l’industrie aviaire. La vaccination est le principal outil de contrôle de cette maladie et les oiseaux susceptibles doivent être vaccinés aussitôt que le niveau des anticorps maternels (MA) anti-IBDV est suffisamment bas. L’estimation du moment de vaccination est habituellement déterminée par la formule de Deventer qui utilise le titre initial de MA anti-IBDV et la demi-vie des anticorps pour prédire l’évolution du titre. Dans la présente étude, l’effet du gain de poids sur la vitesse de disparition des MA a été étudié dans le but de l’utiliser pour prédire la détermination du moment de la vaccination. L’analyse des taux d’anticorps neutralisants par ELISA a montré que les poussins avec une forte croissance avaient un taux de disparition plus rapide des MA que ceux à faible croissance. Une formule pour la prédiction du moment de vaccination contre le IBDV, basée sur le gain de poids et le niveau des MA a été développée et vérifiée. La prédiction du moment de vaccination avec cette formule a montré une haute corrélation avec les titres de MA mesurés par ELISA. Le virus de l’anémie infectieuse aviaire (CIAV) est une cause importante d’immunosuppression chez le poulet augmentant la pathogénicité des infections secondaires et en entraînant une réponse humorale suboptimale et une forte mortalité. D’autre part...

Anticapsid Immunity Level, Not Viral Persistence Level, Correlates with the Progression of Theiler's Virus-Induced Demyelinating Disease in Viral P1-Transgenic Mice▿

Myoung, Jinjong; Bahk, Young Yil; Kang, Hyun Seok; Dal Canto, Mauro C.; Kim, Byung S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Intracranial infection of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces demyelination and a neurological disease in susceptible SJL/J (SJL) mice that resembles multiple sclerosis. While the virus is cleared from the central nervous system (CNS) of resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mice, it persists in SJL mice. To investigate the role of viral persistence and its accompanying immune responses in the development of demyelinating disease, transgenic mice expressing the P1 region of the TMEV genome (P1-Tg) were employed. Interestingly, P1-Tg mice with the B6 background showed severe reductions in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to capsid epitopes, while P1-Tg mice with the SJL background displayed transient reductions following viral infection. Reduced antiviral immune responses in P1-Tg mice led to >100- to 1,000-fold increases in viral persistence at 120 days postinfection in the CNS of mice with both backgrounds. Despite the increased CNS TMEV levels in these P1-Tg mice, B6 P1-Tg mice developed neither neuropathological symptoms nor demyelinating lesions, and SJL P1-Tg mice developed significantly less severe TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. These results strongly suggest that viral persistence alone is not sufficient to induce disease and that the level of T-cell immunity to viral capsid epitopes is critical for the development of demyelinating disease in SJL mice.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-17 Synergistically Promote Viral Persistence by Inhibiting Cellular Apoptosis and Cytotoxic T Cell Function

Hou, Wanqiu; Jin, Young-Hee; Kang, Hyun Seok; Kim, Byung S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays an important role in the development and progression of inflammatory responses, autoimmune diseases, and cancers. Many viral infections, including Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), result in the vigorous production of IL-6. However, the role of IL-6 in the development of virus-induced inflammatory responses is unclear. The infection of susceptible mice with TMEV induces the development of chronic demyelinating disease, which is considered a relevant infectious model for multiple sclerosis. In this study, we demonstrate that resistant C57BL/6 mice carrying an IL-6 transgene (IL-6 Tg) develop a TMEV-induced demyelinating disease accompanied by an increase in viral persistence and an elevated Th17 cell response in the central nervous system. Either IL-6 or IL-17 induced the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL at a high concentration. The upregulated expression of prosurvival molecules in turn inhibited target cell destruction by virus-specific CD8+ T cells. More interestingly, IL-6 and IL-17 synergistically promoted the expression of these prosurvival molecules, preventing cellular apoptosis at a much lower (<5-fold) concentration. The signals involved in the synergy appear to include the activation of both STAT3 and NF-κB via distinct cytokine-dependent pathways. Thus...

Role of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus C-Terminal LANA Chromosome Binding in Episome Persistence▿

Kelley-Clarke, Brenna; De Leon-Vazquez, Erika; Slain, Katherine; Barbera, Andrew J.; Kaye, Kenneth M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) LANA is an 1,162-amino-acid protein that tethers terminal repeat (TR) DNA to mitotic chromosomes to mediate episome persistence in dividing cells. C-terminal LANA self-associates to bind TR DNA. LANA contains independent N- and C-terminal chromosome binding regions. N-terminal LANA binds histones H2A/H2B to attach to chromosomes, and this binding is essential for episome persistence. We now investigate the role of C-terminal chromosome binding in LANA function. Alanine substitutions for LANA residues 1068LKK1070 and 1125SHP1127 severely impaired chromosome binding but did not reduce the other C-terminal LANA functions of self-association or DNA binding. The 1068LKK1070 and 1125SHP1127 substitutions did not reduce LANA's inhibition of RB1-induced growth arrest, transactivation of the CDK2 promoter, or C-terminal LANA's inhibition of p53 activation of the BAX promoter. When N-terminal LANA was wild type, the 1068LKK1070 and 1125SHP1127 substitutions also did not reduce LANA chromosome association or episome persistence. However, when N-terminal LANA binding to chromosomes was modestly diminished, the substitutions in 1068LKK1070 and 1125SHP1127 dramatically reduced both LANA chromosome association and episome persistence. These data suggest a model in which N- and C-terminal LANA cooperatively associates with chromosomes to mediate full-length LANA chromosome binding and viral persistence.

Influence of the Theiler's Virus L∗ Protein on Macrophage Infection, Viral Persistence, and Neurovirulence

van Eyll, Olivier; Michiels, Thomas
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2000 Português
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The genome of picornaviruses contains a large open reading frame (ORF) translated as a precursor polypeptide that is processed to yield all the proteins necessary for the viral life cycle. In persistent but not in neurovirulent strains of Theiler's virus, an overlapping ORF encodes an additional 18-kDa protein called L∗. We confirmed previous work showing that the L∗ ORF of persistent strains facilitates the infection of macrophage cell lines, and we present evidence that this effect is due to the L∗ protein itself rather than to competition for the translation of the two overlapping ORFs. The introduction of an AUG codon to restore the L∗ ORF of the neurovirulent GDVII strain also enhanced the infection of macrophages, in spite of the divergent evolution of this protein. The presence or the absence of the L∗ AUG initiation codon had only a weak influence on the neurovirulence of the GDVII strain and on the persistence of the DA1 strain. The results obtained with DA1 in vivo contrast with the results reported previously for DAFL3, another molecular clone of the same virus strain, where the AUG-to-ACG mutation of the L∗ initiation codon totally blocked viral persistence (G. D. Ghadge, L. Ma, S. Sato, J. Kim, and R. P. Roos...