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Administrative Capacity in the New EU Member States : The Limits of Innovation?

Verheijen, Tony
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
This study considers key aspects of administrative performance in three areas related to policy, people, and systems. First, in the field of policy, the study addresses issues of performance management, strategic planning and policy coordination and formulation. Second, as regards people, the study reviews human resource management practices such as recruitment and career management, incentive systems and politico-administrative relations with the aim of assessing the extent to which public administrations in the EU8 can attract and retain high quality staff in the context of rapidly changing labor markets. Finally, in relation to systems, the study looks into one specific aspect of public service delivery, namely the extent to which states have introduced e-Governance systems and used these effectively to enhance the business environment. A benchmarking exercise was conducted in each of the key aspects studied. A specific aim of the study was to identify examples of good practice within the region which might be replicable in other EU8 countries. This study reviews the direction of administrative development in the first two years of EU membership in the EU8 and includes a review of general trends in administrative development as well as a benchmarking exercise for a sample of states on selected criteria that illustrate capacity for public management innovations. The study will draw conclusions on ways to address the identified issues and problems in the development of the public management systems of the EU8...

Administrative Barriers to Foreign Investment : Reducing Red Tape in Africa

Emery, James J.; Spence, Melvin T., Jr.; Wells, Louis T., Jr.; Buehrer, Timothy S.
Fonte: Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation and the World Bank
Português
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36.38%
The book consists of two papers which provide an overview of administrative barriers in Africa, and a very in-depth look at how one country, Mozambique, used a very large foreign investment as a mechanism to begin to tear them down. The first paper is based on a series of country-specific studies on administrative barriers done by Foreign Investment Advisory Service (FIAS) and the United States Agency for International Development. These studies covered Ghana, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, and Uganda. Each country study relied on review of primary materials, laws, and regulations. The second paper is a detailed look at how the administrative barriers that existed in Mozambique threatened to derail the huge Mozal aluminum smelter that was proposed by South African investors. Not only were the barriers overcome for this special project but also the Government used the knowledge gained in the process to reduce barriers for all investors and establish institutions that could facilitate other investments. The message in both papers is that administrative barriers constitute a significant impediment to foreign direct investment in Africa. Many of the administrative procedures required of investors have no real justification. Removal of unnecessary barriers and streamlining other administrative procedures require detailed efforts by governments involving the exercise of significant political leadership.

Greco-Roman Lessons for Public Debt Management and Debt Market Development

Campanaro, Alessandra; Vittas, Dimitri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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36.47%
Greece and Italy initiated efforts to improve public debt management and develop their domestic debt markets respectively in the late 1970s and mid-1980s. At that time, both countries suffered from large and rapidly growing public debt, excessive reliance on short-term bills held by commercial banks, a strong preference of households to save in bank deposits, and a weak presence of institutional investors (pension funds, insurance companies, and mutual funds). Continuing large fiscal deficits, high levels of interest rates and inflation, and serious policy credibility problems impeded the use of long-term instruments. The authors provide a detailed analysis of the characteristics of the instruments that were used in these two countries, their pace of issuance, and their impact on the composition of public debt. The authors note that the main Greco-Roman lesson for developing and transition countries concerns the transition from an excessive reliance on short-term Treasury bills, held by captive banks, to a liquid market with long-term instruments held...

Subnational Debt, Insolvency, and Market Development

Canuto, Otaviano; Liu, Lili
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.5%
State and local debt and the debt of quasi-public agencies have grown in importance as a result of fiscal decentralization, rapid urbanization, and the increasing role played by private capital. However, with debt comes the risk of insolvency. This note outlines a set of aligned fiscal incentives that should be in place, as well as the design issues to be considered in debt restructuring frameworks. This note also suggests some broad lessons extracted from several country experiences with subnational debt restructuring, insolvency frameworks, and debt market development. This note suggest a range of possible lessons to consider when designing reforms to align fiscal incentives and develop a robust subnational debt framework that can be used to effectively manage the insolvency risks that will inevitably accompany the new dynamism of subnational finance.

Using Administrative Data to Evaluate Municipal Reforms : An Evaluation of the Impact of Minas Facil Expresso

Bruhn, Miriam; McKenzie, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
Efforts to make it easier for firms to register formally are the most common form of business regulatory reform over the past decade. While there is evidence that large reforms have resulted in some increases in registration rates, recent experimental evidence suggests very few informal firms choose to register when given information about how to do so. This raises the question of whether it is productive for governments to continue to extend simplification efforts to all firms, especially those in more remote areas where many of the benefits of registering may be reduced. This study uses administrative data to evaluate the impact of Minas Facil Expresso, a program in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, which attempted to expand a business start-up simplification program to more remote municipalities. Using difference-in-differences with 56 months of registration data for 822 municipalities, the analysis finds introducing these units actually led to a reduction in registration rates, and no change in tax revenues. The paper uses this evaluation to illustrate the design choices and issues involved in using administrative data to evaluate reforms...

Decision Time : Spend More or Spend Smart? Kenya Public Expenditure Review

World Bank Group
Fonte: Nairobi Publicador: Nairobi
Português
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26.73%
Kenya is currently in an expansionary phase of its fiscal policy reflected in a widening primary deficit. The fiscal framework is marked by a significant fiscal expansion over the last three years, 2011/12 to 2013/14. The fiscal stimulus implemented in 2009/10 increased aggregate spending by 2 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However the envisaged fiscal retrenchment at the end of the program did not materialize and fiscal expansion continued with the general election in 2013. Aggregate expenditure averaged 25 percent and revenue at 18 percent of GDP. The fiscal deficit financed through debt is reflected in the doubling of the primary deficit (commitment basis) now in the range of 3.3 percent of GDP, and the rising stock of public debt from 37 percent to 43 percent of GDP (net of deposits), of which about half 22 percent was external debt in 2013/14. The fiscal developments have seen an increase in the share of debt service in total spending from 13 percent to 15 percent of recurrent spending, equivalent to 2.6 percent of GDP. Kenya s debt service is higher among East Africa Community (EAC) peers...

Defining, Measuring, and Benchmarking Administrative Expenditures of Mandatory Social Security Programs

Sluchynsky, Oleksiy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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36.52%
This study provides a framework for comparison and benchmarking of administrative expenditures of public and private social security programs. The paper presents the genesis of the inquiries into the subject, reviewing some of the most relevant literature on administrative expenditures and the costs of mandatory programs produced over the past two decades. The quantitative analysis builds on the extensive body of literature, but our framework evolved considerably from earlier studies. Our dataset includes over 100 observations and a broad set of explanatory variables. The authors developed and compared a number of standardized cost indices discussing their advantages and limitations. The author also discusses major cost components and their shares in total program costs. The analysis explains over 90 percent of variation in administrative expenditures. It confirms some of the hypotheses expressed in the earlier studies and presents new evidence of driving factors for costs. The author developed three different specifications for statistical analysis. The first set looks at the impact of design of a program on total costs. The second group of specifications assesses differences in costs of managing pension liabilities between the public and private mandatory pension schemes. Finally...

In the aftermath of the crisis : the EU administrative system between impediments and momentum

CHITI, Edoardo
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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36.41%
The European responses to the financial and public debt crisis have triggered a process of administrative reorganization and growth within two fundamental sectors of the EU, the internal market of financial services and the EMU. This paper argues that the process of reorganization and growth of the EU administrative machinery within the single financial market and the EMU is characterized by a number of inherent tensions. Four of them are prominent and refer, respectively, to the powers conferred to the satellite administrative bodies established in order to tackle the crisis, to the jurisdictions of the new administrations, to the degree of centralization which is sought within the new mechanisms for the implementation of EU laws and policies, to the accountability mechanisms. When assessed in the light of their capability to improve the EU administrative capacities, such tensions appear to be deeply ambivalent. On the one hand, they might operate as «fault lines» of the whole EU administrative machinery, destabilizing its functioning in two important fields of EU action. On the other hand, by pointing to a host of unsolved issues in EU administrative law, they provide an opportunity for opening a genuine institutional and scientific discussion on the ways in which the EU administrative system should be adjusted or reformed.

Resource consequences of altering the delinquent debt threshold used in background investigations for security clearances

Matheny, Paul D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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36.13%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; This thesis presents the results of a study conducted to determine the resource impact of raising the delinquent debt threshold used to expand background investigations on security clearances from $500 to $2000. Statistical analysis was used to investigate the effects of this change in policy on the frequency of financial issue case security clearance investigations. The results of the analysis indicate that a reduction did occur in the number of financial related issue cases as a percentage of the total number of issue cases after the threshold change had taken place. As a result, resources are saved as case controllers, investigators, adjudicators, administrators, and secretarial staff spend less time, effort, and related travel on financial related issue cases. Additional savings are realized as defense contractor employees spend less time on menial tasks waiting for security clearances to be approved.

Impact of altering the delinquent debt threshold used for background investigation expansion of the denial rate of security clearances

Hill, Henry J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 74 p.
Português
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46.41%
The purpose of this thesis was to conduct an analysis of cases of requests for Top Secret security clearances from applicants whose backgrounds showed some derogatory financial information, to determine the impact of the delinquent debt threshold used to expand personnel security investigations on final clearance decisions. To conduct the analysis, a sample of completed cases meeting the Defense Investigative Service's (DIS) delinquent debt criteria for investigation expansion ($500 or more outstanding for 120 days) was selected. The total amount of delinquent debt for each case was recorded and classified in one of three debt categories, under $1000, $1000 to $2000, and over $2000. In order to determine final clearance decisions, the sample data were merged with the Defense Central Investigations (DCII) data base. This provided a breakdown by clearance denials and approvals at the various delinquent debt categories. The analysis suggests that delinquent debt levels play less of a role in determining final clearance outcomes than was originally anticipated; it also provide som empirical support for raising the delinquent debt threshold above the current $500 threshold amount; http://archive.org/details/impactofaltering00hill; Lieutenant...

Czech Republic : Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations in the Transition

do Carmo Oliveira, Joao; Martinez-Vasquez, Jorge
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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26.67%
The study overviews the most relevant, current intergovernmental fiscal issues in the Czech Republic, centered on the options available to prod policy planning. Fragmentation at the lowest tier of government is the most striking feature of the administrative structure. This suggests a strategic direction for further administrative reforms to sustain fiscal decentralization, which includes empowering territorial self-governing units; establishing a multilevel government coordinating body to define autonomous functions on expenditures, and revenues; and by creating financial and legal incentives to facilitate an asymmetric assignment of revenue and expenditure. Specific policy actions should include institutional inter-governmental cooperation and dialogue through a broad based commission to recommend regional expenditures, and the Budget Rules Law should be amended to preempt unfounded mandates to local governments. Revenue autonomy should be boosted by increasing predictability of local budgets, restoring tax-effort incentives...

Czech Republic : Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations in the Transition

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.71%
The study presents an overview of the most relevant, current intergovernmental fiscal issues in the Czech Republic, centered on the options available to prod policy planning. The fragmentation at the lowest tier of government is the most striking feature of the administrative structure, thus suggesting a strategic direction for further administrative reforms to sustain fiscal decentralization, by empowering territorial self-governing units, through meaningful autonomy, through the establishment of a multilevel government coordinating body, for the definition of autonomous functions on expenditures, and revenues, and, by creating financial, and legal incentives, to facilitate an asymmetric assignment of revenue, and expenditure. Specific policy actions to clarify responsibilities of the strategic direction for expenditure assignments should include institutional inter-governmental cooperation, and dialogue, through a broad based commission to recommend regional expenditures, and, the Budget Rules Law should be amended to preempt unfounded mandates to local governments. Revenue autonomy should be boosted by increasing predictability of local budgets...

Combining Insurance, Contingent Debt, and Self-Retention in an Optimal Corporate Risk Financing Strategy

Gurenko, Eugene; Mahul, Olivier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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36.33%
The authors provide a conceptual framework for designing a comprehensive risk financing strategy for a firm, using an optimal combination of three instruments: self-retention, contingent debt, and insurance. Using an original conceptual model, the risk management decisions of the firm are first decomposed into two sets-choosing attachment points for each layer of financing used in the overall risk financing structure, and, then determining optimal risk allocation arrangements within each layer of risk. This model allows the authors to show how these optimal risk financing arrangements are driven by the costs of risk management instruments, the risk characteristics, and the firm's borrowing constraints. Finally, the authors provide an original perspective to think about optimal ex ante risk management strategies, based on a combination of insurance, savings, and credit at the microeconomic or macroeconomic levels.

Moldova Public Expenditure Review : Reforming Local Public Finance for More Efficient, Equitable, and Fiscally Sustainable Subnational Spending

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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26.77%
This report reviews intergovernmental fiscal relations in Moldova and recommends ways to improve the efficiency and equity of local public finance, while maintaining fiscal sustainability. Local public authorities are responsible for meeting key public service delivery needs. They play a major role in education and bear primary responsibility for urban and rural functions such as water supply and local road construction and maintenance. But local authorities are unable to fulfill this role due to sub-optimal size, inadequate financial capacity, and low administrative capacity. The Government of Moldova is reforming intergovernmental fiscal relations, as part of broader commitments under the national decentralization strategy (2012). They set new rates for sharing national taxes with the two tiers of local government, introduce formulas for transfers to local governments, and remove subordination in financial relations between top and bottom tiers of local government. This report reviews recent reforms in local public finance and makes suggestions to further improve subnational expenditures...

Issues in Sub-National Borrowing in Nigeria

Ekpo, Akpan H.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
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26.66%
Since 1991 the share of sub-national outlays in total government spending has increased, reflecting their active role in service delivery and greater autonomy in policy-making and implementation. As a result, sub-national economic policies have taken on an increasingly important role in ensuring macroeconomic stability. The rising share of sub-national finance, including sub-national Governments (SNGs) debt as a share of general public debt abundantly reflects this trend of greater devolution of spending responsibilities, revenue - raising authority and the capacity to incur debt. The growing importance of SNG finances and the recognition that the trend can pose dangers to macroeconomic stability have informed different institutional responses to the difficulties of decentralized decision-making, especially addressing the need to improve policy coordination across levels of government and contain sub-national borrowing. The purpose of this paper is to articulate some issues in SNG borrowing arising from the peculiarities of the Nigerian situation. To this end...

Measuring the Impact of Debt-Financed Public Investment

Cavalcanti, Carlos B.; Marrero, Gustavo A.; Le, Tuan Minh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
While debt-financed productive public investment raises a country s debt ratios in the short run, it can also generate higher growth, revenues, and exports, leading over time to lower debt ratios. This paper develops a framework to assess whether countries meet the conditions for realizing the net benefits over the costs of public investment debt financing. While it is possible to achieve debt sustainability with an appropriate mix of concessional and non-concessional financing, this is a necessary but not sufficient condition. It is also important to ensure the operational viability of public investment projects by having in place adequate project management: (i) project screening and appraisal, (ii) a clear connection between capital and recurrent expenditures once the projects are launched, and (iii) safeguards for appropriate project implementation and facilities operations. To illustrate the strength of these results, the paper carries out three measurement exercises: (a) a simulation of the degree to which the ratio of optimal public investment responds to changes in key parameters related to project management in a general equilibrium model; (b) application of the public investment management (PIMa) index to benchmark a country's public investment management capacity; and (c) presentation of the results of the Investment...

Bulgaria - Administrative and regulatory barriers to business

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report
Português
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36.4%
The present report on the Administrative and Regulatory Barriers to Business is part of an ongoing World Bank analytical and advisory support to the Government of Bulgaria in the area of regulatory reform. Since 2006, the World Bank has provided analytical and advisory support to the government in this area. In 2007, the Bank reviewed administrative procedures in the tourism, food, and road transportation sectors, calling for reduction and simplification of certain burdensome administrative regimes and emphasizing superfluous regulation at the municipality level. This report aims to identify ways in which Bulgaria can further remove obstacles to business regulation, recognizing that achieving pre-crisis growth levels, raising labor productivity and improving the business environment will require continued reforms to eliminate administrative and regulatory barriers to business. The report serves three purposes, such as: 1) providing the economic backdrop and comparators of Bulgaria's regulatory environment; 2) reporting on survey results including assessments by and perceptions of senior managers of Bulgarian enterprises; and 3) identifying strategic reform recommendations...

Taking Stock : An Update on Vietnam's Recent Economic Developments, December 2014

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP)
Português
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26.69%
The global economy is showing signs of recovery, but at an uneven pace; global growth is expected to rise modestly to 2.6 percent in 2014, and an average 3.3 percent in 2015-17. The gradual strengthening of activity in the Euro Area and especially the US will boost demand for exports from developing East Asia and Pacific (EAP), helping the region sustain its growth performance. There are early signs of firming up of economic recovery in Vietnam. GDP growth picked up to a relatively brisk 6.2 percent (y-o-y) in the third quarter of 2014, contributing to an overall growth rate of 5.6 percent for the first nine months of the year. Credit growth continues to come in below target, hampering the State Bank of Vietnam's efforts to carry out credit expansion to support economic growth. The Government has taken some important measures in 2014 to improve business conditions, which are expected to bear fruit from 2015 onward. The Government issued Resolution 19 (March 18, 2014), which prioritizes shortening the time for processing and completion of administrative procedures...

A Global View of Business Insolvency Systems

Westbrook, Lawrence; Booth, Charles D.; Paulus, Christoph G.; Rajak, Harry
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Brill Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Brill
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
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36.77%
The purpose of this book is to provide a coherent overview of the insolvency systems found around the world. Its intended audience includes academics, judges, lawyers, and policymakers. Its focus is on businesses rather than natural persons. The authors hope to give the reader a sense of some of the principal approaches to managing the general default of a business debtor. The authors will discuss the nature of the costs and benefits arising from the various policy choices legislators have made. In the process, they will emphasize the close interrelationship among various elements of an insolvency regime so that these elements can be viewed as part of an overall system and not just as a series of policy decisions about particular rules, such as the method of initiation of an insolvency case or the balance struck in setting the boundaries of an avoidance power. The organization of the book reflects our view of insolvency laws as complete systems, including not only the 'insolvency' or 'bankruptcy' code of a jurisdiction but also closely related laws and the institutional framework in which those laws are applied. The book takes a systematic approach to a variety of topics related to credit and insolvency regulation. The functional analysis starts with the study of debt enforcement...

Inscrição em dívida ativa por erro em DCTF apresentada pelo contribuinte; Signup for debt error in DCTF presented by taxpayer

Moro Frigi, Natal
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
Português
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36.65%
O presente Trabalho, de Conclusão de Curso, visa à realização do estudo no tocante à revisão de débito inscrito em dívida ativa, originado na prestação de informações fornecidas pelo sujeito passivo, através da Declaração de Débitos e Créditos Tributários Federais (DCTF). O contribuinte somente toma conhecimento dos erros, por ele cometidos, na DCTF, quando cobrado do valor ou comunicado da inscrição (diferenças) em dívida ativa. Objetiva o trabalho o estudo da possibilidade de ter estes valores revisados administrativamente, pela Receita Federal do Brasil (RFB). Preliminarmente será abordado o surgimento do processo administrativo Fiscal (PAF), regulado pelo Decreto nº 70.235/72, logo em seguida serão apresentados os princípios constitucionais informadores, princípios estes de total relevância ao processo administrativo tributário. Nos capítulos seguintes, serão abordados tais tópicos: atos administrativos, crédito tributário e sua constituição, dívida ativa, prevista no art. 201 do Código Tributário Nacional (CTN) e breves comentários sobre a DCTF. Tal trabalho nos remete ao questionamento de que não teria a RFB, em constatando erro na DCTF, mesmo tendo este sido cometido pelo contribuinte...