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Consumo abusivo e dependência de álcool em população adulta no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil; Alcohol abuse and dependence in adults in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

GUIMARÃES, Vanessa Valente; FLORINDO, Alex Antônio; STOPA, Sheila Rizzato; CÉSAR, Chester Luiz Galvão; BARROS, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; CARANDINA, Luana; GOLDBAUM, Moisés
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós -Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
OBJETIVO: Descrever as prevalências de consumo abusivo e dependência de álcool em população adulta de 20 a 59 anos no Estado de São Paulo, e suas associações com variáveis demográficas e socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: Inquérito domiciliar do tipo transversal (ISA-SP), em quatro áreas do Estado de São Paulo: a) Região Sudoeste da Grande São Paulo, constituída pelos Municípios de Taboão da Serra, Itapecerica da Serra e Embu; b) Distrito do Butantã, no Município de São Paulo; c) Município de Campinas e; d) Município de Botucatu. Foi considerado consumo abusivo de álcool a ingestão em dia típico de 30 gramas ou mais de etanol para os homens, e 24 gramas ou mais para as mulheres. A dependência de álcool foi caracterizada pelo questionário CAGE. Análises bivariadas e multivariadas dos dados foram realizadas a partir de Modelos de Regressão de Poisson. Todas as análises foram estratificadas por sexo. RESULTADOS: Em 1.646 adultos entrevistados, a prevalência de consumo abusivo de álcool foi de 52,9% no sexo masculino e 26,8% no sexo feminino. Quanto à dependência de álcool, foram observadas duas ou mais respostas positivas no teste CAGE em 14,8% dos homens e em 5,4% das mulheres que relataram consumir álcool. Isto corresponde a uma prevalência populacional de dependência de 10...

Comparing topiramate with naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol dependence

BALTIERI, Danilo Antonio; DARO, Fabio Ruiz; RIBEIRO, Philip Leite; ANDRADE, Arthur Guerra de
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
To compare the efficacy of topiramate with naltrexone in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The investigation was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week study carried out at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 155 patients, 18-60 years of age, with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnosis of alcohol dependence. After a 1-week detoxification period, patients were assigned randomly to receive topiramate (induction to 300 mg/day), naltrexone (50 mg/day) or placebo. Time to first relapse (consumption of > 60 g ethyl alcohol), cumulative abstinence duration and weeks of heavy drinking. In intention-to-treat analyses, topiramate was statistically superior to placebo on a number of measures including time to first relapse (7.8 versus 5.0 weeks), cumulative abstinence duration (8.2 versus 5.6 weeks), weeks of heavy drinking (3.4 versus 5.9) and percentage of subjects abstinent at 4 weeks (67.3 versus 42.6) and 8 weeks (61.5 versus 31.5), but not 12 weeks (46.2 versus 27.8). Results remained significant after controlling for Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, which was higher in topiramate than in other groups. There were no significant differences between naltrexone versus placebo or naltrexone versus topiramate groups...

Depressive symptoms and alcohol correlates among Brazilians aged 14 years and older: a cross-sectional study

Coelho, Cassiano L S; Laranjeira, Ronaldo R; Santos, Jair L F; Pinsky, Ilana; Zaleski, Marcos; Caetano, Raul; Crippa, José A S
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Abstract Background The associations between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related disorders, drinking patterns and other characteristics of alcohol use are important public health issues worldwide. This study aims to study these associations in an upper middle-income country, Brazil, and search for related socio-demographic correlations in men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2005 and April 2006. The sample of 3,007 participants, selected using a multistage probabilistic sampling method, represents the Brazilian population aged 14 and older. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and alcohol dependence was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations assessed using bi-variate analysis were tested using Rao-Scott measures. Gender specific multinomial logistic regression models were developed. Results Among the participants with alcohol dependence, 46% had depressive symptoms (17.2% mild/moderate and 28.8% major/severe; p < 0.01); 35.8% (p = 0.08) of those with alcohol abuse and 23.9% (p < 0.01) of those with a binge-drinking pattern also had depressive symptoms. Alcohol abstainers and infrequent drinkers had the highest prevalence of major/severe depressive symptoms...

Apoio social para dependentes do álcool; Social support for alcohol dependent individuals.2007.

Oliva, Ana Lígia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/12/2007 Português
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O consumo abusivo do álcool e suas conseqüências vêm aumentando significativamente, constituindo sério problema para a saúde pública. Esses problemas representam alto custo social e comprometem diversas áreas da saúde. O presente estudo é do tipo descritivo e tem como objetivo identificar o apoio social para dependentes do álcool e analisar suas relações. A amostra foi composta por 50 usuários, cadastrados, e em atendimento no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial -Álcool e Drogas - CAPS ad.II, de Ribeirão Preto, com diagnóstico de síndrome de dependência do álcool. Para a coleta de dados foi utilizado questionário estruturado com perguntas fechadas, dividido em três partes: as informações sociodemográficas, o teste de identificação do uso do álcool (Audit) e o instrumento de apoio social Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). Resultados: 43(86%) do sexo masculi no, 26(46%) solteiros, 26(52%) adultos, faixa etária entre 30 e 49 anos, com baixo nível de escolaridade 31(62%), pois tinham o ensino fundamental completo ou incompleto, e 21(42%) estavam desempregados. Com relação ao uso do álcool, 44(88%) apresentaram níveis de provável dependência, ou dependência, do álcool, e 31(62%) iniciaram o uso do álcool na adolescência...

Genetic polymorphism of alcohol-metabolizing enzyme and alcohol dependence in Polish men

Cichoż-Lach,H.; Celiński,K.; Wojcierowski,J.; Słomka,M.; Lis,E.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
Alcohol dependence poses a serious medical and sociological problem. It is influenced by multiple environmental and genetic factors, which may determine differences in alcohol metabolism. Genetic polymorphism of the enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism is highly ethnically and race dependent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences, if present, in the allele and genotype frequency of alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B), ADH1C and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS/CYP2E1) between alcohol-dependent individuals and controls and also to determine if these genotypes cause a difference in the age at which the patients become alcohol dependent. The allele and genotype frequencies of ADH1B, ADH1C, and CYP2E1 were determined in 204 alcohol dependent men and 172 healthy volunteers who do not drink alcohol (control group). Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP methods on white cell DNA. ADH1B*1 (99.3%) and ADH1C*1 (62.5%) alleles and ADH1B*1/*1 (N = 201) and ADH1C*1/*1 (N = 85) genotypes were statistically more frequent among alcohol-dependent subjects than among controls (99.3 and 62.5%, N = 201 and 85 vs 94.5 and 40.7%, N = 153 and 32, respectively). Differences in the CYP2E1 allele and genotype distribution between groups were not significant. The persons with ADH1C*1/*1 and CYP2E1*c1/*c2 genotypes became alcohol dependent at a considerably younger age than the subjects with ADH1C*1/*2...

Public perception of alcohol dependence

Peluso,Érica de Toledo Piza; Blay,Sérgio Luís
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
OBJECTIVE: To describe how the population of the city of São Paulo identifies alcohol dependence, which causes they attribute to this disorder and what is reported regarding stigma perception, risk of violence and emotional reactions. METHOD: Cross sectional study involving a probabilistic sample of 500 individuals in São Paulo aged 18 to 65 years. A structured questionnaire was used and started with a vignette describing an individual with alcohol dependence according to the DSM-IV and ICD-10, followed by a questionnaire divided into various sections examining the causes, stigma, risk of violence and emotional reactions to the case presented in the vignette. RESULTS: Less than 20% of the subjects reported to believe this was a mental illness. The causes considered most relevant were psychosocial ones, followed by moral causes. Alcohol dependence was associated with a high risk of violence and stigma by the part of others. In contrast, reactions declared by the subjects about their probable attitude were mostly positive. CONCLUSION: Alcohol dependence is seen as a psychosocial and moral problem. Negative images predominate regarding individuals with this disorder.

Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence: Focus on Motivational Mechanisms

Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Koob, George F.
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder for the individual and very costly for society. A major goal of alcohol research is to understand the neural underpinnings associated with the transition from alcohol use to alcohol dependence. Positive reinforcement is important in the early stages of alcohol use and abuse. Negative reinforcement can be important early in alcohol use by people self-medicating coexisting affective disorders, but its role likely increases following the transition to dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol induces changes in neural circuits that control motivational processes, including arousal, reward, and stress. These changes affect systems utilizing the signaling molecules dopamine, opioid peptides, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and serotonin, as well as systems modulating the brain’s stress response. These neuroadaptations produce changes in sensitivity to alcohol’s effects following repeated exposure (i.e., sensitization and tolerance) and a withdrawal state following discontinuation of alcohol use. Chronic alcohol exposure also results in persistent neural deficits, some of which may fully recover following extended periods of abstinence. However, the organism remains susceptible to relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Recent research focusing on brain arousal...

Identifying Genetic Variation for Alcohol Dependence

Agrawal, Arpana; Bierut, Laura J.
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
Researchers are using various strategies to identify the genes that may be associated with alcoholism. The initial efforts primarily relied on candidate gene and linkage studies; more recently, however, modern advances in genotyping have resulted in widespread use of genome-wide association studies for alcohol dependence. The key findings of the earlier studies were that variations (i.e., polymorphisms) in the DNA sequences of the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (i.e., the ADH1B gene), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (i.e., the ALDH2 gene), and other alcohol-metabolizing enzymes mediate the risk for alcoholism; moreover, these polymorphisms also have an impact on the risk of alcohol-related cancers, such as esophageal cancer. In addition, a gene encoding one of the receptors for the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) known as GABRA2 seems to have a role in the development of alcohol dependence. Genome-wide association studies now offer a host of emerging opportunities, as well as challenges, for discovering the genetic etiology of alcohol dependence and for unveiling new treatment strategies.

Effects of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal on Stress Responsiveness and Alcohol Consumption

Becker, Howard C.
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
A complex relationship exists between alcohol-drinking behavior and stress. Alcohol has anxiety-reducing properties and can relieve stress, while at the same time acting as a stressor and activating the body’s stress response systems. In particular, chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal can profoundly disturb the function of the body’s neuroendocrine stress response system, the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis. A hormone, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which is produced and released from the hypothalamus and activates the pituitary in response to stress, plays a central role in the relationship between stress and alcohol dependence and withdrawal. Chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal lead to changes in CRF activity both within the HPA axis and in extrahypothalamic brain sites. This may mediate the emergence of certain withdrawal symptoms, which in turn influence the susceptibility to relapse. Alcohol-related dysregulation of the HPA axis and altered CRF activity within brain stress–reward circuitry also may play a role in the escalation of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent individuals. Numerous mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the relationship between alcohol dependence, stress...

Treatment of Alcohol Dependence With Drug Antagonists of the Stress Response

Higley, Amanda E.; Koob, George F.; Mason, Barbara J.
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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56.26%
Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by neuroadaptations that may result in the emergence of negative affective states and stress responses upon discontinuation of alcohol use. Clinical studies have demonstrated that alcohol-dependent people are more sensitive to relapse provoking cues such as alcohol, negative affect, and stress. Moreover, stress relief during protracted abstinence is thought to be a major motivation for excessive alcohol consumption. The relationship between chronic alcohol use, stress, and relapse has implications for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Recent research suggests that neural systems mediating stress responses may offer useful targets for pharmacotherapy of alcoholism.

Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses: Role of Animal Models

Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a variety of genetic animal models, the identification of regions of chromosomal DNA that contain a gene or genes which affect a complex phenotype (i.e., quantitative trait loci [QTLs]) has allowed unbiased searches for candidate genes. Several QTLs with large effects on alcohol withdrawal severity in mice have been detected, and fine mapping of these QTLs has placed them in small intervals on mouse chromosomes 1 and 4 (which correspond to certain regions on human chromosomes 1 and 9). Subsequent work led to the identification of underlying quantitative trait genes (QTGs) (e.g., Mpdz) and high-quality QTG candidates (e.g., Kcnj9 and genes involved in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress) and their plausible mechanisms of action. Human association studies provide supporting evidence that these QTLs and QTGs may be directly relevant to alcohol risk factors in clinical populations.

Alcohol Dependence, Withdrawal, and Relapse

Becker, Howard C.
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
Continued excessive alcohol consumption can lead to the development of dependence that is associated with a withdrawal syndrome when alcohol consumption is ceased or substantially reduced. This syndrome comprises physical signs as well as psychological symptoms that contribute to distress and psychological discomfort. For some people the fear of withdrawal symptoms may help perpetuate alcohol abuse; moreover, the presence of withdrawal symptoms may contribute to relapse after periods of abstinence. Withdrawal and relapse have been studied in both humans and animal models of alcoholism. Clinical studies demonstrated that alcohol-dependent people are more sensitive to relapse-provoking cues and stimuli than nondependent people, and similar observations have been made in animal models of alcohol dependence, withdrawal, and relapse. One factor contributing to relapse is withdrawal-related anxiety, which likely reflects adaptive changes in the brain in response to continued alcohol exposure. These changes affect, for example, the body’s stress response system. The relationship between withdrawal, stress, and relapse also has implications for the treatment of alcoholic patients. Interestingly, animals with a history of alcohol dependence are more sensitive to certain medications that impact relapse-like behavior than animals without such a history...

Alcohol

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse contributes to a wide range of social and health problems, including depression, injuries, cancer, cirrhosis, dependence, family disruption, and loss of work productivity. Health and social problems from drinking often affect others besides the drinker. While men do the bulk of the drinking worldwide, women disproportionately suffer the consequences, including alcohol related domestic violence and reduced family budgets. Heavy alcohol use takes a particular toll on the young, and has been linked to high rates of youthful criminal behavior, injury, and impaired ability to achieve educational qualifications. Many deaths and much disease and suffering could be prevented by reducing alcohol use and related problems. The most effective approach to reduce alcohol-related problems is to implement a comprehensive set of measures to reduce alcohol consumption and related problems. Policy options include price increases...

Association of IL-1B genetic polymorphisms with an increased risk of opioid and alcohol dependence

Liu, L.; Hutchinson, M.; White, J.; Somogyi, A.; Coller, J.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between genetic variability of IL-1B, which encodes for the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta and the risk of developing opioid dependence. To confirm a previous study, we also examined the association between the IL-1B genetic polymorphism and alcohol dependence. METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from 60 opioid-dependent, 99 alcohol-dependent patients and 60 healthy nondependent controls. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to determine the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions -511, -31 and 3954 of IL-1B. RESULTS: IL-1B -511C and -31T alleles were more frequent in both the opioid-dependent and alcohol-dependent patients compared with the control group: odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval) P values corrected for false discovery rate=1.91 (1.14-3.20), P=0.043 and 1.89 (1.19-2.99), P=0.014, respectively, for IL-1B -511C>T; and OR=1.74 (1.02-2.97), P=0.066 and 1.80 (1.13-2.88), P=0.017, respectively, for IL-1B -31T>C. In contrast, no association was observed between opioid dependence and the IL-1B 3954C>T single nucleotide polymorphism [OR=1.60 (0.84-3.02), P=0.15]. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the previous finding that IL-1B polymorphism is associated with altered risk of alcohol dependence. IL-1B single nucleotide polymorphisms at position -511 and -31...

Sexual dysfunction in a sample of 76 male subjects with alcohol dependence

Monteiro, Ana Paula Teixeira de Almeida Vieira; Figueira, Silvino Batista
Fonte: European Psychiatry Assotiation - EPA Publicador: European Psychiatry Assotiation - EPA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/05/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Introduction Chronic and persistent alcohol use is known to induce sexual dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is a health problem that affects not only the individual's sexual functionality but as well their physical and psychological well-being, affecting their mental health. Aims This study aims to analyze the relationship between erectile dysfunction and alcoholism in a clinical sample of 76 alcoholic patients. Methods The study sample consists of 76 men, admitted to an addiction center with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome. Data were collected through the IIEF questionnaire (assessment of ED), the SADQ-C (assessment of prevalenece of alcohol consumption), and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results Most patients of the sample exhibit a moderately satisfactory sexual function. However, it was not possible to confirm the existence of a relationship between the severity of alcoholism and sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with alcohol dependence. However, given the impact of treatment on sexual performance perceived by the respondents, it seems that this is an area that needs to be further investigated. Clinicians need to routinely assess sexual functioning in alcoholic patients so that other factors contributing to sexual dysfunction can be ruled out.

Reliability and dimensionality of the Short Alcohol Dependence Data (SADD) questionnaire in a clinical sample of hospitalized patients: using the SADD in a general hospital setting

Rosa-Oliveira,Leonardo Quicoli; Presti,Paula de Figueiredo; Antunes,Irene Reali; Carbonari,Giovana Canale; Imada,Ana Carolina; Maeda,Marilia Yuri; Silveira,Dartiu Xavier da; Doering-Silveira,Juliana
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
OBJECTIVE: To assess the internal consistency and dimensionality of the Short Alcohol Dependence Data questionnaire in a general hospital sample. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 169 randomly selected inpatients of a general hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. A Portuguese version of the 15-item Short Alcohol Dependence Data questionnaire was applied together with a questionnaire to assess demographic and anthropometric data. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the Short Alcohol Dependence Data as measured using Cronbach's alpha was 0.79, indicating that the items of the questionnaire are related to the same construct. Principal Component Analysis of the scale resulted in a five-dimension solution accounting for 69.6% of the total variance. The mean score of the Short Alcohol Dependence Data in this sample was 7.96 (SD = 6.8). CONCLUSION: The adapted version of the SADD seems to retain the characteristics of the original version. The internal consistency of the instrument suggests that its questions converge to the same construct. The factorial solution reflects different dimensions that correspond to distinct aspects of the alcohol dependence syndrome.

Use of cocaine by heavy drinkers increases vulnerability to developing alcohol dependence: a 4-year follow-up study

Rubio, Gabriel; Manzanares, Jorge; Jiménez, Mónica; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Martínez, Isabel; Iribarren, Miguel M.; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel A.; Ponce, Guillermo; Palomo, Tomás
Fonte: Physicians Postgraduate Press Publicador: Physicians Postgraduate Press
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 141452 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
8 pages.-- PMID: 18373382 [PubMed].-- Printed version published on Apr 2008.; Presented in part at the 11th Congress of the European Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism, Berlin, Germany, September 23-26, 2007.; [Objective] The development of alcohol dependence is associated with specific individual personality traits and previous consumption of other drugs of abuse. However, there is little information on these risk factors in heavy drinkers before and after they meet the criteria for alcohol dependence. This study examined the influence of cocaine use and the role of impulsivity in the development of DSM-IV alcohol dependence in nondependent drinkers in a 4-year follow-up study.; [Method] A prospective cohort study was conducted to establish the risk factors associated with DSM-IV alcohol dependence. Four hundred seventy-one (nondependent) heavy drinkers were enrolled in a prospective study. At baseline, 280 were classified as heavy drinkers (HD) and 191 as heavy drinkers who also used cocaine (HD + Co). Clinical variables related to alcohol and cocaine use were assessed at 2 years and at the end of the 4-year follow-up period. The study was conducted from September 2001 until September 2006 in Madrid, Spain.; [Results] At the 4-year follow-up assessment...

Allelic variation at alcohol metabolism genes (ADH1B, ADH1C, ALDH2) and alcohol dependence in an American Indian population

Mulligan, Connie; Robin, Robert; Osier, Michael; Sambuughin, Nyamkhishig; Goldfarb, Lev; Kittles, Rick; Hesselbrock, Diane; Goldman, David; Long, Jeffrey
Fonte: Springer: Human Genetics Publicador: Springer: Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 43151 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
Enzymes encoded by two gene families, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), mediate alcohol metabolism in humans. Allelic variants have been identified that alter metabolic rates and influence risk for alcoholism. Specifically, ADH1B*47His (previously ADH2-2) and ALDH2-2 have been shown to confer protection against alcoholism, presumably through accumulation of acetaldehyde in the blood and a resultant 'flushing response' to alcohol consumption. In the current study, variants at ADH1B (previously ADH2), ADH1C (previously ADH3), and ALDH2 were assayed in DNA extracts from participants belonging to a Southwest American Indian tribe (n=490) with a high prevalence of alcoholism. Each subject underwent a clinical interview for diagnosis of alcohol dependence, as well as evaluation of intermediate phenotypes such as binge drinking and flushing response to alcohol consumption. Detailed haplotypes were constructed and tested against alcohol dependence and related intermediate phenotypes using both association and linkage analysis. ADH and ALDH variants were also assayed in three Asian and one African population (no clinical data) in order to provide an evolutionary context for the haplotype data. Both linkage and association analysis identified several ADH1C alleles and a neighboring microsatellite marker that affected risk of alcohol dependence and were also related to binge drinking. These data strengthen the support for ADH as a candidate locus for alcohol dependence and suggest further productive study.

Three versions of the Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire (SADD) in Mexican population: a comparative analysis of psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy

Pérez-López,Alejandro; Villalobos-Gallegos,Luis; Viveros Rodríguez,María del Carmen; Graue-Moreno,Javier; Marín-Navarrete,Rodrigo
Fonte: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Publicador: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
BACKGROUND: The Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire (SADD) has shown good reliability and validity in previous studies. In Mexico, although it is widely used in addiction treatment centers, little is known about its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy.OBJECTIVE: Hence, this study performed a Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA) on three SADD versions (15, 14 and 12 items) and examined their operating characteristics.METHOD: The sample included 570 individuals from the 30 Addiction Residential Centers localized in the central zone of Mexico.RESULTS: The three versions showed an internal consistency of >.90, fair goodness-of-fit, and significant correlations with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) 5.0 Alcohol dependence (AD) diagnostic criteria. The analysis of the operating characteristics revealed that each version accounted for 84-85% of the area under the curve (AUC).DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The three SADD versions possess reliability and validity properties for the assessment of the alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS) and adequate diagnostic accuracy for the improvement of patients with AD in residential settings.

The complex interplay of genetics, epigenetics, and environment in the predisposition to alcohol dependence

Díaz-Anzaldúa,Adriana; Díaz-Martínez,Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez,Leonila Rosa
Fonte: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Publicador: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
Alcohol dependence is a major global problem, associated with lower quality of physical and mental health, higher mortality and an enormous familial and social cost. Prevention strategies and treatment of this condition are therefore crucial. Success of psychosocial programs and pharmacological treatments has been frequently reported, but a better understanding of the etiology of this chronic disease is needed. For this purpose, the identification of associated factors in different populations is of great significance. It has been clearly demonstrated by twin and adoption studies and supported by animal models that both genetic and environmental components play a substancial role in alcohol dependence. Heritabil ity estimates range from 40 to 60%, depending on the specific analyzed sample. Several coexisting genetic variants in each affected individual, rather than a single gene transmitted in a Mendelian manner, may be the rule in alcohol dependence. Similarly, many environmental factors can increase susceptibility, and because of their diversity, they do not have to be the same in every affected person. Environmental contribution may be linked to epigenetics, which refers to chemical processes that can modify gene activity without changing the sequence of DNA. In humans...