Página 1 dos resultados de 361 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

Análise da eficiência do setor sucroenergético brasileiro; Analysis of the Brazilian sugarcane industry efficiency

Xavier, Carlos Eduardo Osório
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e aplicar um critério para mensurar a eficiência econômica da produção do setor sucroenergético do Brasil e, em função disso, avaliar a existência de potenciais melhorias na eficiência nas atividades produtivas do setor. Para atingir esses objetivos foi desenvolvido um modelo DEA - Data Envelopment Analysis baseado na organização do sistema de produção. O modelo foi formulado considerando dados primários coletados com 67 agroindústrias brasileiras, responsáveis pelo processamento de 22,6% da cana produzida no Brasil, na safra 2012/2013. Testes paramétricos e não-paramétricos sobre os resultados de diferentes especificações de modelos DEA, apontaram como mais apropriado a adoção do modelo de análise de eficiência mais simples o qual é especificado pelos inputs área cultivada por cada agroindústria e a quantidade de ATR adquirida de fornecedores e pelo output equivalente a total de ATR recuperado na forma de açúcar e etanol. Considerou-se um modelo DEA com orientação insumo baseado na lógica de mensuração dos índices de eficiência econômica em razão da aproximação de custos, produto dos preços e quantidades de inputs. Com o objetivo de preservar a confidencialidade dos dados de cada empresa...

Productivity of Nations: a Stochastic Frontier Approach to Tfp Decomposition

Pires, Jorge O.; Garcia, Fernando
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
This Paper Tackles the Problem of Aggregate Tfp Measurement Using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (Sfa). Data From Penn World Table 6.1 are Used to Estimate a World Production Frontier For a Sample of 75 Countries Over a Long Period (1950-2000) Taking Advantage of the Model Offered By Battese and Coelli (1992). We Also Apply the Decomposition of Tfp Suggested By Bauer (1990) and Kumbhakar (2000) to a Smaller Sample of 36 Countries Over the Period 1970-2000 in Order to Evaluate the Effects of Changes in Efficiency (Technical and Allocative), Scale Effects and Technical Change. This Allows Us to Analyze the Role of Productivity and Its Components in Economic Growth of Developed and Developing Nations in Addition to the Importance of Factor Accumulation. Although not Much Explored in the Study of Economic Growth, Frontier Techniques Seem to Be of Particular Interest For That Purpose Since the Separation of Efficiency Effects and Technical Change Has a Direct Interpretation in Terms of the Catch-Up Debate. The Estimated Technical Efficiency Scores Reveal the Efficiency of Nations in the Production of Non Tradable Goods Since the Gdp Series Used is Ppp-Adjusted. We Also Provide a Second Set of Efficiency Scores Corrected in Order to Reveal Efficiency in the Production of Tradable Goods and Rank Them. When Compared to the Rankings of Productivity Indexes Offered By Non-Frontier Studies of Hall and Jones (1996) and Islam (1995) Our Ranking Shows a Somewhat More Intuitive Order of Countries. Rankings of the Technical Change and Scale Effects Components of Tfp Change are Also Very Intuitive. We Also Show That Productivity is Responsible For Virtually All the Differences of Performance Between Developed and Developing Countries in Terms of Rates of Growth of Income Per Worker. More Important...

Profitability of a sample of Portuguese bank branches and its decomposition into technical and allocative components

Portela, Maria; Thanassoulis, Emmanuel
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.71%
The efficiency literature, both using parametric and non-parametric methods, has been focusing mainly on cost efficiency analysis rather than on profit efficiency. In for-profit organisations, however, the measurement of profit efficiency and its decomposition into technical and allocative efficiency is particularly relevant. In this paper a newly developed method is used to measure profit efficiency and to identify the sources of any shortfall in profitability (technical and/or allocative inefficiency). The method is applied to a set of Portuguese bank branches first assuming long run and then a short run profit maximisation objective. In the long run most of the scope for profit improvement of bank branches is by becoming more allocatively efficient. In the short run most of profit gain can be realised through higher technical efficiency.

Developing a decomposable measure of profit efficiency using DEA

Portela, Maria; Thanassoulis, Emmanuel
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
In for-profit organizations efficiency measurement withreference to the potential for profit augmentation is particularly important as is its decomposition into technical, and allocative components. Different profit efficiency approaches can be found in the literature to measure and decompose overall profit efficiency. In this paper, we highlight some problems within existing approaches and propose a new measure of profit efficiency based on a geometric mean of input/output adjustments needed for maximizing profits. Overall profit efficiency is calculated through this efficiency measure and is decomposed into its technical and allocative components. Technical efficiency is calculated based on a non-oriented geometric distance function (GDF) that is able to incorporate all the sources of inefficiency, while allocative efficiency is retrieved residually. We also define a measure of profitability efficiency which complements profit efficiency in that it makes it possible to retrieve the scale efficiency of a unit as a component of its profitability efficiency. In addition, the measure of profitability efficiency allows for a dual profitability interpretation of the GDF measure of technical efficiency. The concepts introduced in the paper are illustrated using a numerical example.

Economic efficiency of agricultural production in Brazil

Vicente,José R.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.8%
This study measures levels of technical, allocative and economic efficiency in agricultural crop production for Brazil in 1995. A nonparametric frontier model (DEA) under constant returns to scale was used. On average, the results suggest that the sector suffers from moderate technical inefficiency and from strong allocative inefficiency. If full technical efficiency were achieved, the crop production would increase by more than 30% over that obtained in 1995. Land and labor were overutilized, while fertilizers and pesticides were underutilized. Climate, soil conditions and irrigation use affected technical efficiency levels, and education in rural areas helped explain the extent of allocative efficiency. The state of São Paulo State was the only production unit in Brazil operating in full efficiency in 1995.

Allocative efficiency of case managers for the elderly.

Davidson, G; Moscovice, I; McCaffrey, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1989 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
This study presents an analysis of the allocative efficiency of case managers for the community-based elderly in an environment in which case management and a range of home and community-based services were available and directly linked to a mandatory preadmission screening program for nursing home applicants. We collected data for a one-year follow-up period on client placement, health and functional status, informal support, and use of health and social services for clients in two urban and two rural counties that participated in the Minnesota Pre-Admission Screening/Alternative Care Grants Program (PAS/ACG). We found that among those receiving ACG-supported services, the relationship between variation in the level of support for home and community-based services and the length of time elderly clients remained in the community suggested that case managers were allocating home and community-based services in a reasonably efficient manner. This finding offers support for using case managers to target services to the elderly.

Productivity, Welfare and Reallocation : Theory and Firm-Level Evidence

Basu, Susanto; Pascali, Luigi; Schiantarelli, Fabio; Serven, Luis
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
A considerable literature has focused on the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP), prompted by the empirical finding that TFP accounts for the bulk of long-term growth. This paper offers a deeper reason for such focus: the welfare of a representative consumer is summarized by current and anticipated future Solow productivity residuals. The equivalence holds for any specification of technology and market structure, as long as the representative household maximizes utility while taking prices parametrically. This result justifies total factor productivity as the right summary measure of welfare, even in situations where it does not properly measure technology, and makes it possible to calculate the contributions of disaggregated units (industries or firms) to aggregate welfare using readily available data. Based on this finding, the authors compute firm and industry contributions to welfare for a set of European countries (Belgium, France, Great Britain, Italy, Spain) using industry-level and firm-level data. With additional assumptions about technology and market structure (specifically...

Creative Destruction and Policy Reforms : Changing Productivity Effects of Firm Turnoverin Moroccan Manufacturing

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Thompson, Fraser
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
How important is firm turnover to national productivity growth? The literature points to the contribution of creative destruction being strongest in more developed countries or where market institutions are strongest. This paper looks at the case of Morocco, spanning 16 years, during which reform initiatives aiming to strengthen market forces were introduced. The paper argues that it is important to take into account i) the timing of how decompositions are structured (capturing the effects of high growth among young firms as part of the benefit of increased entry) and ii) the additional indirect impacts of firm dynamics on agglomeration externalities and competition. The paper shows there are striking differences in the productivity paths of entering and exiting firms compared with incumbents, and that restricting the time horizon of productivity decompositions to the actual year of entry or exit underestimates the productivity effects of turnover. Although it has been hypothesized that conducting decompositions over longer horizons would increase the positive contribution of net turnover...

Decentralization and Governance : Does Decentralization Improve Public Service Delivery?

Kahkonen, Satu; Lanyi, Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
Decentralization holds a lot of promise, but whether it improves public service delivery depends on the institutional arrangements governing its implementation. Several conditions must be met before the full benefits of decentralization can be reaped. First, for decentralization to increase allocative and productive efficiency, local governments need to have the authority to respond to local demand as well as adequate mechanisms for accountability. Because granting authority without accountability can lead to corruption and lower productive efficiency, decentralization needs to be accompanied by reforms that increase the transparency and accountability of local government. Second, functions need to be devolved to a low enough level of government for allocative efficiency to increase as a result of decentralization. Low-level governments are likely to be aware of local preferences and, if able to do so, are likely to adjust service delivery accordingly. Third, citizens should have channels to communicate their preferences and get their voices heard in local governments. But the existence of such channels is not enough. To effectively influence public policies and oversee local governments...

The Economic Costs of Noncommunicable Diseases in the Pacific Islands : A Rapid Stocktake of the Situation in Samoa, Tonga, and Vanuatu

Anderson, Ian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
There is increasing recognition that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are an important international and development issue globally, undermining health gains and imposing financial and economic costs on governments and households. NCDs are an important health challenge in the Pacific. First, (NCDs) can impose large but often preventable health, financial, and economic costs on countries. This is particularly important in the Pacific, where government already finances and provides the bulk of health services. Second, risk factors in the Pacific are feeding a pipeline of potentially expensive-to-treat NCDs, including diabetes and heart disease, but governments are already fiscally constrained in how much more they can provide to the health system. Third, from a public health and public finance perspective, many of the NCDs are avoidable or their health and financial costs can at least be postponed through good primary and secondary prevention. This will require a more coherent approach to health system financing and to health system operations...

Assessing the Impact of Infrastructure Quality on Firm Productivity in Africa : Cross-Country Comparisons Based on Investment Climate Surveys from 1999 to 2005

Escribano, Alvaro; Guasch, J. Luis; Pena, Jorge
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
This paper provides a systematic, empirical assessment of the impact of infrastructure quality on the total factor productivity (TFP) of African manufacturing firms. This measure is understood to include quality in the provision of customs clearance, energy, water, sanitation, transportation, telecommunications, and information and communications technology (ICT). Microeconometric techniques to investment climate surveys (ICSs) of 26 African countries are carried out in different years during the period 2002 6, making country-specific evaluations of the impact of investment climate (IC) quality on aggregate TFP, average TFP, and allocative efficiency. For each country the impact is evaluated based on 10 different productivity measures. Results are robust once controlled for observable fixed effects (red tape, corruption and crime, finance, innovation and labor skills, etc.) obtained from the ICSs. African countries are ranked according to several indices: per capita income, ease of doing business, firm perceptions of growth bottlenecks...

Capitation base resource allocation: does it provide the necessary financial incentives for the MTF to achieve technical and allocative efficiency?

Chavez, Anthony S.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
This thesis analyzed the effect capitation based resourcing has on the incentives for the commander of military treatment facilities (MTFs). Specifically, what incentives do MTF Commanders have to increase effectiveness and efficiency in a capitated system? In answering this question, factors such as the ability of the Commander to contract out services and the proper mix of services to maximize the value to patients while maintaining the quality of care within the capitated constraint were discussed. The mechanism for determining the capitated rate and how Bid Price Adjustment and transfer payments affect incentives were reviewed. These characteristics were analyzed to determine whether capitation in BUMED provides the necessary market incentives to achieve technical and allocative efficiency. After comparing the incentives in BUMED to the incentives in civilian sector capitation, it is unclear if BUMED will achieve similar results.

Estimating allocative efficiency in port authorities with demand uncertainty

Hidalgo Gallego, Soraya; Núñez Sánchez, Ramón
Fonte: MPRA Publicador: MPRA
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; publishedVersion
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.81%
This paper aims to analyse the impact of port demand variability on the allocative efficiency of Spanish port authorities during the period 1986-2007. From a distance function model we can obtain a measure of allocative efficiency using two different approaches: error components approach and parametric approach. We model the variability of port demand from the cyclical component of traffic series by applying the Hodrick-Prescott filter. The results show that the inclusion of variability does not affect the efficiency measures, except in the case of containerised general cargo. Moreover, we demonstrate that port authorities have excess capacity and their resources are misallocated. Finally we establish that the allocative inefficiency of Spanish port authorities is difficult to resolve given the limited substitution possibilities among the different pairs of inputs.

The Naval Postgraduate School Public Works Department maintenance request process analysis

Pak, Hui K; Ware, Robert J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; This thesis analyzes the maintenance request process for the Public Works Department (PWD) at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). A flow chart of the maintenance process was developed through interviews with PWD personnel. The PWD's historical database files for FY94 to FY97 provided the data for the analysis. The process flow chart and the data analysis identified areas of inefficiencies and bottlenecks. Methods to relieve the bottlenecks and improve efficiency were identified. Performance metrics were also identified to help the PWD track performance and identify areas where further improvements could be made. This research found that the PWD can benefit most by improving labor scheduling, material requisitioning and its information technology management system. Additional benefits could materialize from improving the PWD's allocative efficiency (i.e. project priority system); http://archive.org/details/navalpostgraduat00pakh; Lieutenant, United States Navy; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Financial Liberalization and Allocative Efficiency of Capital

Kukenova, Madina
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Financial liberalization may have a positive effect on growth not only through the increase in the quantity of the available funds, but also through a more efficient allocation of resources across firms and sectors. Despite this intuitive appeal, there is little empirical evidence on the positive effect of financial liberalization on capital allocation. The main difficulty of investigating the linkage between liberalization of financial markets and capital allocation efficiency lies in the fact that the efficiency of capital allocation is not directly observable. One way to address this issue is to evaluate the effect of financial liberalization within the Heckscher-Ohlin framework. Producing and exporting products inconsistent with a country's factor endowments constitutes a serious misallocation of the funds, which undermines competitiveness of the economy and inhibits its long run growth. This paper tests the allocative efficiency hypothesis by evaluating the effect of stock market liberalization on the survival of different product categories using export data for 91 countries over the period of 1975-2003. Preliminary results suggest that after liberalization of the domestic stock market...

Philippines - Improving Government Performance : Discipline, Efficiency and Equity in Managing Public Resources; EASPR

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Integrated Fiduciary Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7%
The Philippine authorities, confronted with an unfavorable governance and macroeconomic environment in 2001, established a consistent track record in 2001 in stabilizing the economy and improving investor sentiment. The unfolding developments in 2002-03, however, pose a threat to a still fragile fiscal and institutional environment, and can dim the prospects for attaining the Philippines' target for higher growth and renewed poverty reduction. Fiscal sustainability and the government's ability to finance poverty-reducing programscontinues to be at risk from falling revenues, rising public debt and debt service, and off-budget risks. This constrained environment makes it doubly important to focus on increasing fiscal flexibility through increasing revenue collections and enhancing the discipline, efficiency, and equity of public expenditures. the objective of this public Expenditure, Procurement and Financial Management Review (PEPFMR) is to examine selected issues in the allocation and managmeent of public resources of interest to the Philippine authorities...

Productivity, Innovation and Growth in Sri Lanka : An Empirical Investigation

Dutz, Mark A.; O'Connell, Stephen D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
This study investigates the impact of key business environment indicators on productivity, innovation, and growth in Sri Lanka through a cluster-level productivity analysis, a firm-level total factor productivity analysis, and a firm-level innovation analysis. For the cluster-level productivity analysis (as measured by output and value added per worker), it combines two established data sources in a novel way by importing average 'industry-size-location' cluster-level business environment variables from the World Bank Enterprise Survey to the comprehensive Sri Lanka Census of Industry productivity data available for similar clusters of enterprises. For the firm-level total factor productivity analysis, it compares data from the 2011 World Bank Enterprise Survey with those from 2004. For the firm-level innovation analysis, it compares findings from the 2011 World Bank Enterprise Survey with a representative sample of enterprises collected as part of the Sri Lanka Longitudinal Survey of Enterprises. The empirical findings highlight the importance -- for cluster-level productivity...

Health Financing Options for Samoa : Challenges and Opportunities

Anderson, Ian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
Samoa currently faces two important public policy challenges in the health sector. One is to stem, and then reverse, the rapid rise of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The second challenge is to put the country on a health-financing path that is effective, efficient, and financially affordable and sustainable. The two challenges are interconnected. This discussion paper examines eight options to address these challenges. The eight options are the following: (1) increasing government expenditure via higher general taxation; (2) increasing government expenditure via deficit financing; (3) increasing the share of government expenditure to health; (4) increasing external and donor financing; (5) increasing specific taxes; (6) mobilizing additional nongovernment resources via insurance (including social health insurance, and community and private insurance); (7) increasing cost-recovery measures; and (8) increasing efficiency. The paper concludes that the chief opportunity arises from more efficient use of resources already in the health system that are not presently used to maximum effect. Improving technical and allocative efficiency of the existing system has the potential to make a large difference and is technically feasible.

Allocative and Productive Efficiency in REE with Asymetric Information

Vives, Xavier
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
We characterize the divergence between informational and economic efficiency in a rational expectations competitive market with asymmetric information about the costs of production. We find that prices may contain too much or too little information with respect to incentive efficient allocations depending on whether the main role of the price is, respectively, the traditional as index of scarcity or informational. Only when REE degenerate to Cournot equilibria the market solution does not show llocative inefficiency. With multidimensional uncertainty we find that the REE price does not have in general the incentive efficient information mix: It pays to sacrifice allocative efficiency at the REE to improve productive efficiency.

Incorporating the Price of Quality in Efficiency Analysis: The Case of Electricity Distrubution Regulation in the UK

Yu, William; Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael G.
Fonte: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK Publicador: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.81%
Efficiency analysis of electricity distribution networks is often limited to technical or cost efficiency measures. However, some important non-tradable aspects of their service such as quality of service and network energy losses are generally not part of the analysis. A regulatory concern is that technical efficiency can be achieved at the expense of these measures as well as allocative efficiency. Valuation of service quality for inclusion in regulatory models is particularly difficult. This paper presents an approach to measure and incorporate service quality and energy losses in analysis of technical and allocative efficiency of the utilities. We calculate technical and allocative efficiency of the 14 distribution networks in the UK between 1990/91 and 2003/04 using the Data Envelopment Analysis technique. We find that efficiency measures improved during the first (1990/91-1994/95) and second (1995/96-1999/00) distribution price control reviews and exhibited a slight decline during the third (2000/01-2004/05) review period. We find relatively low allocative efficiency - i.e. a mismatch in allocating resources among expenditures, service quality, and energy losses. The results suggest that the utilities may not be sufficiently incentivised to achieve socially optimal input bundles under the current incentive scheme.