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Voluntary action and causality in temporal binding

CRAVO, Andre M.; CLAESSENS, Peter M. E.; BALDO, Marcus V. C.
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Previous studies have documented temporal attraction in perceived times of actions and their effects. While some authors argue that voluntary action is a necessary condition for this phenomenon, others claim that the causal relationship between action and effect is the crucial ingredient. In the present study, we investigate voluntary action and causality as the necessary and sufficient conditions for temporal binding. We used a variation of the launching effect proposed by Michotte, in which participants controlled the launch stimulus in some blocks. Volunteers reported causality ratings and estimated the interval between the two events. Our results show dissociations between causality ratings and temporal estimation. While causality ratings are not affected by voluntary action, temporal bindings were only found in the presence of both voluntary action and high causality. Our results indicate that voluntary action and causality are both necessary for the emergence of temporal binding.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo[2005/60461-5]; FAPESP Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo[2006/50189-9]; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

Crédito rural e produto agropecuário municipal: uma análise de causalidade; Rural credit and agricultural output: a causality analysis

Cavalcanti, Isabel Machado
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/11/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar a relação de causalidade entre crédito rural e produto agropecuário. Utilizando dados municipais do período 1999-2004, aplicou-se a metodologia de Granger e Huang (1997), que permite identificar o sentido da causalidade entre duas variáveis em um contexto de painel. Contrariamente à grande parte da literatura que estudou as relações de causalidade entre sistema financeiro e crescimento econômico, este trabalho não identificou a causalidade partindo da variável financeira para o produto. Em geral, os resultados apontaram causalidade unidirecional, partindo do Produto Interno Bruto da agropecuária para o crédito rural.; The main goal of this essay is to evaluate the causal relations between rural credit and agricultural output. Using municipal data for the period 1999-2004, we have implemented the Granger and Huang (1997) methodology, which allows us to identify the causality direction between two variables in a data panel context. Differently from a large part of the literature that has studied causal relations between finance and growth, this work did not find causality from the financial variable towards output. Instead, the results draw attention to unidirectional causality from agricultural output to rural credit.

Causalidade Granger em medidas de risco; Granger Causality with Risk Measures

Murakami, Patricia Nagami
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/05/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
Esse trabalho apresenta um estudo da causalidade de Granger em Risco bivariado aplicado a séries temporais financeiras. Os eventos de risco, no caso de séries financeiras, estão relacionados com a avaliação do Valor em Risco das posições em ativos. Para isso, os modelos CaViaR, que fazem parte do grupo de modelos de Regressão Quantílica, foram utilizado para identificação desses eventos. Foram expostos os conceitos principais envolvidos da modelagem, assim como as definições necessárias para entendê-las. Através da análise da causalide de Granger em risco entre duas séries, podemos investigar se uma delas é capaz de prever a ocorrência de um valor extremo da outra. Foi realizada a análise de causalidade de Granger usual somente para como comparativo.; Quantile Regression, Value at Risk, CAViaR Model, Granger Causality, Granger Causality in Risk

Causalidade e aspectos cognitivos de sua codificação: os conectores causais da língua alemã; Causality and cognitive aspects of its codification: The causal connectors of the German language

Farah, David Edson
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.11%
O presente trabalho apresenta e desenvolve conceitos oriundos da Linguística Cognitiva para investigar os aspectos cognitivos da codificação das relações causais introduzidas por conectores oracionais da língua alemã: da, denn e weil. Para tanto, este trabalho apropriou-se do aparato teórico e metodológico desenvolvido por Pander Maat & Degand (2001) e que concebe a causalidade não como uma relação única, mas como uma categoria gradual que engloba diferentes níveis de conexão. Diante disso, desenvolveram-se duas atividades elementares ao longo do trabalho. Em primeiro lugar, o levantamento bibliográfico da teoria em torno de diferentes abordagens à temática da causalidade que serviram de base para a discussão entretida nos dois capítulos iniciais. Em segundo lugar, a análise empírica de ocorrências de cada um dos conectores a partir dos métodos desenvolvidos por Pander Maat & Degand (2001), a fim de replicar seu estudo e investigar de que maneira o gradiente de relações causais pode contribuir para o estudo da causalidade na língua alemã. Ao contrapor as abordagens desenvolvidas nas tradições formalista e funcionalista de análise linguística, o presente trabalho procurou argumentar que a investigação adequada dos fenômenos relacionados à causalidade seja desenvolvidas no escopo da Linguística Cognitiva e...

Tourism as a long-run economic growth factor in Portugal: evidence from causality analysis

Bento, J. P.; Santos, Maria Madalena Pinto
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro, Departamento de Economia, Gestão e Engenharia Industrial Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro, Departamento de Economia, Gestão e Engenharia Industrial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
This paper investigates empirically the role of tourism in the Portuguese long-run economic output growth on quarterly data (1997:1 to 2010:4). The augmented Granger causality test approach developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) is employed to ascertain the direction of causality between variables in a bi-variate vector autoregressions (VAR) system using the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) method. The results provide evidence of a strong one-way directional causality between tourism and economic growth and the necessary argument to support the tourism led growth hypothesis. This result has important policy implications for where government investments should be targeted giving a further catalyst to economic growth.; Este artigo faz uma investigação empírica sobre o papel do turismo no crescimento económico de longo prazo em Portugal. Para tal, foram utilizados os dados disponíveis: valores trimestrais de 1997 a 2010. Foi utilizada a análise de causalidade de Granger desenvolvida por Toda e Yamamoto (1995), para verificar a direção da causalidade entre as variáveis, num sistema VAR (“ bi-variate vector autoregression”) utilizando o método SUR (“Seemingly Unrelated Regression”). Os resultados evidenciaram uma importante causalidade unidireccional entre o turismo e o crescimento económico...

Bank market concentration and efficiency in the European Union: a panel Granger causality approach

Ferreira, Cândida
Fonte: ISEG. Departamento de Economia - Publicador: ISEG. Departamento de Economia -
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
The relationships between bank market concentration and bank efficiency are of particular relevance in the European Union (EU), but they remain controversial. Using a panel Granger causality approach, this paper contributes to the literature, testing not only the causality running from bank market concentration to bank efficiency, but also the reverse causality running from efficiency to concentration. The results obtained confirm the relative complexity of these causality relationships, although they generally point to a negative causation running both from concentration to efficiency and from efficiency to concentration. These findings are in line with the Structure Conduct Performance (SCP) paradigm and the suggestions that the increase of the banks’ market power will contribute to inefficiency, since these banks will face less competition to obtain more output results with less input costs. Our results suggest that within this panel of all 27 EU countries over a relatively long time period, from 1996 to the onset of the 2008 financial crisis, the more cost-efficient commercial and savings banks operated in less concentrated markets.

Bank performance and economic growth : evidence from Granger panel causality estimations

Ferreira, Cândida
Fonte: ISEG. Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG. Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
This paper provides empirical evidence on the causality relations between bank performance and economic growth in a panel including 27 European Union member-states from 1996 through to the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. Bank performance is represented not only by the Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE) ratios but also by bank cost efficiency, measured through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). For economic growth, we consider not only the GDP per capita but also the gross fixed capital formation growth. Deploying a panel Granger causality approach, we confirm positive causality running from bank performance to economic growth. However, as regards the opposite causality, running from growth to bank performance, we conclude that economic growth positively contributes to the bank ROA and ROE ratios but not so certainly in the case of the DEA bank cost efficiency.

The frequency domain causality analysis between energy consumption and income in the United States

Tiwari,Aviral Kumar
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
We investigated Granger-causality in the frequency domain between primary energy consumption/electricity consumption and GDP for the US by employing approach of Lemmens et al. (2008) and covering the period of January, 1973 to December, 2008. We found that causal and reverse causal relations between primary energy consumption and GDP and electricity consumption and GDP vary across frequencies. Our unique contribution in the existing literature lies in decomposing the causality on the basis of time horizons and demonstrating bidirectional the short-run, the medium-run and the long-run causality between GDP and primary energy consumption/electricity consumption and thus providing evidence for the feedback hypothesis. These results have important implications for the US for planning of the short, the medium and the long run energy and economic growth related policies.

Causalidade e transmissão de preços na cadeia avícola no período de 1997-2008; Causality and prices transmission in the chain poultry for the period 1997-2008

Almeida, Fabrício Pelizer de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
A cadeia produtiva da carne de frango no Brasil tem se mostrado nos últimos anos um interessante aporte competitivo, considerando a capacidade exportadora e diferenciação de produtos para os mercados. No entanto, admite-se que as relações intersetoriais nesse sistema são contraditórias e em certo sentido conflituosa. Nesse sentido, procurou-se avaliar a transmissão de preços na cadeia avícola no período de 1997 à 2008, através da análise de séries de preços (em R$) dos produtos, à montante, milho em grão (kg), concentrado inicial (kg), pintos de corte (unidade); agropecuário, preço do frango vivo em Minas Gerais; e à jusante, preço do frango inteiro no atacado e varejo, da carne suína e bovina no atacado, da coxa e peito de frango no varejo; e indicadores, produto interno bruto (PIB) e índice de preços no atacado amplo (IPCA). Os procedimentos econométricos aplicados foram o Teste de Dickey-Fuller Aumentado, estimação de VAR, funções de resposta ao impulso, decomposição de variância e teste de Causalidade de Granger. Os resultados permitiram afirmar que nas relações de causalidade à montante da atividade agropecuária, aquela entre os preços do frango vivo e de pintos de corte, é significativa nas duas direções...

Short run and long run causality in time series: Inference

DUFOUR, Jean-Marie; PELLETIER, Denis; RENAULT, Éric
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 223846 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
We propose methods for testing hypotheses of non-causality at various horizons, as defined in Dufour and Renault (1998, Econometrica). We study in detail the case of VAR models and we propose linear methods based on running vector autoregressions at different horizons. While the hypotheses considered are nonlinear, the proposed methods only require linear regression techniques as well as standard Gaussian asymptotic distributional theory. Bootstrap procedures are also considered. For the case of integrated processes, we propose extended regression methods that avoid nonstandard asymptotics. The methods are applied to a VAR model of the U.S. economy.; Nous proposons des méthodes pour tester des hypothèses de non-causalité à différents horizons, tel que défini dans Dufour et Renault (1998, Econometrica). Nous étudions le cas des modèles VAR en détail et nous proposons des méthodes linéaires basées sur l’estimation d’autorégressions vectorielles à différents horizons. Même si les hypothèses considérées sont non linéaires, les méthodes proposées ne requièrent que des techniques de régression linéaire de même que la théorie distributionnelle asymptotique gaussienne habituelle. Dans le cas des processus intégrés...

A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Causality Assessment in Early Phase Oncology Clinical Trials: A Phenomenological Study

Torti, Jacqueline
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
Research Question: What are the psychosocial factors that affect causality assessment in early phase oncology clinical trials? Methods: Thirty-two qualitative interviews were explicated with the aid of “Naturalistic Decision Making”. Data explication consisted of phenomenological reduction, delineating and clustering meaning units, forming themes, and creating a composite summary. Participants were members of the National Cancer Institute of Canada’s Clinical Trial Group Investigative New Drug committee. Results: The process of assigning causality is extremely subjective and full of uncertainty. Physicians had no formal training, nor a tool to assist them with this process. Physicians were apprehensive about their decisions and felt pressure from their patients, as well as the pharmaceutical companies sponsoring the trial. Conclusions: There are many problem areas when attributing causality, all of which have serious consequences, but clinicians used a variety of methods to cope with these problem areas.

Nonlinear Causality Testing with Stepwise Multivariate Filtering

BEKIROS, Stelios D.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
This study explores the direction and nature of causal linkages among six currencies denoted relative to United States dollar (USD), namely Euro (EUR), Great Britain Pound (GBP), Japanese Yen (JPY), Swiss Frank (CHF), Australian Dollar (AUD) and Canadian Dollar (CAD). These are the most liquid and widely traded currency pairs in the world and make up about 90% of total Forex trading worldwide. The data covers the period 3/20/1987-11/14/2007, including the Asian crisis, the dot-com bubble and the period just before the outbreak of the US subprime crisis. The objective of the paper is to test for the existence of both linear and nonlinear causal relationships among these currency markets. The modified Baek-Brock test for nonlinear non-causality is applied on the currency return time series as well as the linear Granger test. Further to the classical pairwise analysis causality testing is conducted in a multivariate formulation, to correct for the effects of the other variables. A new stepwise multivariate filtering approach is implemented. To check if any of the observed causality is strictly nonlinear, the nonlinear causal relationships of VAR/VECM filtered residuals are also examined. Finally, the hypothesis of nonlinear non-causality is investigated after controlling for conditional heteroskedasticity in the data using GARCH-BEKK...

Short and long run causality measures: theory and inference

Dufour, Jean-Marie; Taamouti, Abderrahim
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
The concept of causality introduced by Wiener (1956) and Granger (1969) is defined in terms of predictability one period ahead. This concept can be generalized by considering causality at a given horizon h, and causality up to any given horizon h [Dufour and Renault (1998)]. This generalization is motivated by the fact that, in the presence of an auxiliary variable vector Z, it is possible that a variable Y does not cause variable X at horizon 1, but causes it at horizon h > 1. In this case, there is an indirect causality transmitted by Z. Another related problem consists in measuring the importance of causality between two variables. Existing causality measures have been defined only for the horizon 1 and fail to capture indirect causal effects. This paper proposes a generalization of such measures for any horizon h. We propose nonparametric and parametric measures of unidirectional and instantaneous causality at any horizon h. Parametric measures are defined in the context of autoregressive processes of unknown order and expressed in terms of impulse response coefficients. On noting that causality measures typically involve complex functions of model parameters in VAR and VARMA models, we propose a simple method to evaluate these measures which is based on the simulation of a large sample from the process of interest. We also describe asymptotically valid nonparametric confidence intervals...

Measuring causality between volatility and returns with high-frequency data

Dufour, Jean-Marie; García, René; Taamouti, Abderrahim
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
We use high-frequency data to study the dynamic relationship between volatility and equity returns. We provide evidence on two alternative mechanisms of interaction between returns and volatilities: the leverage effect and the volatility feedback effect. The leverage hypothesis asserts that return shocks lead to changes in conditional volatility, while the volatility feedback effect theory assumes that return shocks can be caused by changes in conditional volatility through a time-varying risk premium. On observing that a central difference between these alternative explanations lies in the direction of causality, we consider vector autoregressive models of returns and realized volatility and we measure these effects along with the time lags involved through short-run and long-run causality measures proposed in Dufour and Taamouti (2008), as opposed to simple correlations. We analyze 5-minute observations on S&P 500 Index futures contracts, the associated realized volatilities (before and after filtering jumps through the bispectrum) and implied volatilities. Using only returns and realized volatility, we find a weak dynamic leverage effect for the first four hours at the hourly frequency and a strong dynamic leverage effect for the first three days at the daily frequency. The volatility feedback effect appears to be negligible at all horizons. By contrast...

A nonparametric copula based test for conditional independence with applications to granger causality

Bouezmarni, Taoufik; Rombouts, Jeroen V. K.; Taamouti, Abderrahim
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
This paper proposes a new nonparametric test for conditional independence, which is based on the comparison of Bernstein copula densities using the Hellinger distance. The test is easy to implement because it does not involve a weighting function in the test statistic, and it can be applied in general settings since there is no restriction on the dimension of the data. In fact, to apply the test, only a bandwidth is needed for the nonparametric copula. We prove that the test statistic is asymptotically pivotal under the null hypothesis, establish local power properties, and motivate the validity of the bootstrap technique that we use in finite sample settings. A simulation study illustrates the good size and power properties of the test. We illustrate the empirical relevance of our test by focusing on Granger causality using financial time series data to test for nonlinear leverage versus volatility feedback effects and to test for causality between stock returns and trading volume. In a third application, we investigate Granger causality between macroeconomic variables

Nonparametric estimation and inference for Granger causality measures

Taamouti, Abderrahim; Bouezmarni, Taoufik; El Ghouch, Anouar
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
We propose a nonparametric estimator and a nonparametric test for Granger causality measures that quantify linear and nonlinear Granger causality in distribution between random variables. We first show how to write the Granger causality measures in terms of copula densities. We suggest a consistent estimator for these causality measures based on nonparametric estimators of copula densities. Further, we prove that the nonparametric estimators are asymptotically normally distributed and we discuss the validity of a local smoothed bootstrap that we use in finite sample settings to compute a bootstrap bias-corrected estimator and test for our causality measures. A simulation study reveals that the bias-corrected bootstrap estimator of causality measures behaves well and the corresponding test has quite good finite sample size and power properties for a variety of typical data generating processes and different sample sizes. Finally, we illustrate the practical relevance of nonparametric causality measures by quantifying the Granger causality between S&P500 Index returns and many exchange rates (US/Canada, US/UK and US/Japen exchange rates).

Statistical inference of nonlinear Granger causality: a semiparametric time series regression analysis.

Lee, Sooyoung
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
Since the seminal work of Granger (1969), Granger causality has become a useful concept and tool in the study of the dynamic linkages between economic variables and to explore whether or not an economic variable helps forecast another one. Researchers have suggested a variety of methods to test the existence of Grangercausality in the literature. In particular, linear Granger causality testing has been remarkably developed; (see, for example, Toda & Philips (1993), Sims, Stock & Watson (1990), Geweke (1982), Hosoya (1991) and Hidalgo (2000)). However, in practice, the real economic relationship between different variables may often be nonlinear. Hiemstra & Jones (1994) and Nishiyama, Hitomi, Kawasaki & Jeong (2011) recently proposed different methods to test the existence of any non-linear Granger causality between a pair of economic variables under a α-mixing framework of data generating process. Their methods are general with nonparametric features, which however suffer from curse of dimensionality when high lag orders need to be taken into consideration in applications. In this thesis, the main objective is to develop a class of semiparametric time series regression models that are of partially linear structures, with statistical theory established under a more general framework of near epoch dependent (NED) data generating processes...

Cointegration and causality in the Asian and emerging foreign exchange markets: Evidence from the 1990s financial crises

Au Yong, HH; Gan, C; Treepongkaruna, Sirimon
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.98%
This article examines the cointegration level, changes in the existence and directions of causality of the foreign exchange (FX) rates in the Asian and emerging markets during the 1990s financial crises. Engle and Granger's simple bivariate and Johansen's multivariate cointegrations are applied to the FX rates for the 1994 Mexican, 1997 Asian, 1998 Russian, and 1999 Brazilian crises. In addition, the article conducts the Granger causality test and impulse response analysis to examine the causality pattern in all the FX rates. The analysis shows most of the pre-Mexican causality disappears and significant numbers of new causality emerge in the 1994 Mexican crisis while the 1997 Asian crisis generates significant spillover effects into the later part of the 1998 Russian and 1999 Brazilian crises.

Long term relationship and causality between earnings and stock prices: Latin America evidences; Relación de largo plazo y causalidad entre el beneficio contable y el precio de las acciones: evidencias del mercado latinoamericano; Relação de longo prazo e causalidade entre o lucro contábil e o preço das ações: evidências do mercado latino-americano

Galdi, Fernando Caio; Lopes, Alexsandro Broedel
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
This paper analyses if there is long term relationship and causality between accounting earnings and stock prices of Latin American firms. Cointegration tests are used in the same approach as Campbell e Shiller (1987) that investigated present value models based on rational expectations for the equity and bond markets. Essentially, if the variables are cointegrated, they have a long run relationship. This relation has been extensively studied for macroeconomic variables, but few works explore this issue for accounting and financial variables in emerging markets. Additionally the Granger causality between accounting earnings and stock prices are analyzed. Evidences points out that earnings and prices do have a long run relationship. However a causation relation can not be established for those variables. These findings can be explained by earnings timeliness (specially in Code Law countries) related by Ball, Kothari and Robin (2000), Collins et al. (1994) and Beaver, Lambert and Morse (1980). Additionally the evidences indicate that Argentine accounting earnings, that have less orthodox features than other Latin American countries, are typically stationary and have a higher degree of causality relation with stock prices than other Latin American countries accounting earnings.; En la línea de investigación de la relevancia de la información contable para mercados de capitales de países emergentes...

A gênese da causalidade física; The genesis of physical causality

Paty, Michel
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
As noções ou categorias de causalidade e determinismo acompanharam a formação das ciências modernas e, em primeiro lugar, da física. O uso corrente em nossos dias tende freqüente e erroneamente a confundi-las, nas reconsiderações feitas pela própria física. Propomo-nos esclarecer aqui a primeira dessas noções, mais precisamente a de causalidade física, examinando sua elaboração no início da dinâmica, por meio das primeiras operações e conceituações que acompanham a matematização da mecânica, antes dela ser estendida à física em geral. Veremos como, apoiando-se inteiramente em um aspecto filosófico tradicional da idéia de causalidade (aquele de "causa eficiente"), a causalidade física se estabelece em ruptura com o sentido metafísico que lhe era anteriormente associado. Mais do que no Principia de Newton, é na reelaboração por d'Alembert, no Traité de dynamique, das leis do movimento formuladas como princípios e expressas pelo cálculo diferencial, que a idéia de causalidade física é expressamente considerada como indissociável de seu efeito, que é a mudança de movimento. Os respectivos pensamentos de Newton e de d'Alembert sobre as noções de causa e de força estão a esse propósito em oposição...