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Scavenging processes of atmospheric particulate matter: a numerical modeling of case studies; Processos de remoção de material particulado atmosférico: uma modelagem numérica de estudo de casos

GONÇALVES, Fábio Luiz Teixeira; BEHENG, Klaus Dieter; MASSAMBANI, Oswaldo; VAUTZ, Wolfgang; KLOCKOW, Dieter
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Meteorologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Meteorologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Below cloud scavenging processes have been investigated considering a numerical simulation, local atmospheric conditions and particulate matter (PM) concentrations, at different sites in Germany. The below cloud scavenging model has been coupled with bulk particulate matter counter TSI (Trust Portacounter dataset, consisting of the variability prediction of the particulate air concentrations during chosen rain events. The TSI samples and meteorological parameters were obtained during three winter Campaigns: at Deuselbach, March 1994, consisting in three different events; Sylt, April 1994 and; Freiburg, March 1995. The results show a good agreement between modeled and observed air concentrations, emphasizing the quality of the conceptual model used in the below cloud scavenging numerical modeling. The results between modeled and observed data have also presented high square Pearson coefficient correlations over 0.7 and significant, except the Freiburg Campaign event. The differences between numerical simulations and observed dataset are explained by the wind direction changes and, perhaps, the absence of advection mass terms inside the modeling. These results validate previous works based on the same conceptual model.; Os processos de remoção atmosféricos foram investigados em simulação numérica...

Impact of biomass burning aerosols on precipitation in the Amazon: A modeling case study

MARTINS, J. A.; DIAS, M. A. F. Silva; GONCALVES, F. L. T.
Fonte: AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION Publicador: AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
A study of the potential role of aerosols in modifying clouds and precipitation is presented using a numerical atmospheric model. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud size distribution properties taken in the southwestern Amazon region during the transition from dry to wet seasons were used as guidelines to define the microphysical parameters for the simulations. Numerical simulations were carried out using the Brazilian Development on Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, and the results presented considerable sensitivity to changes in these parameters. High CCN concentrations, typical of polluted days, were found to result in increases or decreases in total precipitation, depending on the level of pollution used as a reference, showing a complexity that parallels the aerosol-precipitation interaction. Our results show that on the grids evaluated, higher CCN concentrations reduced low-to-moderate rainfall rates and increased high rainfall rates. The principal consequence of the increased pollution was a change from a warm to a cold rain process, which affected the maximum and overall mean accumulated precipitation. Under polluted conditions, cloud cover diminished, allowing greater amounts of solar radiation to reach the surface. Aerosol absorption of radiation in the lower layers of the atmosphere delayed convective evolution but produced higher maximum rainfall rates due to increased instability. In addition...

The impact of smoke from forest fires on the spectral dispersion of cloud droplet size distributions in the Amazonian region

MARTINS, J. A.; DIAS, M. A. F. Silva
Fonte: IOP PUBLISHING LTD Publicador: IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
In this paper, the main microphysical characteristics of clouds developing in polluted and clean conditions in the biomass-burning season of the Amazon region are examined, with special attention to the spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution and its potential impact on climate modeling applications. The dispersion effect has been shown to alter the climate cooling predicted by the so-called Twomey effect. In biomass-burning polluted conditions, high concentrations of low dispersed cloud droplets are found. Clean conditions revealed an opposite situation. The liquid water content (0.43 +/- 0.19 g m(-3)) is shown to be uncorrelated with the cloud drop number concentration, while the effective radius is found to be very much correlated with the relative dispersion of the size distribution (R(2) = 0.81). The results suggest that an increase in cloud condensation nuclei concentration from biomass-burning aerosols may lead to an additional effect caused by a decrease in relative dispersion. Since the dry season in the Amazonian region is vapor limiting, the dispersion effect of cloud droplet size distributions could be substantially larger than in other polluted regions.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)

Eletrificação dos sistemas precipitantes na região Amazônica: processos físicos e dinâmicos do desenvolvimento de tempestades; Electrification of precipitating systems over the Amazon: Physical and dynamical processes of thunderstorm development

Albrecht, Rachel Ifanger
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/06/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
Os sistemas convectivos da região Amazônica possuem características microfísicas peculiares, que variam de um caráter convectivo marítimo (estação chuvosa) a continental (estação de transição seca-chuvosa). Essas características modulam a eletrificação desses sistemas, porém ainda não se sabe quais são os processos dominantes que intensificam o número de descargas elétricas de uma estação para outra: efeito dos aerossóis, termodinâmico, grande-escala ou topografia? Para responder à essa pergunta, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e quantificar a importância de cada um desses efeitos na eletrificação dos sistemas convectivos da Amazônia. A metodologia foi baseada em análises de dados observacionais do experimento de campo DRYTOWET e em um modelo numérico com parametrizações de transferências de cargas e descargas elétricas. A análise do ciclo anual das descargas elétricas do tipo nuvem-solo (CGs) mostrou que a atividade elétrica dos sistemas precipitantes da região sudoeste da Amazônia aumenta durante a transição da estação seca para a estação chuvosa (Agosto a Setembro), associada aos sistemas convectivos com maior desenvolvimento vertical que acontecem nesse período. Com o estabelecimento da estação chuvosa (Novembro a Março)...

Modeling Saharan desert dust radiative effects on clouds

Santos, Dina; Costa, Maria João; Silva, Ana Maria; Salgado, Rui
Fonte: Global Conference on Global Warming - GCGW2011 Publicador: Global Conference on Global Warming - GCGW2011
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
This work intends to study the Saharan desert dust storms effects on clouds. This is done through the estimation of the cloud radiative forcing in the presence of mineral desert dust aerosols during a strong desert dust event that occured in the end of May 2006. The assessment of the cloud radiative forcing is made at a regional scale both at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface levels. The results are obtained from numerical simulations with a mesoscale atmospheric model (MesoNH) over Portugal area and nearby Atlantic Ocean. From the results obtained it is possible to observe that, for all days under study, a cooling effect is always found both at the TOA and surface levels. Also, for these two levels and for clouds developing in a dusty atmosphere, a more pronounced cooling effect (more negative cloud radiative forcing values) is found compared with the corresponding cloud radiative forcing values for clouds developing in a dust free atmosphere.

Cloud microphysical characterization in the presence of a Desert Dust event over Portugal: A study based on atmospheric modeling and satellite remote sensing

Santos, Dina; Costa, Maria João; Silva, Ana Maria; Salgado, Rui
Fonte: SPIE - International Society for optics and Photonics Publicador: SPIE - International Society for optics and Photonics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
forcing during a strong desert dust transport that occurred in 27, 28 and 29 May 2006. This is done by examining the results obtained from a mesoscale atmospheric model (MesoNH), over Portugal area and nearby Atlantic Ocean. The assessment of the aerosol properties provides information on the altitude of the aerosol layers and the determination of the cloud properties, influenced by the presence of desert dust aerosol, gives the information about the possible modifications that the cloud may suffer when they develop in an atmosphere where desert dust aerosols are present. The cloud radiative forcing (CRF) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is also estimated. The CRF at the TOA, in a dust free atmosphere, present lower values when compared with the TOA CRF over the regions where dust aerosols are present.

Atmospheric modeling of Desert Dust Aerosols Effects on Clouds over the Atlantic Ocean

Santos, Dina; Costa, Maria João; Silva, Ana Maria; Salgado, Rui
Fonte: International Conference on Nucleation & Atmospheric Aerosols Publicador: International Conference on Nucleation & Atmospheric Aerosols
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
This work aims to study the microphysical and radiative effects of the desert dust aerosols, on cloud properties, during strong desert dust transports. This is done by examining the results obtained from a mesoscale atmospheric model (MesoNH), over Portugal and nearby Atlantic Ocean. The results obtained provide information on the cloud properties, and possible modifications that clouds may undergo, when they develop in an atmosphere where desert dust aerosols are present. The cloud radiative forcing (CRF) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is also estimated.

Comparison of cloud height and depth from atmospheric modelling and ceilometer measurements

Santos, Dina; Costa, Maria João; Silva, Ana Maria; Salgado, Rui; Bortoli, Daniele
Fonte: International Society for Optical Engineering Publicador: International Society for Optical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
In the current study, the cloud base height obtained from the ceilometer measurements, in Evora (south of Portugal), are compared with the results obtained from atmospheric modelling. The atmospheric model adopted is the nonhydrostatic MesoNH model, initiated and forced by ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range weather Forecasts) analyses. Also the simulated cloud depth results are presented. The availability of mesoscale modelling for the region, as well as the cloud local vertical distributions obtained from the ceilometer, provide a good opportunity to compare cloud base height and estimate the errors associated. From the obtained results it is possible to observe that the simulated cloud base height values are in good agreement with the correspondent values obtained from the ceilometer measurements.

Modeling Saharan desert dust radiative effects on clouds

Santos, Dina; Costa, Maria João; Silva, Ana Maria; Salgado, Rui
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
This work aims at studying the Saharan desert dust storm effects on clouds. This is done through the investigation of the possible modifications that mineral desert dust aerosols may exert on clouds, modifying their properties and also through the estimation of the cloud radiative forcing in the presence of this type of aerosols, during strong desert dust events that occurred in the end of May 2006 and in the beginning of September 2007. The assessment of the cloud radiative forcing is made at a regional scale both at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface levels. The results are obtained from numerical simulations with a mesoscale atmospheric model (MesoNH) over Portugal area and nearby Atlantic Ocean. From the results obtained it is possible to observe that, for all days under study, a cooling effect is always found both at the TOA and surface levels. Also, for these two levels and for clouds developing in a dusty atmosphere, a more pronounced cooling effect (more negative cloud radiative forcing values) is found compared with the corresponding cloud radiative forcing values for clouds developing in a dust free atmosphere.

In-cloud and below-cloud scavenging analysis of sulfate in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brasil

Gonçalves,F. L. T.; Morinobu,W. N.; Andrade,M. F.; Fornaro,A.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Meteorologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Meteorologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is one of the largest urban centers in the world. The significant atmospheric concentrations of ozone, inhalable particles and other pollutants in the MASP raise serious air-quality concerns. In this study, we consider gases, particulate matter (PM) and cloud processes, with a focus on sulfate chemistry. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System mesoscale numerical model was used in conjunction with detailed scavenging models to compare varying PM mass spectra and size distributions. Field data were collected during the July 1989-May 1990 and February-October 2000 campaigns. Adjusted-urban and rural spectra seem to fit better with observed results which improved the scavenging numerical modeling. Correlations between modeled and observed concentrations were better when the model included rural and adjusted-urban spectra, suggesting locally dominant below-cloud scavenging. Spatial variability analysis and numerical modeling also revealed that the varying sulfate rainwater concentrations indicate below-cloud removal process dominance.

Modeling the relation between CCN and the vertical evolution of cloud drop size distribution in convective clouds with parcel model

Almeida,Gérson Paiva; Santos,Rômulo Rodrigues dos
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Meteorologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Meteorologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
In this work we use values of effective radius of cloud drop size distribution and modal radius of liquid water content generated with a parcel model with detailed treatment of liquid phase microphysical process to evaluate the warm rain formation suppression over the Amazon due to the presence of aerosols generated by forest burning. Four cases based on observations are simulated: a clean marine environment as the one observed close to Fortaleza; a clean environment as the ones observed over the apparently unpolluted Amazon forest; a environment observed during the intense burning season in the polluted part of the Amazon; and the same polluted environment observed during the transition season from dry to wet. It is shown that the model reproduces quantitatively some of the observed features of clouds in different environments. The model indicated that in very polluted environment the warm rain formation process can be completely suppressed. Nevertheless, in certain situations the formation of warm rain can still be achieved and significant amount of rainwater can be formed.

Scavenging processes of atmospheric particulate matter: a numerical modeling of case studies

Gonçalves,Fábio Luiz Teixeira; Beheng,Klaus Dieter; Massambani,Oswaldo; Vautz,Wolfgang; Klockow,Dieter
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Meteorologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Meteorologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Below cloud scavenging processes have been investigated considering a numerical simulation, local atmospheric conditions and particulate matter (PM) concentrations, at different sites in Germany. The below cloud scavenging model has been coupled with bulk particulate matter counter TSI (Trust Portacounter dataset, consisting of the variability prediction of the particulate air concentrations during chosen rain events. The TSI samples and meteorological parameters were obtained during three winter Campaigns: at Deuselbach, March 1994, consisting in three different events; Sylt, April 1994 and; Freiburg, March 1995. The results show a good agreement between modeled and observed air concentrations, emphasizing the quality of the conceptual model used in the below cloud scavenging numerical modeling. The results between modeled and observed data have also presented high square Pearson coefficient correlations over 0.7 and significant, except the Freiburg Campaign event. The differences between numerical simulations and observed dataset are explained by the wind direction changes and, perhaps, the absence of advection mass terms inside the modeling. These results validate previous works based on the same conceptual model.

Component-based stream processing "in the cloud"

Martinaitis, P.N.; Patten, C.J.; Wendelborn, A.L.
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery; New York Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery; New York
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
In earlier work, we reported on modeling of stream processing in terms of distributed components (as exemplified in the EU CoreGrid project ProActive), showing how a stream processing system can be built from components in composition, with dynamic reconfiguration and distributed management of the streams. In this paper, we introduce the Web Service Stream Deployer (WSSD), for the remote establishment and deployment of streams across widely distributed resources, allowing a user to set-up, control and reconfigure a stream remotely and dynamically. We demonstrate this concept with streams on a cloud testbed, using Nimbus cloud infrastructure at the University of Chicago. In particular, we show that our web-services based WSSD exhibits minimal adverse latency effect when used over an intercontinental network to manipulate, from our client in Australia, a cloud-based stream in the USA; we believe that this represents a useful mode of remote interaction with cloud-based applications. We outline some ideas in scheduling of cloud-based streams; we present a model of interaction with Gridbus, a widely used framework for exploring different scheduling algorithms (such as economic scheduling), whereby scheduling criteria expressed in Gridbus can be used to automatically deploy stream components.; Paul N. Martinaitis...

Modelo de interoperabilidad para plataformas de cloud computing basado en tecnologías del conocimiento

Jiménez Domingo, Enrique
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
La Internet de los servicios ha ido modificando la Web desde un mero repositorio de información hasta convertirse en una plataforma para servicios y transacciones donde las organizaciones ofertan servicios de todo tipo, incrementando sus procesos de negocio exponiéndolos a través de la Web. Unido a esta transformación surgen nuevos paradigmas, como el Software-as-a-Service y el Cloud Computing, cuyos modelos se adaptan a esta nueva concepción y prometen crear nuevos niveles de eficiencia mediante la compartición de funcionalidades y recursos a gran escala. Con todo ello, las tecnologías relacionadas con el Cloud Computing han ido incrementando su presencia e importancia en el mundo de las tecnologías de la información y han evolucionado hasta convertirse en un conjunto maduro de innovaciones tecnológicas capaces de proporcionar una sólida infraestructura para el paradigma SaaS. El Cloud Computing y el SaaS abren las puertas a economías de gran escala y también a nuevos horizontes pero se encuentran con un importante número de retos que afrontar entre los que se encuentran:  La falta de modelos contrastados para determinar bajo qué condiciones es rentable para las organizaciones el proceso de migración hacia estos modelos.  La falta de métodos probados (por ejemplo...

Coastal stratocumulus topped boundary layers and the role of cloud-top entrainment

Eleuterio, Daniel P.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Formato: x, 122p. : col. ill.: 28 cm.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The ability of the U.S. Navy's Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) (Trademark) to accurately forecast the height and structure of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) in the coastal zone is analyzed and compared to surface and aircraft observations from the Dynamics and Evolution of Coastal Stratus (DECS) field study conducted along the central coast of California from June 16 to July 22, 1999. The stratus field was found to have significant mesoscale variability within 100 km of the coast due to interaction between the mean flow and the coastal terrain. This structure is consistent with general hydraulic flow theory and the development of a low-level coastal jet. However, the specific characteristics on any given day were very sensitive to flow direction, inversion height, and synoptic conditions. With some modifications, the model predicted the general evolution of these events with qualitative fidelity, but was slow to dissipate the cloud and frequently produced surface fog versus stratus. A consistent tendency was found in the model's predictions of inversion heights 200-300 meters too low, weak inversion strengths, high integrated liquid water content...

A Survivability-Centered Research Agenda for Cloud Computing Supported Emergency Response and Management Systems

Ma, Zhanshan (Sam); Neilson, Ronald P.; Yang, Liexun; Hess, Andrew; Millar, Richard C.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Cloud computing is evolved from grid computing with a key support from the rapidly expanding virtualization technology. We argue that clouding computing is particularly suitable for supporting emergency response and management (ERM) because of some of its unique features such as rapid setup and deployment on ad hoc basis, highly flexible platforms (PaaS: Platform as a Service) and application services (SaaS: Software as a Service) with little time-space constraints. ERM is one of the seven critical national infrastructures and services mandated to protect by the 1999 US President's Executive Order (PCCIP). The paradigm of survivability and survivable network systems was a response of academia to the president's executive order. We concur that survivability should be the lifeline of any ERM, including the cloud computing supported (CCS) ERM systems. In this article, we present a research agenda that is aimed at developing a survivability-centered architecture for evolving reliable and survivable CCS-ERM systems. The research agenda suggests that biological and computational evolutions should be rich sources of biological inspirations as well as powerful optimization algorithm for designing (evolving) the ERM systems. The proposed research agenda advocates the application of three-layer survivability analysis...

Cloud Modeling of a Network Region in H-alpha

Bostanci, Z. F.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
In this paper, we analyze the physical properties of dark mottles in the chromospheric network using two dimensional spectroscopic observations in H-alpha obtained with the Gottingen Fabry-Perot Spectrometer in the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Tenerife. Cloud modeling was applied to measure the mottles' optical thickness, source function, Doppler width, and line of sight velocity. Using these measurements, the number density of hydrogen atoms in levels 1 and 2, total particle density, electron density, temperature, gas pressure, and mass density parameters were determined with the method of Tsiropoula & Schmieder (1997). We also analyzed the temporal behaviour of a mottle using cloud parameters. Our result shows that it is dominated by 3 minute signals in source function, and 5 minutes or more in velocity.; Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomische Nachrichten - Astronomical Notes

Cloud modeling of a quiet solar region in H-alpha

Bostanci, Z. F.; Erdogan, N. Al
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/01/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
We present chromospheric cloud modeling on the basis of H-alpha profile-sampling images taken with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). We choose the required reference background profile by using theoretical NLTE profile synthesis. The resulting cloud parameters are converted into estimates of physical parameters (temperature and various densities). Their mean values compare well with the VAL-C model.; Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures. To appear in the proceedings of the 25th NSO Workshop "Chromospheric Structure and Dynamics. From Old Wisdom to New Insights", Memorie della Societa' Astronomica Italiana, Eds. Tritschler et al

Bayesian Nonparametric Modeling and Theory for Complex Data

Pati, Debdeep
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%

The dissertation focuses on solving some important theoretical and methodological problems associated with Bayesian modeling of infinite dimensional `objects', popularly called nonparametric Bayes. The term `infinite dimensional object' can refer to a density, a conditional density, a regression surface or even a manifold. Although Bayesian density estimation as well as function estimation are well-justified in the existing literature, there has been little or no theory justifying the estimation of more complex objects (e.g. conditional density, manifold, etc.). Part of this dissertation focuses on exploring the structure of the spaces on which the priors for conditional densities and manifolds are supported while studying how the posterior concentrates as increasing amounts of data are collected.

With the advent of new acquisition devices, there has been a need to model complex objects associated with complex data-types e.g. millions of genes affecting a bio-marker, 2D pixelated images, a cloud of points in the 3D space, etc. A significant portion of this dissertation has been devoted to developing adaptive nonparametric Bayes approaches for learning low-dimensional structures underlying higher-dimensional objects e.g. a high-dimensional regression function supported on a lower dimensional space...

Scalable Stochastic Models for Cloud Services

Ghosh, Rahul
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%

Cloud computing appears to be a paradigm shift in service oriented computing. Massively scalable Cloud architectures are spawned by new business and social applications as well as Internet driven economics. Besides being inherently large scale and highly distributed, Cloud systems are almost always virtualized and operate in automated shared environments. The deployed Cloud services are still in their infancy and a variety of research challenges need to be addressed to predict their long-term behavior. Performance and dependability of Cloud services are in general stochastic in nature and they are affected by a large number of factors, e.g., nature of workload and faultload, infrastructure characteristics and management policies. As a result, developing scalable and predictive analytics for Cloud becomes difficult and non-trivial. This dissertation presents the research framework needed to develop high fidelity stochastic models for large scale enterprise systems using Cloud computing as an example. Throughout the dissertation, we show how the developed models are used for: (i) performance and availability analysis, (ii) understanding of power-performance trade-offs, (ii) resiliency quantification, (iv) cost analysis and capacity planning...