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Recognition of protozoa and metazoa using image analysis tools, discriminant analysis, neural networks and decision trees

Ginoris, Y. P.; Amaral, A. L.; Nicolau, Ana; Coelho, M. A. Z.; Ferreira, E. C.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.92%
Protozoa and metazoa are considered good indicators of the treatment quality in activated sludge systems due to the fact that these organisms are fairly sensitive to physical, chemical and operational processes. Therefore, it is possible to establish close relationships between the predominance of certain species or groups of species and several operational parameters of the plant, such as the biotic indices, namely the Sludge Biotic Index (SBI). This procedure requires the identification, classification and enumeration of the different species, which is usually achieved manually implying both time and expertise availability. Digital image analysis combined with multivariate statistical techniques has proved to be a useful tool to classify and quantify organisms in an automatic and not subjective way. Thiswork presents a semi-automatic image analysis procedure for protozoa and metazoa recognition developed in Matlab language. The obtained morphological descriptors were analyzed using discriminant analysis, neural network and decision trees multivariable statistical techniques to identify and classify each protozoan or metazoan. The obtained procedure was quite adequate for distinguishing between the non-sessile protozoa classes and also for the metazoa classes...

The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effects of the dopamine antagonist haloperidol on effort-related decision making in a T-maze cost/benefit procedure

Mott, A.; Nunes, E.; Collins-Praino, L.; Port, R.; Sink, K.; Hockemeyer, J.; Muller, C.; Salamone, J.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.8%
Rationale. Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Research involving choice tasks has shown that rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Objective. Previous work showed that adenosine A2A antagonism can reverse the effects of the DA antagonist haloperidol in an operant task that assesses effort-related choice. The present work used a T-maze choice procedure to assess the effects of adenosine A2A and A1 antagonism. Materials and methods. With this task, the two arms of the maze have different reinforcement densities (four vs. two food pellets), and a vertical 44 cm barrier is positioned in the arm with the higher density, presenting the animal with an effort-related challenge. Untreated rats strongly prefer the arm with the high density of food reward and climb the barrier in order to obtain the food. Results. Haloperidol produced a dose-related (0.05–0.15 mg/kg i.p.) reduction in the number of trials in which the rats chose the high-barrier arm. Co-administration of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.75...

Codecision and Institutional Change

FARRELL, Henry; HERITIER, Adrienne
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 138037 bytes; application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.64%

Early conclusion in the co-decision legislative procedure

RASMUSSEN, Anne
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.98%
There are broader democratic implications in whether legislative deals are concluded between the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers in the co-decision procedure at first reading, as the potential of different interests within the legislative bodies to affect the outcomes varies considerably between this and the later reading stages. This paper therefore examines the extent to which six different explanations can account for early agreement and uses a dataset with all procedures that had their first reading in the first five years after the entry into force of the Amsterdam Treaty. The key conclusion is that factors that the institutions themselves attached importance to before the Amsterdam Treaty entered into force, such as workload and the character of the file, do not have explanatory power, whereas others, such as how close a working relationship exists between the co-legislators, the size of the file negotiated, and whether it is a new act do. Moreover, the paper adds to existing evidence of the relevance of party politics within the institutions by demonstrating that party interests also play a role across them. The chance of early conclusion increases if the negotiators from the Council and the European Parliament come from the same party family.

Legal Basis and Scope of the New EU-Ukraine Enhanced Agreement. Is there any room for further speculation?

PETROV, Roman
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
The paper conducts a critical analysis of the potential legal basis and scope of the future European Union (EU)-Ukraine enhanced agreement. Accepting that the most probable and most beneficial possibility for Ukraine is to conclude an association agreement with the EU on the basis of Article 310 EC Treaty (EC), it is argued that the objectives of the enhanced co-operation between the EU and Ukraine - as expected and desired by the Ukrainian political élite - could be achieved by a partnership agreement concluded on the basis of Article 181a EC. Furthermore, if the new enhanced EU-Ukraine agreement were concluded as a partnership agreement, it might be better suited for the solving of certain political and legal challenges in contemporary EU-Ukraine relations. First, a new enhanced agreement concluded on the basis of Article 181a EC would not entail unjustified political expectations - on the part of Ukraine - of obtaining the perspective of full EU-membership in the near future. Second, a future EU-Ukraine partnership agreement would be the best option for a “transitional” enhanced agreement before the Treaty of Lisbon enters into force. Third, a future partnership agreement between the EU and Ukraine will not undermine the fundamentals of the evolving strategic partnership between the EU and Russia.

Rule Application in EU and US Conciliation Committees

RASMUSSEN, Anne
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.64%
Important rules regulating conciliation committees in the EU and the U.S. look similar but are applied very differently in practice. This article examines why rule application is different in the two systems. In accordance with insights from recent institutional literature, the results show that differences in rule application can be explained on the basis of variation in rule ambiguity between the two systems, and how much bargaining power the actors interested in strategically selecting between or modifying the rules have. They also add to the literature by underlining the fact that ambiguity in which rule to apply, or how to interpret a given rule, is not a necessary condition for these procedural choices. The results are thus not only relevant to scholars interested in bicameral bargaining, but also to scholars with a general interest in rule application.

Contested Delegation: The Impact of Codecision on Comitology

HERITIER, Adrienne; MOURY, Catherine
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.8%
In this article, we show that, for the area of environmental policy, the Commission and the Council have been more willing to rely on extensive delegation after the introduction of co-decision. We also show that the tendency of these two actors to delegate has followed the ratification of the Amsterdam Treaty - which indicates that the Council and Commission had anticipated their relative loss of power to the EP and rushed to delegate as much as possible before the effective introduction of co-decision. However, the Council was only willing to delegate more to the Commission on condition that it could exert as much control as possible over the procedure by using regulatory committees. These empirical findings confirm a distributive institutionalist argument according to which the Council and the Commission, seeking to maximizing their institutional power, would try to circumvent the EP through delegation when the latter’s competences in legislation increase. The expectation, also based on this argument, that the EP would react to this behaviour by opposing delegation altogether was not confirmed: the EP, rather than opposing delegation as such, has systematically tried to restrict its scope.

The EU Conciliation Committee - One Or Several Principals?

RASMUSSEN, Anne
Fonte: Sage Publications Ltd Publicador: Sage Publications Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
Since the introduction of the co-decision legislative procedure, the EU has had the possibility to resort to a Conciliation Committee made up of representatives from the European Parliament and the Council to reconcile differences between the two bodies. This article assesses whether the members of this committee have an incentive to take advantage of their ability to present take-it-or-leave-it offers to their parent bodies by examining whether they are representative of their full body and/ or whether they represent other interests inside or outside their legislative body. It concludes that the EU Conciliation Committee is generally representative of its parent bodies and that the option to go to conciliation is not a risky tool for them to reach agreement.

Inter-Institutional Rules and Division of Power in the European Parliament: Allocation of Consultation and Co-Decision Reports

YORDANOVA, Nikoleta
Fonte: Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd Publicador: Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Studies on the European Parliament have largely overlooked the impact of the inter-institutional context on its internal organisation. This paper argues that the stronger legislative powers of the Parliament vis-a-vis the Council of Ministers under the co-decision than under the consultation procedure affect the intra-parliamentary allocation of different types of legislative report. The analysis of the period 2004-07 shows that legislators from the centre-right party group coalition and loyal party group members are privileged in the allocation of co-decision reports. In contrast, legislators with outlying special interests and experts are given systematic access to drafting only consultation reports. The higher competition for co-decision versus consultation reports left unchecked by the formal EP rules has thus been exploited by party group leaders to promote group cohesion and coalition-building, producing clear winners and losers.

Contested Delegation: The Impact of Co-decision on Comitology

HERITIER, Adrienne; MOURY, Catherine
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
This article shows that, for the area of environmental policy, the Commission and the Council have been more willing to rely on extensive delegation after the introduction of co-decision. It also shows that the tendency of these two actors to delegate has followed the ratification of the Amsterdam Treaty - which indicates that the Council and Commission had anticipated their relative loss of power to the EP and rushed to delegate as much as possible before the effective introduction of co-decision. However, the Council was only willing to delegate more to the Commission on condition that it could exert as much control as possible over the procedure by using regulatory committees. These empirical findings confirm a distributive institutionalist argument according to which the Council and the Commission, seeking to maximise their institutional power, would try to circumvent the EP through delegation when the latter's competences in legislation increase. The expectation, also based on this argument, that the EP would react to this behaviour by opposing delegation altogether was not confirmed: the EP, rather than opposing delegation as such, has systematically tried to restrict its scope.

Ghana - Assessment of Stage 1 : Use of Country Procurement Systems in Bank-Supported Operations - Proposed Piloting Program

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Procurement Assessment (CPAR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.8%
The present report comprises the findings of both missions conducted to complete stage one of the assessment. It is structured along the following lines. Chapter one presents a summary analysis of the overall Public Financial Management (PFM) environment in which Ghana's public procurement system operates as based on the existing External Review of Public Financial Management (ERPFM), Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) and other PFM reports. Chapter two summarizes previous assessments of status of reforms to public procurement in Ghana. This includes the country's Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) with the status of its action plan, as well as the recommendations and actions taken based on the 2007 External Review of Public Financial Management (ERPFM) Joint Assessment of the national procurement system. Chapter three reviews the government's public procurement reform strategy. Chapter four presents the detailed findings of the country level procurement systems assessment...

Linking to Successful Bank-Financed Projects : Argentine Republic's Environmental and Social Regulatory Framework

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.77%
The government of Argentina and the World Bank desire to improve the efficiency and results of the environmental and social outcomes of jointly financed development projects. As part of a workshop in November 2010 attended by officials of the Ministry of Economy and Public Finance of Argentina, World Bank staff, and representatives of implementing units of projects being co-financed by the Bank, several issues with regard to the implementation of the World Bank safeguard policies and the existing Argentine environmental and social management regulatory frameworks were identified. The workshop agreed to conduct a technical study of the regulatory consistency between the Bank safeguard policies and Argentina s environmental and social legislation to serve as a vehicle for dialogue between the Bank and the government of Argentina in order to strengthen joint strategies that address environmental and social issues in development projects. The technical study involved the following (and the corresponding report section): comparison between the principles of eight of the World Bank safeguard Operational Policies (OPs) and the national and provincial regulatory frameworks in force...

The effect of codecision on Council decision-making: informalization, politicization and power

Häge, Frank M; Naurin, Daniel
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.94%
peer-reviewed; Little is known about the effects of the inter-institutional linkages created through the establishment of the codecision procedure on decision-making in the Council of the European Union. After a review of the existing literature and theories on this topic, we examine to what extent the codecision procedure leads to more involvement of ministers in Council decision-making and to a more powerful position of the Presidency in the internal negotiation process of the Council. The results show that the initially positive effect of codecision on the politicization of Council decision-making has been offset in recent years by a growing lack of transparency in inter-institutional proceedings caused by the use of informal trialogue negotiations to conclude the procedure early. However, our study also suggests that the country holding the Presidency does not occupy a more privileged position in the Council's internal co-operation network as a result of these developments. Thus, with respect to the Council, informal inter-institutional negotiation practices seem to decrease the transparency of the decision-making process and the accountability of the actors involved, but they may not have as adverse an effect on who gets what in terms of policy as previously thought.; ACCEPTED; peer-reviewed

Analyse en identification partielle de la décision d'émigrer des étudiants africains

Méango, Natoua Romuald
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.99%
La migration internationale d’étudiants est un investissement couteux pour les familles dans beaucoup de pays en voie de développement. Cependant, cet investissement est susceptible de générer des bénéfices financiers et sociaux relativement importants aux investisseurs, tout autant que des externalités pour d’autres membres de la famille. Cette thèse s’intéresse à deux aspects importants de la migration des étudiants internationaux : (i) Qui part? Quels sont les déterminants de la probabilité de migration? (ii) Qui paie? Comment la famille s’organise-t-elle pour couvrir les frais de la migration? (iii) Qui y gagne? Ce flux migratoire est-il au bénéfice du pays d’origine? Entreprendre une telle étude met le chercheur en face de défis importants, notamment, l’absence de données complètes et fiables; la dispersion géographique des étudiants migrants en étant la cause première. La première contribution importante de ce travail est le développement d’une méthode de sondage en « boule de neige » pour des populations difficiles à atteindre, ainsi que d’estimateurs corrigeant les possibles biais de sélection. A partir de cette méthodologie, j’ai collecté des données incluant simultanément des étudiants migrants et non-migrants du Cameroun en utilisant une plateforme internet. Un second défi relativement bien documenté est la présence d’endogénéité du choix d’éducation. Nous tirons avantage des récents développements théoriques dans le traitement des problèmes d’identification dans les modèles de choix discrets pour résoudre cette difficulté...

Contested delegation: the Impact of co-decision on comitology

Heritier, Adrienne; Moury, Catherine
Fonte: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Publicador: Routledge/Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
WOS:000285150800007 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science); “Prémio Científico ISCTE-IUL 2012”; This article shows that, for the area of environmental policy, the Commission and the Council have been more willing to rely on extensive delegation after the introduction of co-decision. It also shows that the tendency of these two actors to delegate has followed the ratification of the Amsterdam Treaty – which indicates that the Council and Commission had anticipated their relative loss of power to the EP and rushed to delegate as much as possible before the effective introduction of co-decision. However, the Council was only willing to delegate more to the Commission on condition that it could exert as much control as possible over the procedure by using regulatory committees. These empirical findings confirm a distributive institutionalist argument according to which the Council and the Commission, seeking to maximise their institutional power, would try to circumvent the EP through delegation when the latter's competences in legislation increase. The expectation, also based on this argument, that the EP would react to this behaviour by opposing delegation altogether was not confirmed: the EP, rather than opposing delegation as such...

Spike-based Decision Learning of Nash Equilibria in Two-Player Games

Friedrich, Johannes; Senn, Walter
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.8%
Humans and animals face decision tasks in an uncertain multi-agent environment where an agent's strategy may change in time due to the co-adaptation of others strategies. The neuronal substrate and the computational algorithms underlying such adaptive decision making, however, is largely unknown. We propose a population coding model of spiking neurons with a policy gradient procedure that successfully acquires optimal strategies for classical game-theoretical tasks. The suggested population reinforcement learning reproduces data from human behavioral experiments for the blackjack and the inspector game. It performs optimally according to a pure (deterministic) and mixed (stochastic) Nash equilibrium, respectively. In contrast, temporal-difference(TD)-learning, covariance-learning, and basic reinforcement learning fail to perform optimally for the stochastic strategy. Spike-based population reinforcement learning, shown to follow the stochastic reward gradient, is therefore a viable candidate to explain automated decision learning of a Nash equilibrium in two-player games.

Clifford Algebra of the Vector Space of Conics for decision boundary Hyperplanes in m-Euclidean Space

Nieto, Isidro B.; Vallejo, J. Refugio
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/07/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.85%
In this paper we embed $m$-dimensional Euclidean space in the geometric algebra $Cl_m $ to extend the operators of incidence in ${R^m}$ to operators of incidence in the geometric algebra to generalize the notion of separator to a decision boundary hyperconic in the Clifford algebra of hyperconic sections denoted as ${Cl}({Co}_{2})$. This allows us to extend the concept of a linear perceptron or the spherical perceptron in conformal geometry and introduce the more general conic perceptron, namely the {elliptical perceptron}. Using Clifford duality a vector orthogonal to the decision boundary hyperplane is determined. Experimental results are shown in 2-dimensional Euclidean space where we separate data that are naturally separated by some typical plane conic separators by this procedure. This procedure is more general in the sense that it is independent of the dimension of the input data and hence we can speak of the hyperconic elliptic perceptron.; Comment: 12 pages, 2 figures, 1 table

Learning on the job?: EU enlargement and the assignment of (shadow) rapporteurships in the European Parliament

Hurka, Steffen; Kaeding, Michael; Obholzer, Lukas
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.64%
This article investigates the determinants of assignments to European Parliament negotiating teams comprising both rapporteurs and shadow rapporteurs. We re-examine the argument that under-representation of MEPs (Members of the European Parliament) from new Member States on these key posts after enlargement might have been due to a 'learning phase'. We find that MEPs from newer Member States remain considerably less likely to act as rapporteurs during the second term after enlargement (2009–14). Most importantly, this trend also holds for shadow rapporteurships under the co-decision procedure, which is when they matter most. This structural under-representation entails important implications for European integration, most importantly that MEPs from newer Member States are less able to influence legislation. We suggest that the patterns we find could be the result of reduced willingness, a more limited skill set, or a structural disadvantage of MEPs from the accession states in the report allocation process.

Constitutional agenda-setting through discretion in rule interpretation: why the European Parliament won at Amsterdam

Hix, Simon
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.79%
It is a widely accepted that the 1999 Treaty of Amsterdam significantly increased the powers of the European Parliament (EP). The critical question, however, is why the European Union (EU) governments did this. I argue, contrary to existing explanations, that these changes came about because the EP was a ‘constitutional agenda-setter’. The rules in the EU Treaty, as established at Maastricht, were incomplete contracts, and the EU governments had imperfect information about the precise operation of the Treaty. As a result, the EP was able to re-interpret these rules to its advantage and threaten not to co-operate with the governments unless they accepted the EP's interpretations. The article shows how this process of discretion, interpretation and acceptance worked in the two main areas of EP power: in the legislative process (in the reform of the co-decision procedure), and in executive appointment (in the reform of the Commission investiture procedure). The article concludes that ‘agenda-setting through discretion in rule interpretation’ is a common story in the development of the powers of parliaments, both at the domestic and EU levels.

Legislative package deals in EU decision-making: 1999 - 2007

Kardasheva, Raya
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
This is a thesis about legislative package deals in the European Union and their effects on EU policy outcomes. It analyzes inter-chamber legislative exchange between the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament. The key argument is that package deals increase the legislative influence of the European Parliament across legislative procedures and policy areas. Package deals allow Member States to establish control over the financial aspects of legislation and to ensure its adoption without delay. In exchange, the European Parliament gains further institutional powers and access to some of the EU's most salient policy areas. Legislative bargaining between the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament is analyzed across all EU legislation, completed in the period 1 May 1999 - 30 April 2007. The argument is tested empirically through the quantitative analysis of 1465 co-decision and consultation proposals, 19 policy areas and 8 years. Five in-depth case studies complement the findings. The results indicate that the use of package deals in the EU is conditional on the distributive nature of legislative proposals, and their urgency. In turn, package deals and urgency affect legislative outcomes. Package deals and delay increase the EP's legislative influence in the consultation procedure. Package deals and Council impatience increase the EP's legislative influence in the co-decision procedure. Overall...