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Current outlook of ethics in research with human subjects; Panorama atual da ética em pesquisa em seres humanos

TAKAHASHI, Marystella Tomoe; RAMOS, Henrique Faria; PINHEIRO-NETO, Carlos Diógenes; MIZIARA, Ivan Dieb; OLIVEIRA, Reynaldo Ayer de
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cervicofacial Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cervicofacial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.77%
In the last decades, medical care has been increasingly permeated by the concept of evidence-based-medicine, in which clinical research plays a crucial role in establishing diagnostic and treatment. Following the improvements in clinical research, we have a growing concern and understanding that some ethical issues must be respected when the subjects are human beings. Research with human subjects relies on the principles of autonomy, beneficence, no maleficence and justice. Ordinance 196/96 from the National Health Board adds to the Brazilian legislation such renowned bioethical principles. AIM: Discuss the main ethical aspects involved in research with human subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Critical analysis of Ordinance 196/96 and related literature. CONCLUSION: Ordinance 196/96 rules research with human subjects; nevertheless, it requires more in-depth discussions regarding the informed consent, use of placebo, research with vulnerable populations and research in developing countries.; Nas últimas décadas, a medicina tem sido cada vez mais permeada pelo conceito de medicina baseada em evidências, na qual a pesquisa clínica possui papel crucial no estabelecimento de diretrizes diagnósticas e terapêuticas. Com o avanço da pesquisa clínica...

Comparação entre códigos de ética ou deontológicos da odontologia de países ibero-americanos e o código de ética odontológica brasileiro; Comparison between codes of ethics: the Ibero-American countries dentistry ethics codes and the brazilian dentistry ethics code

Lopes Júnior, César
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/04/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.05%
Foram descritos e comparados os códigos de ética da odontologia vigentes, na Argentina, na Colômbia, na Espanha, no México, em Portugal, no Peru, no Uruguai e na Venezuela com o Código de Ética Odontológica vigente no Brasil. Referida comparação deu-se no tangente aos seguintes aspectos: direitos e deveres do profissional, relação com o paciente, sigilo profissional, honorários profissionais, publicidade e propaganda e especialidades odontológicas. Observaram-se algumas desvantagens e vantagens nos códigos de ética estrangeiros em relação ao código brasileiro. Com base nisto propuseram-se algumas modificações ao Código de Ética Odontológica, tais como a inclusão de incisos que disciplinem a conduta do profissional em relação a pacientes soropositivos, obriguem o mesmo à denúncia de violência sofrida por paciente, lhe garantam a posse do prontuário odontológico, estabeleçam o sigilo profissional exclusivamente como dever do profissional, bem como a modificação do texto para melhor explicar quais são os fatos e informações que devem ser objeto de sigilo profissional.; The dentistry ethics codes in Argentina, Colombia, Spain, Mexico, Portugal, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela have been described and compared with the dentistry ethics code existing in Brazil. The referred comparison happened about the following aspects: rights and duties of the professional...

A efetividade dos códigos de ética empresarial na percepção do executivo brasileiro de empresas nacionais sujeitas à lei Sarbanes-Oxley – Uma análise exploratória baseada no modelo de Singh.

Manfredi, Claudio Alexandre Ferreira
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.91%
As empresas buscam criar um contexto capacitante no qual a confiança é elemento preponderante para tais objetivos. Em 2002, após os conhecidos escândalos de governança corporativa, o Congresso dos Estados Unidos da América (EUA) sancionou a Lei Sarbanes-Oxley (SOx), com o objetivo de proteger os investidores e resgatar a confiança abalada. Empresas norte-americanas de capital aberto foram obrigadas a adotar códigos de ética corporativos, garantindo a máxima efetividade na prevenção de fraudes praticadas por empregados, sob pena de pesadas sanções cíveis e criminais para as empresas e seus executivos. O presente estudo visa verificar a efetividade dos Códigos de Ética Empresarial (CEE) na percepção do empregado brasileiro de empresa nacional subordinada à SOx. Com base no modelo de Singh (2011), foram analisadas 18 variáveis independentes de efetividade dos códigos de ética corporativos. Os resultados revelaram que 84,4% dos respondentes ao questionário avaliaram positivamente os CEE de suas respectivas empresas. Mas o modelo de Singh (2011) não refletiu integralmente os fatores por ele identificados, permitindo a proposição de um novo modelo de efetividade dos CEE. Novas pesquisas deverão contemplar a análise dos aspectos culturais brasileiros que podem impactar na efetividade dos CEE. Estudos de caso...

Current outlook of ethics in research with human subjects

Takahashi,Marystella Tomoe; Ramos,Henrique Faria; Pinheiro-Neto,Carlos Diógenes; Miziara,Ivan Dieb; Oliveira,Reynaldo Ayer de
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cervicofacial Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cervicofacial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.77%
In the last decades, medical care has been increasingly permeated by the concept of evidence-based-medicine, in which clinical research plays a crucial role in establishing diagnostic and treatment. Following the improvements in clinical research, we have a growing concern and understanding that some ethical issues must be respected when the subjects are human beings. Research with human subjects relies on the principles of autonomy, beneficence, no maleficence and justice. Ordinance 196/96 from the National Health Board adds to the Brazilian legislation such renowned bioethical principles. AIM: Discuss the main ethical aspects involved in research with human subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Critical analysis of Ordinance 196/96 and related literature. CONCLUSION: Ordinance 196/96 rules research with human subjects; nevertheless, it requires more in-depth discussions regarding the informed consent, use of placebo, research with vulnerable populations and research in developing countries.

Code of Ethics: Principles for Ethical Leadership

Flite, Cathy A.; Harman, Laurinda B.
Fonte: American Health Information Management Association Publicador: American Health Information Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes.

The Code of Ethics for Nurses

Zahedi, F; Sanjari, M; Aala, M; Peymani, M; Aramesh, K; Parsapour, A; Maddah, SS Bagher; Cheraghi, MA; Mirzabeigi, GH; Larijani, B; Dastgerdi, M Vahid
Fonte: Tehran University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
Nurses are ever-increasingly confronted with complex concerns in their practice. Codes of ethics are fundamental guidance for nursing as many other professions. Although there are authentic international codes of ethics for nurses, the national code would be the additional assistance provided for clinical nurses in their complex roles in care of patients, education, research and management of some parts of health care system in the country. A national code can provide nurses with culturally-adapted guidance and help them to make ethical decisions more closely to the Iranian-Islamic background. Given the general acknowledgement of the need, the National Code of Ethics for Nurses was compiled as a joint project (2009–2011). The Code was approved by the Health Policy Council of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and communicated to all universities, healthcare centers, hospitals and research centers early in 2011. The focus of this article is on the course of action through which the Code was compiled, amended and approved. The main concepts of the code will be also presented here. No doubt, development of the codes should be considered as an ongoing process. This is an overall responsibility to keep the codes current, updated with the new progresses of science and emerging challenges...

A Repository of Codes of Ethics and Technical Standards in Health Informatics

; Samuel, Hamman W.; Zaïane, Osmar R.
Fonte: University of Illinois at Chicago Library Publicador: University of Illinois at Chicago Library
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.05%
We present a searchable repository of codes of ethics and standards in health informatics. It is built using state-of-the-art search algorithms and technologies. The repository will be potentially beneficial for public health practitioners, researchers, and software developers in finding and comparing ethics topics of interest. Public health clinics, clinicians, and researchers can use the repository platform as a one-stop reference for various ethics codes and standards. In addition, the repository interface is built for easy navigation, fast search, and side-by-side comparative reading of documents. Our selection criteria for codes and standards are two-fold; firstly, to maintain intellectual property rights, we index only codes and standards freely available on the internet. Secondly, major international, regional, and national health informatics bodies across the globe are surveyed with the aim of understanding the landscape in this domain. We also look at prevalent technical standards in health informatics from major bodies such as the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Our repository contains codes of ethics from the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA)...

Ethics and Engineering Education

Bucciarelli, Louis
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
ABET recommends the study of ethics so that students acquire “an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility”. For the most part, teaching of the subject relies upon the use of scenarios - both hypothetical and “real”- and open discussion framed by the codes. These scenarios and this framing strike me as seriously deficient - lacking in their attention to the complexities of context, almost solely focused on individual agency, while reflecting too narrow and simplistic a view of the responsibilities of the practicing engineer. A critique of several exemplary scenarios, and consideration of the demands placed upon today’s professional, prompt reflection on the need for, not just a more expansive reading of the codes of ethics re what it might mean to be “responsible”, but a substantial reform of undergraduate engineering education across the board.; A presentation made at a Workshop on Philosophy and Engineering, Technical University of Delft, October 2007. A much shorter version of this paper has been submitted for consideration in the EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION  2008 Société Européenne pour la Formation des Ingénieurs (SEFI); EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION

Ethics instruction in library and information science : the role of “ethics across the curriculum”

Todd Smith, Bernie (1949 - ); Curren, Randall ; Wall, Andrew F. (1972 - )
Fonte: University of Rochester. Publicador: University of Rochester.
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:xii, 314 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.86%
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester, Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development, 2010.; Ethics is an important element of most graduate professional training programs. In the field of Library and Information Science (LIS) the inclusion of ethics in the curriculum is supported by a position paper by library educators and is monitored in the accreditation of graduate programs. Despite the many LIS programs which claim to integrate ethics, few authors have examined how they are accomplishing this integration, and fewer still have explored the nature of the integration. The purpose of this research is to expand the descriptive literature on the current teaching of ethics in graduate LIS programs by investigating ethics integration across the curriculum. The research describes the views and experiences of administrators and teachers on institution-wide tactics for integration of ethics across the curriculum. The research also details the strategies that teachers used to integrate ethics into existing core courses in LIS curricula. The conceptual framework, which grounds this study of the integration of ethics, is based on the taxonomy of the teaching of professional ethics. The research is based on a qualitative methodology that uses sequential data gathering...

Leadership, ethics and disciplinary codes: the case of Zimbabwe

Stanley, Meda
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Outros Formato: 45052 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
This paper examines the applicability of some principles on good governance and corruption to Zimbabwe. The focus is on codes of conduct for ministers of parliament and public and private sector officials. The argument is that comprehensive code of ethics is necessary to make public and private institutions in Zimbabwe free from corruption and more efficient service providers. It begins with a historical analysis of leadership and governance in the pre-colonial and colonial period. The current situation is then examined and recommendations made for the creation and implementation of codes of conduct.; no

A global perspective on library association codes of ethics

Shachaf, Pnina
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.91%
This study of 28 countries involves comparative content analysis of the English versions of codes of ethics proposed by professional associations. It yielded an empirically grounded typology of principles arranged in twenty categories. The most frequently identified principles were professional development, integrity, confidentiality or privacy, and free and equal access to information. While confidentiality and privacy, and equal access to information, appear in all existing typologies of library and information science ethics, other principles, such as copyright and intellectual property, democracy, and responsibility toward society, which appear in almost all other typologies, were evident in fewer than half of the codes. This empirical study provides a global perspective on library association code of ethics.

La bioéthique et les conflits armés : la réflexion éthique des médecins militaires

Rochon, Christiane
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
Le but de la recherche est d’étudier les tensions éthiques que peuvent vivre les médecins militaires, qui doivent agir à la fois comme soignants, militaires (même s’ils sont non combattants) et parfois comme acteurs humanitaires. Parmi la littérature sur l’éthique de la médecine militaire, les dilemmes la concernant sont souvent présentés comme le fruit de pressions réelles ou perçues provenant de l’institution militaire, des règles, codes, lois ou de politiques, ceci afin de détourner le médecin de son but premier, soit l’intérêt du patient. Pour mieux comprendre les défis éthiques auxquels sont confrontés les médecins militaires canadiens et comment ceux-ci les traitent, la recherche utilise une approche de bioéthique empirique. À partir d’une analyse de la littérature, nous examinons les dilemmes éthiques des médecins militaires, le concept de profession, ainsi que les codes d’éthique (médicaux et militaires) canadiens. L’expérience éthique est ensuite explorée à partir d’entrevues semi-directives effectuées auprès de quatorze médecins militaires ayant participé à des missions opérationnelles, notamment à Kandahar en Afghanistan, entre 2006 et 2010. Les résultats, tant conceptuels qu’empiriques...

Professionalism and Ethics in Hospitality

Keiser, James R.; Swinton, John
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
In their discussion - Professionalism and Ethics in Hospitality - by James R. Keiser, Associate Professor and John Swinton, Instructor, Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Management, The Pennsylvania State University, Keiser and Swinton initially offer: “Referring to “the hospitality profession” necessitates thinking of the ethics of that profession and how ethics can be taught. The authors discuss what it means for the hospitality industry to be a profession.” The authors will have you know, a cursory nod to the term or description, profession and/or professional, is awarded to the hospitality industry at large; at least in an academic sense. Keiser and Swinton also want you to know that ethics, and professionalism are distinctly unique concepts, however, they are related. Their intangible nature does make them difficult, at best, to define, but ethics in contemporary hospitality has, to some degree, been charted and quantified. “We have left the caveat emptor era, and the common law, the Uniform Commercial Code, and a variety of local ordinances now dictate that the goods and services hospitality offers carry an implied warranty of merchantability,” the authors inform you. About the symbiotic relationship between ethics and professionalism...

Ethics in government and business

Dix, Jacqueline A.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
Canadians appear to hold the activities of those in government and in big business in low esteem. Media reports of several high-profile political and corporate instances of unethical conduct have reinforced the public's concern for the status of ethical conduct and honesty in government and in big business. The response by public and private sector managers to unethical conduct by employees is largely in the form of 'ethical rules' which both sectors agree provide a measure of certainty as to the ethical conduct expected from employees. Since research on ethics in the public and private sectors is limited and since ethics is a topic of increasing concern to both sectors, this thesis provides data that could assist managers in dealing with the issue of ethical conduct within their respective organizations. The purpose of this thesis is to compare the state of ethical conduct within public and private sector organizations in Canada. This is accomplished through a description and analysis of the approaches taken by the public and private sectors as well as the four professions of law, engineering, accountancy and medicine. Ethical conduct within the public sector focuses on the ethical behaviour of public servants rather than elected officials. The underlying intent of this thesis is to discover if contemporary ethical problems are similar in the public and iv private sectors with respect to the four ethical areas of conflict of interest...

Análise da relação entre as condutas dos profissionais enfermeiros, técnicos e auxiliares de enfermagem com os processos éticos profissionais junto ao COREN SP; Study of nurses, technicians and assistants conduct within the Ethical Processes at COREN SP

Penna, Moira Helena Maxwell
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
Objetivo: Identificar as questões antiéticas, aéticas e iatrogênicas dos Profissionais da Enfermagem através da análise qualitativa dos processos ético-profissionais abertos junto ao COREN SP no período de 1º de janeiro de 2001 a 31 de dezembro de 2004. Quantificar o número de processos ético-profissionais abertos; identificar o perfil dos profissionais denunciados; relacionar as infrações éticas com os artigos elencados no Código de Ética dos Profissionais de Enfermagem; analisar os processos ético-profissionais, sistematizando os resultados de modo a obter os principais tipos de denúncia, seus locais de ocorrência e a identificação dos tipos de denunciantes; discutir a iatrogenia como fator predominante da infração ética. Método: Trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, documental e de corte qualitativo baseada na coleta de dados contidos nos autos dos processos ético-profissionais, no âmbito do COREN SP, no período de 1º de janeiro de 2001 a 31 de dezembro de 2004, por meio da utilização de um questionário, o questionário se encontra no Anexo 1. Do material coletado foram excluídos os processos ético-profissionais cujos dados não permitiram o preenchimento completo do questionário. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística. Resultados e Conclusões: Foram analisados 189 (cento e oitenta e nove) processos ético-profissionais no período de 1º de janeiro de 2001 até 31 de dezembro de 2004...

Ética profissional e arquivologia na complexidade dos arquivos médicos

Kochanowski, Adriano Tadeu Mottin
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.82%
Aborda a ética do ponto de vista filosófico dentro de uma instituição de atendimento médico psiquiátrico e psicológico. Utiliza a observação do comportamento dos profissionais da instituição para o desenvolvimento do trabalho. Apresenta a ética deontológica e sua aplicação no comportamento do indivíduo inserido dentro de uma sociedade ou categoria profissional. Comenta a teoria do pensamento de Immanuel Kant e suas aplicações na ética moderna e dentro das organizações. Discute a ética profissional, colocando os principais pontos de convergência entre os códigos de ética de médicos, psicólogos e arquivistas. Apresenta a Fundação, nome genérico adotado para referenciar a entidade onde foram feitas as observações e o desenvolvimento do sistema de arquivo médico. Faz referência ao fundador da entidade, professor da faculdade de medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, David Zimmermann. Demonstra a estrutura da entidade, fazendo um diagnóstico dos problemas estruturais e comportamentais que motivaram este trabalho. Ressalta a importância do profissional arquivista dentro de uma unidade de informação, no cumprimento do dever ético de conforme as necessidades imediatas de ação, sem onerar uma instituição de caráter filantrópico. Destaca alguns dos preceitos do código de ética do arquivista comentando os tópicos voltados para o trabalho na Fundação. Conclui com a importância do conhecimento e autoconhecimento que o trabalho oportunizou...

L'obligation de non-concurrence dans les sociétés de professionnels : vers une théorie de liberté de choix contractuelle

Iannuzzi, Pietro
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation Formato: 6646904 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
La concurrence entre professionnels pour la délivrance de leurs services dans l'économie est très importante. D'une part, la société de professionnels désire protéger ses intérêts économiques et, d'autre part, le professionnel a le droit de gagner sa vie. C'est ainsi que les clauses de non-concurrence visent à protéger ces deux intérêts divergents. La jurisprudence portant sur les clauses de non-concurrence en matière de contrats de travail et de contrats de vente d'entreprise est bien établie. Il s'agit de déterminer si la clause est raisonnable selon les critères de la limitation dans le temps et dans l'espace. Cependant, tant la jurisprudence que la doctrine s'est très peu penchée sur le défi particulier que présente les clauses de non-concurrence dans les sociétés de professionnels. En effet, l'ordre public se veut plus exigeant vis-à-vis les professionnels étant donné que ces derniers sont régis par codes de déontologie qui prévoient le droit du public de choisir un professionnel. Dans le cas des avocats, ce droit se trouve également dans les chartes canadiennes et québécoises. Il s'agit donc de facteurs qui s'appliquent uniquement aux professionnels. Notre objectif est de proposer un cadre d'analyse propre aux clauses de non-concurrence dans les sociétés de professionnels qui privilégient la liberté contractuelle des professionnels...

El debate en torno a la utilidad de los códigos deontológicos del periodismo

Aznar, Hugo
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1997 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
Los códigos deontológicos del periodismo, que constituyen el mecanismo de autocontrol más común y extendido, están de plena actualidad. Sin embargo sus defensores y detractores casi se reparten por igual y a menudo el tema suscita opiniones encontradas. La discusión sobre las ventajas y las limitaciones de los códigos contribuye a comprender y estimar adecuadamente la función que pueden desempeñar y qué es lo que podemos esperar de ellos. Lo que sigue trata de ser precisamente un repaso al estado actual de ese debate. Un análisis de los códigos deontológicos que regulan la profesión periodística, ante la proliferación, desde 1992, de este tipo de textos a los que se otorgan diversas funciones.; Ethical codes are the most common and extensively used means of self-control in the field of journalism. While these codes are very relevant in today's world, they have as many supporters as they do detractors, and quite often a discussion of their usefulness leads to a clash of opinions. Since 1992, the number of these codes has increased, and various functions have been attributed to them. A discussion of the advantages and limitations of these codes of ethics can help us to understand them and to form an educated opinion about what they can accomplish and what we can expect from them. The author reviews the current status of this discussion and analyzes the various ethical codes in journalism.

Dilemmas in Military Medical Ethics: A Call for Conceptual Clarity

Rochon, Christiane
Fonte: BioéthiqueOnline Publicador: BioéthiqueOnline
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.98%
Malgré l’augmentation des conflits armés et des changements qui les caractérisent, les enjeux éthiques auxquels font face les médecins militaires sont très peu traités dans la littérature en bioéthique. Les médecins militaires sont des membres du corps militaire, même s’ils sont non combattants, et ils jouent un rôle de soignant tout en pouvant être appelés à agir comme aide humanitaire. Certains auteurs se sont même interrogés sur la compatibilité morale d’être à la fois médecin et soldat. Les conflits éthiques soulevés dans la littérature sur les médecins militaires peuvent être organisés autour de trois perspectives : 1) les problèmes moraux en médecine militaire seraient particuliers compte tenu des difficultés à respecter les principes bioéthiques traditionnels; 2) les codes d’éthique médicaux et les lois internationales seraient trop restrictifs ou inadéquats pour le contexte militaire; et 3) les médecins sont des acteurs sociaux qui devraient être pacifistes, défenseurs des droits de la personne, politiquement neutres ou promoteurs de la paix. Une revue des divers dilemmes rencontrés par les médecins militaires identifiés dans la littérature nous montre que ces perspectives se situent à des niveaux d’analyse différents (micro...

Clients' perspectives of professional ethics for civil engineers

Abdul-Rahman,H; Wang,C; Saimon,M A
Fonte: Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering Publicador: Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.95%
Many parties in the construction industry claim that codes of professional ethics can help mitigate the unethical conduct of civil engineers and improve the ethical level amongst construction players. However, the fact is, even though most organisations have their own codes of ethics, there still are many instances of unethical conduct in the construction industry. For this reason, this research attempted to study clients' perceptions of the impact on civil engineering works that codes of professional ethics have. Unethical conduct in the construction industry, such as fraud, bribery and collusive tendering, were addressed in 55 structured interviews. The interviews indicated the causes of the unethical conduct, as well as ways for mitigation. Finally, two models of disciplinary procedures to deal with unethical conduct were developed for the construction industry, particularly for civil engineers. One model is for nonserious unethical conduct such as "being late for work", "punching card on behalf of a friend", and "disappointing work performance", while the other model is for serious unethical conduct such as "fraud", "dishonesty", and "collusion with the other party".