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Discovery of Western European R1b1a2 Y Chromosome Variants in 1000 Genomes Project Data: An Online Community Approach

Rocca, Richard A.; Magoon, Gregory; Reynolds, David F.; Krahn, Thomas; Tilroe, Vincent O.; Op den Velde Boots, Peter M.; Grierson, Andrew J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/07/2012 Português
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45.74%
The authors have used an online community approach, and tools that were readily available via the Internet, to discover genealogically and therefore phylogenetically relevant Y-chromosome polymorphisms within core haplogroup R1b1a2-L11/S127 (rs9786076). Presented here is the analysis of 135 unrelated L11 derived samples from the 1000 Genomes Project. We were able to discover new variants and build a much more complex phylogenetic relationship for L11 sub-clades. Many of the variants were further validated using PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. The identification of these new variants will help further the understanding of population history including patrilineal migrations in Western and Central Europe where R1b1a2 is the most frequent haplogroup. The fine-grained phylogenetic tree we present here will also help to refine historical genetic dating studies. Our findings demonstrate the power of citizen science for analysis of whole genome sequence data.

The Community Reinforcement Approach: An Update of the Evidence

Meyers, Robert J.; Roozen, Hendrik G.; Smith, Jane Ellen
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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35.97%
The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), originally developed for individuals with alcohol use disorders, has been successfully employed to treat a variety of substance use disorders for more than 35 years. Based on operant conditioning, CRA helps people rearrange their lifestyles so that healthy, drug-free living becomes rewarding and thereby competes with alcohol and drug use. Consequently, practitioners encourage clients to become progressively involved in alternative non-substance-related pleasant social activities, and to work on enhancing the enjoyment they receive within the “community” of their family and job. Additionally, in the past 10–15 years, researchers have obtained scientific evidence for two off-shoots of CRA that are based on the same operant mechanism. The first variant is Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), which targets adolescents with substance use problems and their caregivers. The second approach, Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT), works through family members to engage treatment-refusing individuals into treatment. An overview of these treatments and their scientific backing is presented.

A Whole Community Approach toward Child and Youth Resilience Promotion: A Review of Resilience Literature

Khanlou, Nazilla; Wray, Ron
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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45.81%
A literature review of child and youth resilience with a focus on: definitions and factors of resilience; relationships between resilience, mental health and social outcomes; evidence for resilience promoting interventions; and implications for reducing health inequities. To conduct the review, the first two following steps were conducted iteratively and informed the third step: 1) Review of published peer-review literature since 2000; and 2) Review of grey literature; and 3) Quasi-realist synthesis of evidence. Evidence from three perspectives were examined: i) whether interventions can improve ‘resilience’ for vulnerable children and youth; ii) whether there is a differential effect among different populations; and, iii) whether there is evidence that resilience interventions ‘close the gap’ on health and social outcome measures. Definitions of resilience vary as do perspectives on it. We argue for a hybrid approach that recognizes the value of combining multiple theoretical perspectives, epistemologies (positivistic and constructivist/interpretive/critical) in studying resilience. Resilience is: a) a process (rather than a single event), b) a continuum (rather than a binary outcome), and c) likely a global concept with specific dimensions. Individual...

Phytophagous Insects on Native and Non-Native Host Plants: Combining the Community Approach and the Biogeographical Approach

Meijer, Kim; Zemel, Hidde; Chiba, Satoshi; Smit, Christian; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Schilthuizen, Menno
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/05/2015 Português
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45.87%
During the past centuries, humans have introduced many plant species in areas where they do not naturally occur. Some of these species establish populations and in some cases become invasive, causing economic and ecological damage. Which factors determine the success of non-native plants is still incompletely understood, but the absence of natural enemies in the invaded area (Enemy Release Hypothesis; ERH) is one of the most popular explanations. One of the predictions of the ERH, a reduced herbivore load on non-native plants compared with native ones, has been repeatedly tested. However, many studies have either used a community approach (sampling from native and non-native species in the same community) or a biogeographical approach (sampling from the same plant species in areas where it is native and where it is non-native). Either method can sometimes lead to inconclusive results. To resolve this, we here add to the small number of studies that combine both approaches. We do so in a single study of insect herbivory on 47 woody plant species (trees, shrubs, and vines) in the Netherlands and Japan. We find higher herbivore diversity, higher herbivore load and more herbivory on native plants than on non-native plants, generating support for the enemy release hypothesis.

Designing Community Based Development

Narayan, Deepa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.01%
When properly designed, community based programs can be highly effective in managing natural resources, providing basic infrastructure or ensuring primary social services. Participation in community based development (CBD) depends on reversing control and accountability from central authorities to community organizations. Successful design requires tapping into local needs, understanding and building on the strengths of existing institutions, and defining the changes needed in intermediary implementing agencies to support community action.

The Effects of Home-based HIV Counseling and Testing on HIV/AIDS Stigma among Individuals and Community Leaders in Western Kenya : Evidence from a Cluster-randomized Trial

Low, Corinne; Pop-Eleches, Cristian; Rono, Winnie; Plous, Evan; Kirk, Angeli; Ndege, Samson; Goldstein, Markus; Thirumurthy, Harsha
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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45.82%
HIV counseling and testing services play an important role in HIV treatment and prevention efforts in developing countries. Community-wide testing campaigns to detect HIV earlier may additionally impact community knowledge and beliefs about HIV. We conducted a cluster-randomized evaluation of a home-based HIV testing campaign in western Kenya and evaluated the effects of the campaign on community leaders’ and members’ stigma toward people living with HIV/AIDS. We find that this type of large-scale HIV testing can be implemented successfully in the presence of stigma, perhaps due to its “whole community” approach. The home-based HIV testing intervention resulted in community leaders reporting lower levels of stigma. However, stigma among community members reacted in mixed ways, and there is little evidence that the program affected beliefs about HIV prevalence and prevention.

Broadcasting, Voice, and Accountability : A Public Interest Approach to Policy, Law, and Regulation

Buckley, Steve; Duer, Kreszentia; Mendel, Toby; Siochru, Sean O.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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35.96%
The broadcast media, radio and television, have a unique and particular role to play both in enhancing governance and accountability and in giving voice to poor and marginalized communities. Broadcast media, are especially relevant and accessible to remote communities, cultural and linguistic minorities, the very poor and illiterate people. Policies, laws, regulations, and other public actions that govern the broadcast media are central to play that role, and they form the main focus of this guide. The guide maps out a public interest approach to fostering free, independent, and pluralistic broadcast media. Its objective is to provide guidance on how to design a policy, legal, and regulatory framework that can contribute to the achievement of public interest goals such as transparency of government and accountability to the people, enhanced quality of and participation in public debate, and increased opportunities for marginalized groups to develop and articulate their views. The guide draws from the experiences of a wide range of countries in all regions of the world and is illustrated extensively by country-level examples of policies...

Interactive Community Mapping : Improving Service Delivery and Empowering Communities

Shkabatur, Jennifer; Kumagai, Saki
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.03%
Mapping presents a compelling way to demystify complex data and concepts into useful visual information that most people can understand regardless of language, level of literacy, or culture. These maps can also be shared instantaneously with the world via the Internet. Interactive community mapping (ICM) is one method of information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled participatory mapping. In the development context, ICM can be a useful approach in helping community members, members of civil society organizations (CSOs), governments, and development partners to better picture and assess the needs and concerns of the mapped communities and adjust development plans, activities, and policies accordingly. This note is aimed at providing step-by-step guidance on the design and implementation of the ICM process to achieve an evidence-based and increasingly participatory decision-making approach for development projects. Relying on good practice examples from Kenya and Tanzania, this note seeks to provide a better understanding of how the potential benefits of ICM can be translated into tangible results. The note outlines some of the available ICM technology...

An approach to rural suicide.

Fleming, Graham.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1874327 bytes; 425809 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 Português
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35.96%
Suicide rates have been relatively constant in Australia for over a hundred years, albeit peaking in 1997 and since returning towards historically average levels. Suicide now represents the commonest cause of violent deaths and exceeds deaths from motor vehicle accidents and armed conflict. There have been a number of national programs following the lead of Finland in the 1980s. Modern research has clearly demonstrated many of the risk factors, but they lack specificity in terms of prediction, and therefore the numbers needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of any intervention are particularly daunting. This makes research problematic and it is probably impossible to ever get Level 1 evidence because of the large numbers and expense required. Therefore many research studies are either epidemiologically oriented or directed to crisis care and treatment algorithms. Rural suicide presents particular challenges because of the increasing numbers of young and elderly men who take their lives, the lack of services available locally and the paucity of research in rural societies, with it usually being confined to examining risk factors and comparing them with urban populations. This thesis describes an approach to rural suicide which, whilst cognisant of the broad range of risk factors...

The Cosmocratical Community Approach of World Politics: A Dialectic for the Normative Effects of a Legally Binding Institutional System of Global Governance

ANTONIOU, Melanie
Fonte: Lambert Academic Publishing Publicador: Lambert Academic Publishing
Tipo: Livro
Português
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45.85%
It is broadly accepted within International Relations’ (IR) scholarship that world politics is increasingly legalized. However, very little academic literature exists on what systemic changes and normative effects would mean for world politics, and on the potential strengthening of the global legal system, the deployment of legally binding institutional strategies. The Cosmocratical Community approach is a dialectic for the potential transformation of world order towards a post- Westphalian, legally binding institutional system of global governance - one that would overcome problems of anarchy, transform existing parameters of power politics and democratize and civilize the conduct of world affairs. The empirical analysis of ‘legal power Europe’ and its potential to shape world politics towards a legally binding form of governance, substantiates the Cosmocratical Community approach in terms of necessity and feasibility. This book should be especially useful to academics, students, political analysts, policy makers, and/or anyone else who has an interest in the field of IR and European studies.

Institutional Frameworks of Community Health and Safety Legislation: Committees, agencies, and private bodies

VOS, Ellen
Fonte: Hart Publicador: Hart
Tipo: Livro
Português
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35.96%
(Published version of EUI PhD thesis, 1997.); In this book, Ellen Vos analyses the emergence of EC product safety regulation, which is explained as a reaction both to spill-over effects of the internal market policy, and to growing societal concerns regarding health and safety protection. Due to factors such as mutual distrust between the Member States, the 'post-Maastricht' Community is increasingly required to play a direct role in health and safety regulation. This has confronted the Community with regulatory problems relating to the assessment and management of risks. This book seeks to identify the principles of the resulting Community approach to risk regulation. It first elaborates the fundamental EU law concepts of competence, institutional balance, subsidiarity, and delegation of powers in relation to health and safety. These legal concepts are then used to appraise the legality and the legitimacy of the three basic regulatory patterns typical of the Community approach to science-based decision-making: resorting to committees (in the food sector), to agencies (pharmaceuticals), and to private bodies (standardisation). Ellen Vos concludes that, to date, Community risk regulation is pragmatic but lacks a coherent regulatory model.; • Introduction: regulating risk; dealing with risk under community law; regulatory models - committees...

Community-Driven Approaches in Lao PDR : Moving Beyond Service Delivery - Summary Overview

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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35.96%
This report reviews Community Driven Development (CDD) projects in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) to determine their effectiveness in channeling resources to communities for poverty reduction. The study examines three CDD projects in depth: the Poverty Reduction Fund, the Village Investment for the Poor (both supported by the World Bank), and the Government-financed Village Development Fund. Through close analysis of these projects and cursory analysis of other CDD projects, the report concludes that overall, the CDD approach in Lao PDR improves the well-being of communities in a cost-effective manner. The study, however, identifies three challenges that remain for CDD projects to be wholly successful. The first challenge is a call for harmonization of CDD mechanisms within the country. CDD approaches are not currently coordinated geographically, technically, or financially. This leaves communities who need help without resources, an excess of skills in some areas and a dearth of skills in others...

Community-Driven Approaches in Lao PDR : Moving Beyond Service Delivery, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
This report reviews Community Driven Development (CDD) projects in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) to determine their effectiveness in channeling resources to communities for poverty reduction. The study examines three CDD projects in depth: the Poverty Reduction Fund, the Village Investment for the Poor (both supported by the World Bank), and the Government-financed Village Development Fund. Through close analysis of these projects and cursory analysis of other CDD projects, the report concludes that overall, the CDD approach in Lao PDR improves the well-being of communities in a cost-effective manner. The study, however, identifies three challenges that remain for CDD projects to be wholly successful. The first challenge is a call for harmonization of CDD mechanisms within the country. CDD approaches are not currently coordinated geographically, technically, or financially. This leaves communities who need help without resources, an excess of skills in some areas and a dearth of skills in others...

Indonesia : Evaluation of the Urban Community Driven Development Program, Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Perkotaan; Indonesia - Evaluasi program pembangunan berbasis masyarakat (CDD) perkotaan : Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Perkotaan (PNPM-Urban)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note
Português
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35.96%
Indonesia's Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM) is the largest Community Driven Development (CDD) program in the world covering all urban wards (PNPM-Urban) and rural villages (PNPM-Rural) in Indonesia. This policy note summarizes a comprehensive process evaluation of the PNPM-Urban program which has been carried by the Research and Development (RAND) corporation in collaboration with survey meter, as well as a rapid appraisal of two pilot subcomponents of the PNPM-Urban program: the Neighborhood Development Scheme (ND), and Poverty Alleviation Partnership Grant Mechanism (PAPG) carried out by a small team of consultants. The RAND evaluation was designed to look at how specific aspects of the program are working, document good practice, distill lessons learned, and identify options for program reform based mainly on a qualitative field study in a sample of kelurahans. This paper is organized as follows: section one gives introduction and approach. The main findings of the evaluation and rapid appraisal are summarized in section two...

Nepal - Towards a Sustainable Approach for Poverty Reduction and Decentralization : A Note on Nepal's Proposed Poverty Alleviation Fund

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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35.98%
The objective of this policy note, is to provide advice to the Government of Nepal on the best approach to adopt for the proposed Poverty Alleviation Fund (PAF) to adequately address the problems related to poverty reduction, and service improvement in remote areas. The report first presents an overview of the conceptual framework for analysis, focusing attention on the particularly important aspects of poverty - risk and vulnerability - to then provide insights on the understanding of the nature of poverty in the country, and how to address it. It specifies that risk management, if properly implemented, can induce economic growth, leading to a longer term sustained reduction in poverty, while decentralization empowers local communities, by addressing government's failures in delivering services in areas critical to poverty reduction. The report further reviews the experience of development projects in Nepal, through a sector wide approach, where findings suggest that community-based models of investment...

Adapting Community Driven Approaches for Post-Disaster Recovery : Experiences from Indonesia

MDF-JRF Secretariat
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
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36%
The Multi Donor Fund for Aceh and Nias (MDF) and the Java Reconstruction Fund (JRF) have played significant roles in the remarkable recovery of Aceh, Nias and Java, following some of the worst disasters in Indonesia in recent years. The MDF and the JRF, which is patterned after it, are each considered a highly successful model for post-disaster reconstruction. This paper presents the lessons from the MDF and JRF's use of large-scale, government-implemented community driven development programs to deliver reconstruction at the village level in Aceh, Nias and Java. It documents how local level recovery using a community driven approach can result in not only cost effective physical outputs, but also empowered communities with greater capacities and more prepared to face future disasters. The MDF and JRF experiences have demonstrated many less tangible social benefits. These include faster social recovery from the impact of disasters and increased confidence and capacities of local actors to engage in local level planning. Most importantly...

Ontario’s Home First Approach, Care Transitions, and the Provision of Care: The Perspectives of Home First Clients and Their Family Caregivers

English, Christine
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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35.96%
Home First is an Ontario transition management approach that attempts to reduce the pressure on hospital and Long Term Care (LTC) beds through early discharge planning, the provision of timely and appropriate home care, and the delay of LTC placement. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to obtain descriptions from South Eastern Ontario Home First clients and their family caregivers of their experiences with and thoughts about care transitions, the provision of care, and the Home First approach. The goal was to enable insight into the Home First approach, care transitions, and the provision of care through access to the perspectives of study participants. Nine semi structured interviews (and one or more follow-up calls for each interview) with Home First clients discharged from hospitals in South East Ontario and their family caregivers were conducted and their content analyzed. All participating Home First clients were pleased to be home from hospital and did not consider LTC placement a positive option. All had family involved with their care and used a mix of formal and informal services to meet their care needs. Four general themes were identified: (a) maintaining independence while responding (or not) to risks...

Online community building in classrooms and schools : Using the internet to extend teachers’ face-to-face community practices

Meneses, Julio; Mominó, Josep M.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Using a digital inequality approach, this study analyses the introduction of the internet into teachers’ daily activity in order to support and enhance community building in classrooms and schools. From a representative sample of 350 schools offering compulsory and postcompulsory education in Catalonia (Spain), 2,163 teachers were surveyed. After controlling for school and socio-demographic characteristics, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the effects of face-to-face community building and digital literacy. The article analyses their main and interaction effects and discusses the implications of the observed patterns in relation to the introduction of the internet in order to extend and reinforce teachers’ face-to-face teaching and professional practices. Going beyond the technological promise, our findings suggest the opportunity to encourage agreement between teachers, school administrators, and policy makers on the importance of a community approach that recognises the value of communication and collaboration as a successful means of addressing the educational challenges of schooling.; Utilitzant una aproximació basada en la desigualtat digital, aquest treball analitza la introducció d’internet a l’activitat quotidiana dels professors per donar suport i millorar el desenvolupament comunitari a les aules i escoles. Es van enquestar dos mil cent seixanta- tres (2.163) professors d’una mostra representativa de 350 escoles i instituts que ofereixen educació obligatòria i postobligatòria a Catalunya (Espanya). Una vegada controlades les característiques dels centres educatius i les característiques sociodemogràfiques dels professors...

‘Mother of all sport’: an evaluation of a women’s community sports programme

Mahedy, Tracy; MacPhail, Ann
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations
Português
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55.88%
peer-reviewed; The purpose of the ‘Mother of all Sport’ programme is to investigate the effect of a physical activity programme on women in disadvantaged communities and evaluate whether this type of programme can encourage women to participate in physical activity in their local community. This research project subsequently examines women's perception of sport and physical activity and explores whether a community approach to sport and physical activity can change women's views and acceptance of physical activity. It is important to note that the terms sport and physical activity are used interchangeably throughout the course of this paper. Introduction: The ‘Mother of all Sport’ programme is a physical activity programme developed by the researcher in conjunction with Limerick Sports Partnership. It was established to encourage more women to get involved in sport and physical activity. The programme primarily targeted mothers over the age of 18years from disadvantaged populations but as the purpose of the programme was to encourage more women to get involved in physical activity being a mother was not a prerequisite and therefore all interested women over 18years were invited to take part. The researcher randomly chose three sports for the programme and purposely picked team sports so groups would have to work together during training and when competing against other teams Background: While literature suggests that there is a need to increase physical activity among women in disadvantaged areas (Kavanagh...

The effectiveness of community action plans on farmers' livelihood in the Caprivi Region, Namibia

Kwenani,K.M.; Terblanché,S.E.
Fonte: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension Publicador: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
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Community Action Plans have been introduced by the Directorate of Extension and Engineering as a tool for implementing the Farming Systems Research and Extension approach in the Caprivi Region of Namibia. Although Community Action Plans (CAP) is a useful tool for implementing the FSRE approach in rural communities, not all stakeholders perceive it as useful. This study was designed to ascertain the usefulness of Community Action Plans as a strategy to support a bottom up extension approach. The following respondents were selected to determine their knowledge and perception of CAP: Extension staff, Mubiza Community with CAP and Bukalo Community without CAP. Two structured questionnaires were administered to a total of 95 respondents. According to the findings the Mubiza respondents (91%) indicated that they planned their development activities using CAP while 75% of Bukalo respondents indicated they have no plans. Mubiza community are significantly more satisfied (p= < 0.0001) with support received from Agricultural Extension Technicians than Bukalo community. The study reveals that Mubiza community are involved and participate more in community development activities. The majority (92%) of Mubiza respondents indicated quite clearly that they received appropriate support from community leaders...