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An integrated approach to evaluate emerging contaminants in drinking water

Jardim, Wilson F.; Montagner, Cassiana C.; Pescara, Igor C.; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A.; Di Dea Bergamasco, Ana Marcela; Eldridge, Melanie L.; Sodre, Fernando F.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
The chemical stock of emerging contaminants in Brazilian drinking water is of great interest due to the poor water quality at surface water intakes. In addition, little is known about the effect of some contaminants, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which may be present in both raw and treated water. The aim of this work was to evaluate selected emerging contaminants in Brazilian waters using both chemical and biological analyses. Sampling sites were established in different municipalities based upon raw water quality data. Estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, estriol, 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, 4-n-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol were determined in the samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A yeast assay using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioluminescent bioreporter was used to evaluate the estrogenic activity of the water samples. The first integrated results revealed similarities between the two individual approaches, since higher values for the bioassay were accompanied by significant concentrations of some selected compounds in surface water samples. No estrogenicity was observed for drinking water samples. Our results also indicate that the usual paradigm of evaluating water quality by measuring selected EDCs in a given water sample via chemical analysis...

"Avaliação do impacto de agrotóxicos em áreas de proteção ambiental, pertencentes à bácia hidrográfica do Rio Ribeira de Iguape, São Paulo. Uma contribuição à análise crítica da legislação sobre o padrão de potabilidade" ; ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF PESTICIDES IN ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION AREAS FROM RIBEIRA DE IGUAPE RIVER, SÃO PAULO. CRITICAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER STANDARDS.

Marques, Maria Nogueira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/02/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
No presente trabalho estudou-se a qualidade de recursos hídricos na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Ribeira de Iguape, localizada na região sudeste do estado de São Paulo. Esta é a única bacia no estado de São Paulo onde a relação disponibilidade de água versus demanda é extremamente positiva. Na região está localizada a maior concentração de Mata Atlântica do país. Atualmente, a agricultura é a principal atividade econômica, destacando-se as culturas do chá e da banana. Avaliou-se o impacto da atividade agrícola na qualidade da água por meio da caracterização da água em áreas de captação superficial e da água destinada ao abastecimento público. Realizou-se uma análise de risco do potencial de contaminação por agrotóxicos em águas superficiais e subterrâneas, analisando as características físico-químicas dos princípios ativos, dos produtos utilizados na região, relacionando-as com os aspectos básicos de meteorologia, hidrologia e características do solo. Realizaram-se 6 campanhas, sendo 5 campanhas no período de março de 2002 a fevereiro de 2003 e uma em janeiro de 2004, em 10 municípios situados ao longo do Rio Ribeira de Iguape e seus principais afluentes. Avaliaram-se os resíduos dos carbamatos (aldicarbe...

An integrated approach to evaluate emerging contaminants in drinking water

Jardim, Wilson F.; Montagner, Cassiana C.; Pescara, Igor C.; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A.; Di Dea Bergamasco, Ana Marcela; Eldridge, Melanie L.; Sodre, Fernando F.
Fonte: Elsevier; Amsterdam Publicador: Elsevier; Amsterdam
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
The chemical stock of emerging contaminants in Brazilian drinking water is of great interest due to the poor water quality at surface water intakes. In addition, little is known about the effect of some contaminants, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which may be present in both raw and treated water. The aim of this work was to evaluate selected emerging contaminants in Brazilian waters using both chemical and biological analyses. Sampling sites were established in different municipalities based upon raw water quality data. Estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, estriol, 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, 4-n-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol were determined in the samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A yeast assay using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioluminescent bioreporter was used to evaluate the estrogenic activity of the water samples. The first integrated results revealed similarities between the two individual approaches, since higher values for the bioassay were accompanied by significant concentrations of some selected compounds in surface water samples. No estrogenicity was observed for drinking water samples. Our results also indicate that the usual paradigm of evaluating water quality by measuring selected EDCs in a given water sample via chemical analysis...

Water safety plans : methodologies for risk assessment and risk management in drinking-water systems

Vieira, J. M. Pereira
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Providing good and safe drinking-water is world-wide considered to be a fundamental political issue for public health protection, and must be the primary objective of water supply systems. Drinking-water quality control has currently been based on detection of pathogens and toxic concentrations of chemicals by means of monitoring programs and compliance with national or international guidelines and standards, relying mainly on indicator bacteria and chemicals maximum concentration levels. However, this methodology is often slow, complex and costly. Even for sophisticated and well-operated systems these monitoring schemes have proved to be inefficient in preventing waterborne diseases like, for instance, Giardia or Cryptosporidium outbreaks. From this evidence we can conclude that end-product testing is a reactive rather than preventive way to demonstrate confidence in good and safe drinking-water. This justifies the need for the formulation of a new approach in drinking-water quality control based on understanding of system vulnerability for contamination and on preventive means and actions necessary to guarantee the safety of the water supplied to the consumer. Water safety plan is a concept for risk assessment and risk management throughout the water cycle from the catchments to the point of consumption. This approach includes the identification of the hazards and introduction of control points that serve to minimize these potential hazards...

Biofilms in drinking water

Simões, Lúcia C.
Fonte: Nova Science Publishers; Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Publicador: Nova Science Publishers; Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
The provision of safe drinking water (DW) is a top priority issue in any civilized society. Safe DW is a basic need to human development, health and well-being. The main challenge to the DW industry is to deliver a product that is microbiologically and chemically safe, aesthetically pleasing and adequate in quantity and delivery pressure. Normally, the water that leaves a treatment station has quality, but its quality decreases along the travel in the drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Water industries and governments over the world are working together in order to improve DW quality through the effective treatment, monitoring of its physicochemical and microbiological properties, and the design and the operational management of the distribution networks. Although DW is strictly monitored in developed countries, waterborne outbreaks are still being reported due to microbial contamination. Biofilms contribute notoriously to these events, creating a protective and nutritional reservoir for pathogens growth and survival. Nevertheless, the dynamics of microbial growth in DW networks is very complex, as a large number of interacting processes (physicochemical and biological) are involved. DW biofilms constitute one of the major microbial problems in DWDS that most contributes to the deterioration of water quality. Although biofilm elimination from DWDS is almost impossible...

River water quality modelling in developing a catchment water safety plan

Vieira, J. M. Pereira; Pinho, José L. S.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
The primary aim of a catchment water safety plan is to reduce risks within the catchment to protect the quality of drinking water sources at the intake point. Even where effective arrangements for catchment management and control have been implemented, unexpected deterioration in raw water quality can pose a risk to treated drinking water quality. Thus potential sources of pollution impacting the area of influence of the intake should be identified and monitored. An important part of any catchment management strategy includes implementation of raw water monitoring programmes, targeted at the most likely microbiological threats to water treatment. When combined with good monitoring datasets, properly calibrated, tested and verified surface water models can be used to forecast or estimate risks under various scenarios. This allows a good insight into impacts associated with known and anticipated land use activities within the catchment. In this work a hybrid methodology based on river water quality data analysis and hydrodynamic and water quality modelling was developed to assess the surface water quality in the Portuguese river Cávado. This component constitutes the base for developing a catchment water safety plan at this river basin.

The social ecology of water in a Mumbai slum: failures in water quality, quantity, and reliability

Subbaraman, Ramnath; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Sawant, Kiran; O’Brien, Jennifer; Bloom, David E.; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Background: Urban slums in developing countries that are not recognized by the government often lack legal access to municipal water supplies. This results in the creation of insecure “informal” water distribution systems (i.e., community-run or private systems outside of the government’s purview) that may increase water-borne disease risk. We evaluate an informal water distribution system in a slum in Mumbai, India using commonly accepted health and social equity indicators. We also identify predictors of bacterial contamination of drinking water using logistic regression analysis. Methods: Data were collected through two studies: the 2008 Baseline Needs Assessment survey of 959 households and the 2011 Seasonal Water Assessment, in which 229 samples were collected for water quality testing over three seasons. Water samples were collected in each season from the following points along the distribution system: motors that directly tap the municipal supply (i.e., “point-of-source” water), hoses going to slum lanes, and storage and drinking water containers from 21 households. Results: Depending on season, households spend an average of 52 to 206 times more than the standard municipal charge of Indian rupees 2.25 (US dollars 0.04) per 1000 liters for water...

Running Pure : The Importance of Forest Protected Areas to Drinking Water

Dudley, Nigel; Stolton, Sue
Fonte: World Bank/WWF Alliance for Forest Conservation and Sustainable Use Publicador: World Bank/WWF Alliance for Forest Conservation and Sustainable Use
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
This report focuses on one specific interaction: the role of forests, and particularly protected forests, in maintaining quality of drinking water for large cities. There are many reasons for this focus: many city dwellers already face a crisis of water quality, and contaminated water spreads a vast and largely unnecessary burden in terms of short and long-term health impacts including infant mortality, with knock-on effects on ability to work, industrial productivity and on already over-stretched health services. The poorest members of society, unable to afford sterilized or bottled water, suffer the greatest impacts. Similar problems affect the rural poor as well of course, and sometimes these can be even more severe. However, in a rapidly urbanizing world the scale of the problem facing cities is particularly acute.

Professionalizing Drinking Water Service Delivery in Small Towns of Haiti

Brault, Jean-Martin; Sanz, Zael; Le Bansais, Bruno
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
This document aims to share lessons learned from the implementation of the World Bank financed component of the rural water supply and sanitation project (EPAR) in the Sud region after its final evaluation. Leading the reform of the drinking water and sanitation sector in Haiti, the EPAR of the National Directorate of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DINEPA) involved the construction or rehabilitation of drinking water schemes in small towns with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants in the Sud region. As a result of the project, there will be a real and sustainable increase in the water supply to Haiti’s populations of benefitting communities of the Sud region, thus providing improved access for most households. A long-term solution must be implemented in order to make the meters more affordable to the operators and thus enable them to continue expanding their customer base.

Quality of untreated water for public supplies in Florida

Hull, Robert W; Irwin, G. A. ( joint author ); Florida -- Bureau of Drinking Water and Special Programs; Florida -- Bureau of Water Resources Management; Florida -- Bureau of Geology; Geological Survey (U.S.)
Fonte: Bureau of Geology ( Tallahassee ) Publicador: Bureau of Geology ( Tallahassee )
Tipo: cartographic Formato: 12 maps : col. ; on sheet 57 x 71 cm.
Publicado em //1979 Português
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46.27%
(Bibliography) Bibliography.; Each map shows concentration of 1 element.; In upper margin: United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey.; Includes text, statistical tables, and inset of aquifers.; (Funding) Map series (Florida. Bureau of Geology); (Statement of Responsibility) by Robert W. Hull and G. A. Irwin ; prepared in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Bureau of Drinking Water and Special Programs, and Bureau of Water Resources Management.

A contribution towards real-time forecasting of algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs by means of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms.

Welk, Amber Lee
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Historical water quality databases from two South Australian drinking water reservoirs were used, in conjunction with various computational modelling methods for the ordination, clustering and forecasting of complex ecological data. Techniques used throughout the study were: Kohonen artificial neural networks (KANN) for data categorisation and the discovery of patterns and relationships, recurrent supervised artificial neural networks (RANN) for knowledge discovery and forecasting of algal dynamics and hybrid evolutionary algorithms (HEA) for rule-set discovery and optimisation for forecasting algal dynamics. These methods were combined to provide an integrated approach to the analysis of algal populations including interactions within the algal community and with other water quality factors, which results in improved understanding and forecasting of algal dynamics. The project initially focussed on KANN for the patternising and classification of the historical data to reveal links between the physical, chemical and biological components of the reservoirs. This offered some understanding of the system and relationships being considered for the construction of the forecasting models. Specific investigations were performed to examine past conditions and the impacts of different management regimes...

A Handbook for Gram Panchayats : To Help Them Plan, Implement, Operate, Maintain and Manage Drinking Water Security

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
The Department of Drinking Water Supply (DDWS), Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India launched the National Rural Drinking Water Program (NRDWP) on 1st April, 2009. The NRDWP builds on experiences gained through past efforts by many stakeholders and brings all existing rural drinking water initiatives under a single program. The focus of the NRDWP is to ensure drinking water security for all rural citizens in India. Drinking water security means providing every rural person with enough safe water for drinking, cooking and other domestic needs at all times and in all situations, including periods of drought and flood and for livestock. The Gram Panchayats (GP), as leaders and representatives of the community, has to take the lead in achieving this goal of drinking water security. The Gram Panchayats, through Village Water and Sanitation Committees (VWSCs), have to mobilize communities, educate them and ensure they get the necessary training and technical support to achieve drinking water security. The gram Sabha is the main platform for taking decisions and approving plans. The handbook seeks to serve as a quick reference for GP and VWSC on how to plan...

Water Quality, Brawn, and Education : The Rural Drinking Water Program in China

Xu, Lixin Colin; Zhang, Jing
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
Although previous research has demonstrated the health benefits of water treatment programs, relatively little is known about the effect of water treatment on education. This paper examines the educational benefits to rural youth in China of a major drinking water treatment program started in the 1980s, perhaps the largest of such programs in the world. By employing a cross-sectional data set (constructed from a longitudinal data set covering two decades) with more than 4,700 individuals between 18 and 25 years old, the analysis finds that this health program has improved the individuals' education substantially, increasing the grades of education completed by 1.08 years. The qualitative results hold when the analysis controls for local educational policies and resources, village dummies, and distance of villages to schools, and by instrumenting the water treatment dummy with villages' topographic features, among others. Moreover, three findings render support to the brawn theory of gender division of labor: girls benefit much more from water treatment than boys in schooling attainment; youth with an older brother benefit more than youth with an older sister; and boys gain more body mass than girls do from having access to treated water. The program can account for the gender gap in educational attainment in rural China in the sample period. Young people that had access to treated plant water in early childhood (0-2 years of age) experienced significantly higher gains in education than those who were exposed to treated water after early childhood. The estimates suggest that this program is highly cost-effective.

MODELING TRIHALOMETHANE FORMATION IN DRINKING WATER WITH APPLICATION TO RISK-BASED DECISION-MAKING

Chowdhury, Shakhawat
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1173441 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
A model-based methodology for risk-based decision-making of water treatment and disinfection strategies that deal with the management of trihalomethanes (THMs) has been developed. Trihalomethanes (THMs) are by-products of chlorination for drinking water and have been characterized as possible and probable human carcinogens. Among THMs, bromodichloromethane (BDCM) has a much stronger association with stillbirths and neural tube defects than the other THMs species. The parameters affecting formation of THMs and BDCM were identified through multivariate statistical analysis of the Ontario Drinking Water Surveillance Program database and by reviewing publications. Formation of THMs is affected by chlorine dose, dissolved organic carbon, pH, temperature and reaction time; these parameters along with bromide ions have effects on brominated THMs formation in drinking water. Two models for predicting formation of THMs and BDCM in drinking water have been developed. Controlled experimental investigations were performed in laboratory following statistical design of the experiments using synthetic water samples. Using statistically significant parameters, models have been developed. The adequacies of the models were tested using appropriate statistical diagnostics and validation experiments. The models have been integrated into a risk-based decision making framework. Formation of THMs and BDCM were estimated by importing water quality and operational parameters into these models. The costs...

The effect of water quality on demand for safe drinking water in rural and peri-urban Cambodia

Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 20/04/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
Executive Summary Policy Question How does perceived drinking water quality affect household willingness to pay (WTP) for clean water in rural Cambodia? Background Inadequate access to improved water and sanitation in the developing world continues to be a major public health and development challenge. UNICEF estimates that nearly 2 million child deaths are attributable to diarrhea (UNICEF, 2008). The excessive burden of diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality is partly attributable to inadequate access to safe drinking water. Poor access to high-quality and convenient water sources may partly be a problem of low demand (Whittington et al., 2009). In fact, there is relatively limited evidence in the literature on demand for water and sanitation services. In this paper, we consider the demand for improved water quality only (rather than changes in both quality and convenience) in two communities in Kandal province, Cambodia. Importantly, many households in these communities already have access to convenient sources of water, either in the form of private connections to piped water networks, or via rainwater harvesting and storage where they live. These sources, however, are of variable quality, and water treatment, both at the system or household-level...

Correlation between Riparian Buffers and Water Quality in North Carolina Watersheds

Fang, Yao; Hashmi, Fatima
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 16/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Stream water quality is often impacted by changes in land use such as deforestation. Since streams are usually the major drinking water sources for millions of people, Water Treatment Plants are the most common water resource management option for treating degraded stream water for drinking water purposes. However because treatment plants are capital intensive, land use conservation as a water resource management option is now widely being adopted. The ability of forests to acts as natural water filters could drive down water treatment costs and offer a cost-effective way to provide clean drinking water. The purpose of this study is therefore to test the hypothesis that an increase of forest cover in watersheds and riparian buffers leads to water quality improvement. Land use metrics were generated from geospatial analysis using ArcGIS. Intake points were located for 31 WTPs across North Carolina, and their corresponding watershed boundaries were delineated. The 2006 National Land Cover and Land Use dataset was used to determine percent of forest cover, impervious cover and agricultural cover at three different spatial scales; watershed, 300ft riparian buffer and 100ft riparian buffer. In addition, water quality data of two water quality parameters...

Designing a cell phone application to alert and report drinking water quality to South Africans

Brown, Deana
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Drinking water quality, especially in many parts of South Africa, is far below acceptable standards. With an annual estimate of 43, 000 deaths from diarrheal diseases, 3 million cases of illness and treatment costs of over half a billion US dollars, the impact is critical (Mackintosh & Colvin, 2003). To address this issue the Aquatest project seeks to develop a simplified low-cost water quality test kit and information management solution. This would allow Water Service Providers, especially in rural areas, to monitor water quality and distribute test data to the necessary parties - Water Service Authorities and consumers. This research addresses the challenge of reporting complex and critical water quality information in a way that is accessible to all South Africans as law requires. In a country with high illiteracy rates, 11 official languages and limited-to-no access to technology in many areas, this is no easy feat. We propose that the use of appropriate information and communication technologies (ICT), coupled with culturally appropriate ways of presenting scientific data, would allow water quality information to be accessible to South Africans. With the penetration level of cell phones exceeding 100% of the South African population (ITU...

Água de consumo humano como fator de risco à saúde em propriedades rurais; Drinking water in rural farms as a risk factor to human health

Amaral, Luiz Augusto do; Nader Filho, Antonio; Rossi Junior, Oswaldo Durival; Ferreira, Fernanda Lúcia Alves; Barros, Ludmilla Santana Soares
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
OBJETIVO: Verificar a qualidade higiênico-sanitária da água de consumo humano em propriedades rurais por meio da contagem de indicadores microbiológicos de potabilidade. MÉTODOS: Foram colhidas 180 amostras de água utilizada para consumo humano das fontes, reservatórios e ponto de consumo em 30 propriedades rurais, situadas na região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. Determinou-se o número mais provável de coliformes totais, Escherichia coli e o número de microrganismos mesófilos. Foi verificada a presença de medidas de proteção das fontes de abastecimento. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram que 90% das amostras de água das fontes, 90% dos reservatórios e 96,7% de água de consumo humano, colhidas no período de chuvas, e 83,3%, 96,7% e 90%, daquelas colhidas respectivamente nos mesmos locais, durante a estiagem, estavam fora dos padrões microbiológicos de potabilidade para água de consumo humano. CONCLUSÕES: A água utilizada nas propriedades rurais foi considerada um importante fator de risco à saúde dos seres humanos que a utilizam. A adoção de medidas preventivas, visando à preservação das fontes de água, e o tratamento das águas já comprometidas são as ferramentas necessárias para diminuir consideravelmente o risco de ocorrência de enfermidades de veiculação hídrica.; OBJECTIVE: To assess the sanitary quality of drinking water in rural farms through counts of microbiological indicators. METHODS: A total of 180 drinking water samples from sources...

Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at source and point-of-use in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa, and its relationship to health outcomes

Singh,U; Lutchmanariyan,R; Wright,J; Knight,S; Jackson,S; Langmark,J; Vosloo,D; Rodda,N
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
Drinking water quality was investigated at source and corresponding point-of-use in 2 peri-urban areas receiving drinking water either by communal water tanker or by delivery directly from the distribution system to household-based groundtanks with taps. Water quality variables measured were heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, E. coli, conductivity, turbidity, pH, and total and residual chlorine. Water quality data were analysed together with an existing epidemiological database to investigate links between microbial quality of drinking water, household demographics, health outcomes, socio-economic status, hygiene and sanitation practices. Groundtank households had better quality drinking water than households using storage containers filled from communal tankers. Uncovered storage containers had the poorest microbial water quality among all storage containers. All stored water did not meet drinking water standards, although mains water did. Households with children under 5 years and using open-topped containers had the poorest water quality overall. Households with groundtanks had the best water quality at point-of-use, but did not have the lowest occurrence of health effects. Although groundtanks were supplied together with urine diversion (UD) toilets and hygiene education...

Dairy farm borehole water quality in the greater Mangaung region of the Free State Province, South Africa

Esterhuizen,L; Fossey,A; Lues,JFR
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
Most dairy farm effluent is discharged onto pastures and land by irrigation and poses a risk of enriching groundwater including borehole drinking water. Nitrate, coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli), in particular, may cause disease in humans and animals drinking contaminated water. The aim of this study was to obtain an understanding of the status of borehole drinking water quality, including physical, chemical and microbiological properties, on 75 dairy farms in the greater Mangaung region of the Free State, South Africa. Borehole drinking water samples were collected during autumn and spring of 2009 and the physical, chemical and microbiological parameters analysed and compared to the required standards prescribed by the South Africa National Standards (SANS) 241 of 2006. Most farms were compliant; however for combined nitrate and nitrite N, 37 of the farms exceeded the prescribed limit. Similarly, for total coliforms, 45, and for E. coli, 22 of the farms exceeded the acceptable limits. Nine of the farm boreholes were contaminated by N and E. coli. On two of the farms four of the chemical parameters exceeded the prescribed limits, including those for N; both farms were, however, compliant for E. coli. The results of this study suggest that further research on water and waste management on dairy farms in the Manguang region of the Free State should be conducted.